1887

Chapter 10 : The Genus

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

The Genus , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817541/9781555813420_Chap10-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817541/9781555813420_Chap10-2.gif

Abstract:

spp. have been isolated from superficial abscesses, wounds, ocular or urethral discharges, lung, and liver of marine mammals. Although it is now an established pathogen, at one time was believed to be completely innocuous. In England and Wales, bacteremia reports increased by 13.2% between 2000 and 2001. Patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) and indwelling catheters or colonized or infected respiratory tracts are the most common reservoirs; spread occurs primarily via the hands of hospital personnel. bacteremia is relatively uncommon; accounted for only 2% of bloodstream infections reported to the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS). Cholangitis, osteomyelitis, ruptured diverticuli, and premature ruptured membranes have also been reported as sources of bacteremia. fails to produce DNase, lipase, or gelatinase, all hallmark traits of the genus . The majority of pigmented strains belonged to environmental serotype O6:K14 and were serum resistant, a trait previously determined to be associated with this serotype and not believed to be important in human serratia infection. Strains that are initially susceptible rapidly become resistant during antimicrobial therapy. The current literature indicates that 88 to 93% of serratiae are susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Susceptibilities to various cephalosporins and other antimicrobials are reported.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 137-150. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch10

Key Concept Ranking

Shiga Toxin 2
0.4913074
Serratia marcescens
0.46163094
0.4913074
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817541.chap10
1. Ajithkumar, B.,, V. P. Ajithkumar,, R. Iriye,, Y. Doi,, and T. Sakai. 2003. Spore-forming Serratia marcescens subsp. sakuensis subsp. nov., isolated from a domestic wastewater treatment tank. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53: 253 258.
2. Al Hazzaa, S. A. F.,, K. F. Tabbara,, and J. A. Gammon. 1992. Pink hypopyon: a sign of Serratia marcescens endophthalmitis. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 76: 764 765.
3. Anahory, T.,, H. Darbas,, O. Ongaro,, H. Jean-Pierre,, and P. Mion. 1998. Serratia ficaria: a misidentified or unidentified rare cause of human infection in fig tree culture zones. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 3266 3272.
4. Arribas, J. R.,, A. Dominguez,, M. D. Folgueria,, P. Pena,, S. Luengo,, J. M. Pena,, and J. J. Vazquez. 1990. Prognostic factors in Serratia bacteremia. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12: 563 564.
5. ASCP Susceptibility Testing Group ( 1995 ). 1996. United States geographic bacteria susceptibility patterns. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 106: 275281.
6. Ashelford, K. E.,, J. C. Fry,, M. J. Bailey,, and M. J. Day. 2002. Characterization of Serratia isolates from soil, ecological implications and transfer of Serratia proteamaculans subsp. quinovora Grimont et al. 1983 to Serratia quinivorans corrig., sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52: 2281 2289.
7. Aucken, H. L. M.,, S. G. Wilkinson,, and T. L. Pitt. 1997. Identification of capsular antigens in Serratia marcescens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 59 63.
8. Badenoch, P. R.,, A. L. Thom,, and D. J. Coster. 2002. Serratia ficaria endophthalmitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 1563 1564.
9. Bagattini, M.,, M. Crispino,, F. Gentile,, E. Barretta,, D. Schiavone,, M. C. Boccia,, M. Triassi,, and R. Zarrilli. 2004. A nosocomial outbreak of Serratia marcescens producing inducible Amp C-type beta-lactamase enzyme and carrying antimicrobial resistance genes within a class 1 integron. J. Hosp. Infect. 56: 29 36.
10. Bale, M.,, M. Sanford,, R. Hollis,, and M. A. Pfaller. 1993. Application of a biotyping system and DNA restriction fragment analysis to the study of Serratia marcescens from hospitalized patients. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 16: 1 7.
11. Bangert, R. L.,, A. C. S. Ward,, E. H. Stauber,, B. R. Cho,, and P. R. Widders. 1988. A survey of the aerobic bacteria in the feces of captive raptors. Avian Dis. 32: 53 62.
12. Bantar, C.,, A. Famiglietti,, M. Goldberg, the Antimicrobial Committee, and the National Surveillance Program (SIR) Participants Group. 2000. Three-year surveillance study of nosocomial bacterial resistance in Argentina. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 4: 85 90.
13. Bennett, J. W.,, and R. Bentley. 2000. Seeing red: the story of prodigiosin. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 47: 1 32.
14. Berkowitz, F. E.,, and B. Metchock. 1995. Third generation cephalothin-resistant gram-negative bacilli in the feces of hospitalized children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 14: 97 100.
15. Blaylock, R. S. M. 2001. Normal oral bacterial flora from some southern African snakes. Onderstepoort J . Vet. Res. 68: 175 182.
16. Bollet, C.,, P. Grimont,, M. Gainnier,, A. Geissler,, J. Sainty,, and P. De Micco. 1993. Fatal pneumonia due to Serratia proteamaculans subsp. quinovora. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 444 445.
17. Bornstein, P. F.,, A. M. Ditto,, and G. A. Noskin. 1992. Serratia marcescens cellulitis in a patient on hemodialysis. Am. J. Nephrol. 12: 374 376.
18. Bourbeau, P. P.,, and B. J. Heiter. 1998. Comparison of Vitek GNI and GNI+ cards for identification of gram-negative bacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2775 2777.
19. Boyd, R. S.,, and J. DeMaio. 1991. Serratia plymuthica nosocomial pneumonia in an immunocompromised patient. Lab. Med. 22: 861 863.
20. Brouillard, J. A.,, W. Hansen,, and A. Compere. 1984. Isolation of Serratia ficaria from human clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 902 904.
21. Buenviaje, G. N.,, P. W. Ladds,, L. Melville,, and S. C. Manolis. 1994. Disease-husbandry associations in farmed crocodiles in Queensland and the Northern Territory. Aust. Vet. J. 71: 165 173.
22. Campbell, J. R.,, T. Diacovo,, and C. J. Baker. 1992. Serratia marcescens meningitis in neonates. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 11: 881 886.
23. Carbonell, G. V.,, H. H. M. Della Colleta,, T. Yano,, A. L. C. Darini,, C. E. Levy,, and B. A. L. Fonseca. 2000. Clinical relevance and virulence factors of pigmented Serratia marcescens. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 28: 143 149.
24. Carbonell, G. V.,, R. Falcon,, A. T. Yamada,, B. A. L. da Fonseca,, and T. Yano. 2004. Morphological and intracellular alterations induced by Serratia marcescens cytotoxin. Res. Microbiol. 155: 25 30.
25. Carrero, P.,, J. A. Garrote,, S. Pacheco,, A. I. García,, R. Gil,, and S. G. Carbajosa. 1995. Report of six cases of human infection by Serratia plymuthica. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 275 276.
26. Chartrand, S. A.,, K. J. Thompson,, and C. C. Sanders. 1996. Antibiotic-resistant, gram-negative bacillary infections. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 7: 187 203.
27. Chetoui, H.,, E. Delhalle,, P. Melin,, M. J. Struelens,, R. De Ryck,, P. Osterrieth,, and P. De Mol. 1998. Typing of nosocomial strains of Serratia marcescens: comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of macrorestriction fragments with biotyping, esterase typing and ribotyping. Res. Microbiol. 149: 137 143.
28. Chmel, H. 1988. Serratia odorifera biogroup l causing an invasive human infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 1244 1245.
29. Clark, R. B.,, and J. M. Janda. 1985. Isolation of Serratia plymuthica from a human burn site. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21: 656 657.
30. Cockerill, F. R. III,, J. G. Hughes,, E. A. Vetter,, R. A. Mueller,, A. L. Weaver,, D. M. Ilstrup,, J. E. Rosenblatt,, and W. R. Wilson. 1997. Analysis of 281,797 consecutive blood cultures performed over an eight-year period: trends in microorganisms isolated and the value of anaerobic culture of blood. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24: 403 418.
31. Cooper, R.,, and J. Mills. 1980. Serratia endocarditis. Arch. Intern. Med. 140: 199 202.
32. Cullen, J. C. 1994. The miracle of Bolsena. ASM News 60: 187 191.
33. Darbas, H. J.,, H. Jean-Pierre,, and J. Paillisson. 1994. Case report and review of septicemia due to Serratia ficaria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 2285 2288.
34. Dauga, C.,, F. Grimont,, and P. A. D. Grimont. 1990. Nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA from ten Serratia species. Res. Microbiol. 141: 1139 1149.
35. Domingo, D.,, A. Limia,, T. Alarcon,, J. C. Sanz,, M. C. Del Rey,, and M. Lopez-Brea. 1994. Nosocomial septicemia caused by Serratia plymuthica. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 575 577.
36. Ewing, W. H.,, B. R. Davis,, M. A. Fife,, and E. F. Lessel. 1973. Biochemical characterization of Serratia liquefaciens (Grimes and Hennerty) Bascomb et al. (formerly Enterobacter liquefaciens) and Serratia rubidaea (Stapp) comb. nov. and designation of type and neotype strains. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 23: 217 225.
37. Farmer, J. J. III,, 1995. Enterobacteriaceae: introduction and identification, p. 438 449. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, M. A. Pfaller,, F. C. Tenover,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 6th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
38. Farmer, J. J. III,, B. R. Davis,, P. A. D. Grimont,, and F. Grimont. 1977. Source of American Serratia. Lancet ii: 459 460.
39. Farmer, J. J. III,, B. R. Davis,, and F. W. Hickman. 1976. Detection of Serratia outbreaks in hospital. Lancet ii: 455 459.
40. Farmer, J. J. III,, F. Silva,, and D. R. Williams. 1973. Isolation of Serratia marcescens on deoxyribonuclease-toluidine bluecephalothin agar. Appl. Microbiol. 25: 151 152.
41. Fleisch, F.,, U. Zimmermann-Baer,, R. Zbinden,, G. Bischoff,, K. Waldvogel,, D. Nadal,, and C. Ruef. 2002. Three consecutive outbreaks of Serratia marcescens in a neonatal intensive care unit. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34: 767 773.
42. Freney, J.,, M. O. Husson,, F. Gavini,, S. Madier,, A. Martra,, D. Izard,, H. Leclerc,, and J. Fleurette. 1988. Susceptibilities to antibiotics and antiseptics of new species of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32: 873 876.
43. Funke, G.,, and P. Funke-Kissling. 2004. Use of the BD PHOENIX automated microbiology system for direct identification and susceptibility testing of gram-negative rods from positive blood cultures in a three-phase trial. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 1466 1470.
44. Gales, A. C.,, D. J. Biedenbach,, P. Winokur,, D. M. Hacek,, M. A. Pfaller,, and R. N. Jones. 2001. Carbapenem-resistant Serratia marcescens isolates producing Bush Group 2f β-lactamase (SME-1) in the United States: results from the MYSTIC Programme. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 39: 125 127.
45. Garcia, D. C.,, G. M. Woloj,, S. Pineiro,, S. Sordelli,, and S. Kaufman. 1995. An 8-year study of resistance to amikacin in gram-negative bacilli isolates from patients with nosocomial infection at one hospital in Argentina. J. Med. Microbiol. 42: 283 290.
46. Gaston, M. S.,, and T. L. Pitt. 1989. Improved O-serotyping method for Serratia marcescens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 2702 2705.
47. Gavini, F.,, C. Ferragut,, D. Izard,, P. A. Trinel,, H. Leclerc,, B. Lefebvre,, and D. A. A. Mossel. 1979. Serratia fonticola, a new species from water. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 29: 92 101.
48. Gill, V. J.,, J. J. Farmer III,, P. A. D. Grimont,, M. A. Asbury,, and C. L. McIntosh. 1981. Serratia ficaria isolated from a human clinical specimen. J. Clin. Microbiol. 14: 234 236.
49. Glustein, J. Z.,, B. Rudensky,, and A. Abrahamov. 1994. Catheter-associated sepsis caused by Serratia odorifera biovar l in an adolescent patient. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 13: 183 184.
50. Gonzalez-Rodriguez, M.-N.,, J.-J. Sanz,, J.-A. Santos,, A. Otero,, and M.-L. Garcia-Lopez. 2002. Numbers and types of microorganisms in vacuum-packed cold-smoked freshwater fish at the retail level. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 77: 161 168.
51. Goullet, P.,, and B. Picard. 1997. An epidemiological study of Serratia marcescens isolates from nosocomial infections by enzyme electrophoresis. J. Med. Microbiol. 46: 1019 1028.
52. Grimont, F.,, and P. A. D. Grimont,. 1981. The genus Serratia, p. 2822 2848. In M. P. Starr,, H. Stolp,, H. G. Truper,, and H. G. Schlegel (ed.), The Prokaryotes: a Handbook on Habitats, Isolation and Identification of Bacteria. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
53. Grimont, P. A. D.,, and F. Grimont. 1978. Biotyping of Serratia marcescens and its use in epidemiological studies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 8: 73 83.
54. Grimont, P. A. D.,, and F. Grimont,. 1984. Genus VIII. Serratia Bizio 1823, 288 AL, p. 477 484. In N. R. Krieg, and, J. G. Holt (ed.) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md.
55. Grimont, P. A. D.,, F. Grimont,, and K. Irino. 1982. Biochemical characterization of Serratia liquefaciens sensu stricto, Serratia proteamaculans, and Serratia grimesii sp. nov. Curr. Microbiol. 7: 69 74.
56. Grimont, P. A. D.,, F. Grimont,, C. Richard,, B. R. Davis,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, and D. J. Brenner. 1978. Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness between Serratia plymuthica and other Serratia species, with a description of Serratia odorifera sp. nov. (type strain: ICPB 3995). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 28: 453 463.
57. Grimont, P. A. D.,, F. Grimont,, and M. P. Starr. 1979. Serratia ficaria sp. nov., a bacterial species associated with Smyrna figs and the fig wasp Blastophaga psenes. Curr. Microbiol. 2: 277 282.
58. Grimont, P. A. D.,, F. Grimont,, and M. P. Starr. 1981. Comment on the request to the judicial commission to conserve the specific epithet Serratia liquefaciens over the specific epithet proteamaculans in the name of the organism currently known as Serratia liquefaciens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 31: 211 212.
59. Grimont, P. A. D.,, K. Irino,, and F. Grimont. 1982. The Serratia liquefaciens-S. proteamaculans-S. grimesii complex: DNA relatedness. Curr. Microbiol. 7: 63 68.
60. Grimont, P. A. D.,, T. A. Jackson,, E. Ageron,, and M. J. Noonan. 1988. Serratia entomophila sp. nov. associated with amber disease in the New Zealand grass grub Costelytra zealandica. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38: 1 6.
61. Grohskopf, L. A.,, V. R. Roth,, D. R. Feikin,, M. J. Arduino,, L. A. Carson,, J. I. Takars,, S. C. Holt,, B. J. Jensen,, R. E. Hoffman,, and W. R. Jarvis. 2001. Serratia liquefaciens bloodstream infections from contamination of epoetin alfa at a hemodialysis center. N. Engl. J. Med. 344: 1491 1497.
62. Helterberg, O.,, F. Skov,, P. Berner-Smidt,, H. J. Holmes,, E. Dybkjer,, E. Gutschik,, D. Jerne,, O. B. Jepsen,, M. Weischer,, W. Frederiksen,, and H. Sorensen. 1993. Nosocomial epidemic of Serratia marcescens septicemia ascribed to contaminated blood transfusion bags. Transfusion 33: 221 227.
63. Hengstler, K. A.,, R. Hammann,, and A.-M. Fahr. 1997. Evaluation of BBL CHROMagar orientation medium for detection and presumptive identification of urinary tract pathogens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 2773 2777.
64. Hertle, R.,, M. Hilger,, S. Weingardt-Kocher,, and I. Walev. 1999. Cytotoxic action of Serratia marcescens hemolysin on human epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 67: 817 825.
65. Hindler, J. A. 1995. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria: meeting the challenge of increasing resistance and decreasing budget. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 17: 77 80.
66. Hoban, D. J.,, S. K. Bouchillon,, J. L. Johnson,, G. G. Zhanel,, D. L. Butler,, L. A. Miller,, J. A. Poupard, and the Gemifloxacin Surveillance Study Research Group. 2001. Comparative in vitro activity of gemifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and ofloxacin in a North American surveillance study. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 40: 51 57.
67. Hohl, P.,, J. Luthy-Hottenstein,, J. Zollinger-Iten,, and M. Altwegg. 1990. In vitro activities of fleroxacin, cefetamet, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid against rare members of the family Enterobacteriaceae primarily of human (clinical) origin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34: 1605 1608.
68. Holmes, B.,, M. Costas,, M. Ganner,, S. L. W. On,, and M. Stevens. 1994. Evaluation of Biolog system for identification of some gram-negative bacteria of clinical importance. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 1970 1975.
69. Horowitz, H. W.,, R. B. Nadelman,, K. G. Van Horn,, S. E. Weekes,, L. Goyburu,, and G. P. Wormser. 1987. Serratia plymuthica sepsis associated with infection of central venous catheter. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 1562 1563.
70. Hoyen, C.,, L. Rice,, S. Conte,, M. R. Jacobs,, M. Walsh-Sukys,, and P. Toltzis. 1999. Use of real time pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to guide interventions during a nursery outbreak of Serratia marcescens infection. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 18: 357 360.
71. Hsieh, S.,, and F. E. Babl. 1999. Serratia marcescens cellulitis following an iguana bite. Clin. Infect. Dis. 28: 1181 1182.
72. Hume, E. B. H.,, M. D. P. Willcox,, D. F. Sweeney,, and B. A. Holden. 1996. An examination of the clonal variants of Serratia marcescens that infect the eye during contact lens wear. J. Med. Microbiol. 45: 127 132.
73. Ito, H.,, Y. Arakawa,, S. Ohsuka,, R. Wacharotayankun,, N. Kato,, and M. Ohta. 1995. Plasmid-mediated dissemination of the metallo-β-lactamase gene bla IMP among clinically isolated strains of Serratia marcescens. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39: 824 829.
74. Itskowitz, M. S.,, R. Watkins,, and V. Banks. 2004. Serratia brain abscess in a patient with diabetes mellitus. Infect. Med. 21: 90 92.
75. Jacoby, G. A.,, and A. A. Medeiros. More extended-spectrum β-lactamases. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35: 1697 1704.
76. Jones, R. N.,, E. N. Kehrberg,, M. E. Erwin,, S. C. Anderson, and the Fluoroquinolone Resistance Surveillance Group. 1994. Prevalence of important pathogens and antimicrobial activity of parenteral drugs at numerous medical centers in the United States. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 19: 203 215.
77. Jossart, M.-F.,, and R. J. Courcol. 1999. Evaluation of an automated system for identification of Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenting bacilli. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18: 902 907.
78. Karlowsky, J. A.,, M. E. Jones,, D. C. Mayfield,, C. Thornsberry,, and D. F. Sahm. 2002. Ceftriaxone activity against gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens isolated in US clinical microbiology laboratories from 1996 to 2000: results from The Surveillance Network (TSN) database-USA. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 19: 413 426.
79. Karlowsky, J. A.,, M. E. Jones,, C. Thornsberry,, I. R. Friedland,, and D. F. Sahm. 2003. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibilities among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from hospitalized patients in the United States from 1998 to 2001. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 1672 1680.
80. Klein, N. C.,, and B. A. Cunha. 1995. Tetracyclines. Med. Clin. North Am. 79: 789 801.
81. Kunimoto, D.,, R. Rennie,, D. M. Citron,, and E. J. C. Goldstein. 2004. Bacteriology of a bear bite wound to a human: case report. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 3374 3376.
82. Kurz, C. L.,, S. Chauvet,, E. Andres,, M. Aurouze,, I. Vallet,, G. P. F. Michel,, M. Uh,, J. Celli,, A. Filloux,, S. de Bentzman,, I. Steinmetz,, J. A. Hoffmann,, B. B. Finlay,, J.-P. Grovel,, D. Ferrandon,, and J. J. Ewbank. 2003. Virulence factors of the human opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens identified by in vivo screening. EMBO J. 22: 1451 1460.
83. Kuzina, L. V.,, J. J. Peloquin,, D. C. Vacek,, and T. A. Miller. 2001. Isolation and identification of bacteria associated with adult laboratory Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae). Curr. Microbiol. 42: 290 294.
84. Lass, J. H.,, J. Haaf,, C. Foster,, and C. Belcher. 1981. Visual outcome in eight cases of Serratia marcescens keratitis. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 92: 384 390.
85. Lautenbach, E.,, B. L. Strom,, I. Nachamkin,, W. B. Bilker,, A. M. Marr,, L. A. Larosa,, and N. O. Fishman. 2004. Longitudinal trends in fluoroquinolone resistance among Enterobacteriaceae isolates from inpatients and outpatients, 1989-2000: difference in the emergence and epidemiology of resistance across organisms. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38: 655 662.
86. Letoffe, S.,, J. M. Ghigo,, and C. Wandersman. 1994. Iron acquisition from heme and hemoglobin by a Serratia marcescens extracellular protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 9876 9880.
87. Libby, K. J. 1980. Infection with Serratia rubidaea. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 2: 4.
88. Lindberg, A.-M.,, A. Ljungh,, S. Ahrne,, S. Lofdahl,, and G. Molin. 1998. Enterobactericeae found in high numbers in fish, minced meat and pasteurized milk or cream and the presence of toxin encoding genes. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 39: 11 17.
89. Ling, T. K. W.,, P. C. Tam,, Z. K. Liu,, and A. F. B. Cheng. 2001. Evaluation of VITEK 2 Rapid identification and susceptibility testing system against gram-negative clinical isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 2964 2966.
90. Lortholary, O.,, M. Tod,, Y. Cohen,, and O. Petitjean. 1995. Aminoglycosides. Med. Clin. North Am. 79: 761 789.
91. Marre, R.,, J. Hacker,, and V. Braun. 1989. The cell-bound hemolysis of Serratia marcescens contributes to uropathogenicity. Microb. Pathog. 7: 153 157.
92. Marty, K. B.,, C. L. Williams,, L. J. Guynn,, M. J. Benedik,, and S. R. Blanke. 2002. Characterization of a cytotoxic factor in culture filtrates of Serratia marcescens. Infect. Immun. 70: 1121 1128.
93. Mayhall, C. G. 2003. The epidemiology of burn wound infections: then and now. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37: 543 550.
94. McGeer, A.,, D. E. Low,, J. Penner,, J. Ng,, C. Goldman,, and A. E. Simor. 1990. Use of molecular typing to study the epidemiology of Serratia marcescens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 55 58.
95. Mermel, L. A.,, and C. A. Spiegel. 1992. Nosocomial sepsis due to Serratia odorifera biovar l. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14: 208 210.
96. Nakashima, A. K.,, A. K. Highsmith,, and W. J. Martone. 1987. Survival of Serratia marcescens in benzalkonium chloride and in multiple-dose medication vials: relationship to epidemic septic arthritis. J. Clin. Microbiol 25: 1019 1021.
97. Nakashima, A. K.,, M. McCarthy,, W. J. Martone,, and R. L. Anderson. 1987. Epidemic septic arthritis caused by Serratia marcescens and associated with a benzalkonium chloride antiseptic. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 1014 1018.
98.. National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System. 1998. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/hip/surveill/NNIS.htm.
99. Novak, S. S.,, and R. A. Seigel. 1986. Gram-negative septicemia in American alligators ( Alligator mississippiensis) J. Wildl. Dis. 22: 484 487.
100. O’Hara, C. M.,, and J. M. Miller. 2000. Evaluation of the MicroScan Rapid Neg ID3 panel for identification of Enterobacteriaceae and some common gram-negative nonfermenters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 3577 3580.
101. O’Hara, C. M.,, and J. M. Miller. 2003. Evaluation of the Vitek 2 ID-GNB assay for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other nonenteric gram-negative bacilli and comparison with the Vitek GNI+ card. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 2096 2101.
102. Ohkusu, K. 2000. Cost-effective and rapid presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli in routine urine, pus, and stool cultures: evaluation of the use of CHROMagar orientation medium in conjunction with simple biochemical tests. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 4586 4592.
103. Osano, E.,, Y. Arakawa,, R. Wacharotayankun,, M. Ohta,, T. Horii,, H. Ito,, F. Yoshimura,, and N. Kato. 1994. Molecular characterization of an enterobacterial metallo-β-lactamase found in a clinical isolate of Serratia marcescens that shows imipenem resistance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38: 71 78.
104. Osterblad, M.,, O. Pensala,, M. Peterzens,, H. Heleniusc,, and P. Huovinen. 1999. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from vegetables. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 43: 503 509.
105. Ostrowsky, B. E.,, C. Whitener,, H. K. Bredenberg,, L. A. Carson,, S. Holt,, L. Hutwagner,, M. J. Arduino,, and W. R. Jarvis. 2002. Serratia marcescens bacteremia traced to an infused narcotic. N. Engl. J. Med. 346: 1529 1537.
106. Pancoast, S. J. 1988. Aminoglycoside antibiotics in clinical use. Med. Clin. North Am. 72: 581 612.
107. Parment, P. A.,, C. Svanborg-Eden,, and M. J. Chaknis. 1992. Hemagglutination (fimbriae) and hydrophobicity in adherence of Serratia marcescens to urinary tract epithelium and contact lenses. Curr. Microbiol. 25: 113 118.
108. Passaro, D. J.,, L. Waring,, R. Armstrong,, F. Bolding,, B. Bouvier,, J. Rosenberg,, A. W. Reingold,, M. McQuitty,, S. M. Philpott,, W. R. Jarvis,, S. B. Werner,, L. S. Tompkins,, and D. J. Vugia. 1997. Postoperative Serratia marcescens wound infections traced to an out-of-hospital source. J. Infect. Dis. 175: 992 995.
109. Patton, T. G.,, S. Katz,, R. J. Sobieski,, and S. S. Crupper. 2001. Genotyping of clinical Serratia marcescens isolates: a comparison of PCR-based methods. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 194: 19 25.
110. Pfaller, M. A.,, and R. N. Jones. 1997. A review of the in vitro activity of meropenem and comparative antimicrobial agents tested against 30, 254 aerobic and anaerobic pathogens isolated world wide. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 28: 157 163.
111. Pfaller, M. A.,, R. N. Jones,, D. J. Biedenbach, and the MYSTIC Program Study Group (USA). 2001. Antimicrobial resistance trends in medical centers using carbapenems: report of 1999 and 2000 results from the MYSTIC Program (USA). Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 41: 177 182.
112. Pfaller, M. A.,, R. N. Jones,, S. A. Marshall,, S. L. Coffman,, R. J. Hollis,, M. B. Edmond,, and R. P. Wenzel. 1997. Inducible Amp C β-lactamase producing gram-negative bacilli from blood stream infections: frequency, antimicrobial susceptibility, and molecular epidemiology in a national surveillance program (SCOPE). Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 28: 211 219.
113. Pien, F. D.,, and J. J. Farmer III. 1983. Serratia ficaria isolated from a leg ulcer. South. Med. J. 76: 1591 1592.
114. Public Health Laboratory Service. 2002. Klebsiella spp, Enterobacter spp, Serratia spp, and Citrobacter spp from bacteraemias, England and Wales 2001. Commun. Dis. Rep. CDR Wkly. [Online.] http://hpa.org.uk/cdr/PDFfiles/2002/cdr2002.pdf.
115. Quentin, C.,, C. Arpin,, V. Dubois,, C. Andre,, I. Lagrange,, I. Fischer,, J.-P. Brochet,, F. Grobost,, J. Julin,, B. Dutilh,, G. Larribet,, and P. Noury. 2004. Antibiotic resistance rates and phenotypes among isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in French extra-hospital practice. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 23: 185 193.
116. Ramos, J. M.,, R. Fernandez-Roblas,, I. Gadea,, M. Cuenca-Estrella,, and F. Soriano. 1995. Nosocomially acquired bacteremia caused by Serratia plymuthica. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 17: 156 157.
117. Rasmussen, B. A.,, and K. Bush. 1997. Carbapenemhydrolyzing β-lactamases. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 223 232.
118. Reina, J.,, N. Borrell,, and I. Llompart. 1992. Community-acquired bacteremia caused by Serratia plymuthica case report and review of the literature. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15: 449 452.
119. Roberts, F. J.,, I. W. Geere,, and A. Coldman. 1991. A three-year study of positive blood cultures, with emphasis on prognosis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13: 34 46.
120. Robinson, A.,, Y. S. McCarter,, and J. Tetreault. 1995. Comparison of Crystal Enteric/Nonfermenter system, API 20E system, and Vitek Automicrobic system for identification of gram-negative bacilli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 364 370.
121. Saito, H.,, L. Elting,, G. P. Bodey,, and P. Berkey. 1989. Serratia bacteremia: review of 118 cases. Rev. Infect. Dis. 11: 912 920.
122. Sanders, C. C.,, and W. E. Sanders, Jr. 1992. β-Lactam resistance in gram-negative bacteria: global trends and clinical impact. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15: 824 839.
123. Schaberg, D. P.,, D. H. Culver,, and R. P. Gaynes. 1991. Major trends in the microbial etiology of nosocomial infection. Am. J. Med. 91( Suppl. 3B): 72S 75S.
124. Sherley, M.,, D. M. Gordon,, and P. J. Collingnon. 2003. Species differences in plasmid carriage in the Enterobacteriaceae. Plasmid 49: 79 85.
125. Sifuentes-Osornia, J.,, G. M. Ruiz-Palacios,, and D. H. M. Groschel. 1986. Analysis of epidemiologic markers of nosocomial Serratia marcescens isolates with special reference to the Grimont biotyping system. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23: 230 234.
126. Sirot, D. L.,, F. W. Goldstein,, C.J. Soussy,, A. L. Courtieu,, M. O. Husson,, J. Lemozy,, M. Meyran,, C. Morel,, R. Perez,, C. Quentin-Noury,, M. E. Reverdy,, J. M. Scheftel,, M. Rosembaum,, and Y. Rezvani. 1992. Resistance to cefotaxime and seven other β-lactams in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae: a 3-year survey in France. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36: 1677 168l.
127. Sokalski, S. J.,, M. A. Jewell,, A. C. Asmus-Shillington,, J. Mulcahy,, and J. Segreti. 1992. An outbreak of Serratia marcescens in 14 adult cardiac surgical patients associated with 12-lead electrocardiogram bulbs. Arch. Intern. Med. 152: 841 844.
128. Starr, M. P.,, P. A. D. Grimont,, F. Grimont,, and P. B. Starr. 1976. Caprylate-thallous agar medium for selectively isolating Serratia and its utility in the clinical laboratory. J. Clin. Microbiol. 4: 270 276.
129. Stephen, M.,, and M. K. Lalitha. 1993. An outbreak of Serratia marcescens infections among obstetric patients . Indian J. Med. Res. 97: 202 205.
130. Steppberger, K.,, S. Walter,, M. C. Claros,, F. B. Spencker,, W. Kiess,, A. C. Rodloff,, and C. Vogtmann. 2002. Nosocomial neonatal outbreak of Serratia marcescens—analysis of pathogens by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction. Infection 30: 277 281.
131. Stock, I.,, S. Burak,, K. J. Sherwood,, T. Gruger,, and B. Wiedemann. 2003. Natural antimicrobial susceptibilities of strains of ‘unusual’ Serratia species: S. ficaria, S. fonticola, S. odorifera, S. plymuthica, and S. rubidaea. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51: 865 885.
132. Szewzyk, U.,, R. Szewzyk,, and R. Stenstron. 1993. Growth and survival of Serratia marcescens under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of materials from blood bags. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 1826 1830.
133. Theccanat, G.,, L. Hirschfield,, and H. Isenberg. 1991. Serratia marcescens meningitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 822 823.
134. Thornsberry, C. 1994. Susceptibility of clinical bacterial isolates to ciprofloxacin in the United States. Infection 22: S80 S89.
135. Thornton, S. M.,, S. Nolan,, and F. M. D. Gulland 1998. Bacterial isolates from California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus), harbor seals, ( Phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals ( Mirounga angustirostris) admitted to a rehabilitation center along the central California coast, 1994-1995. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 29: 171 176.
136. Tzouvelekis, L. S.,, E. Tzelepi,, A. F. Mentis,, and N. J. Legakis. 1995. In vitro activity of cefpirome against selected clinical enterobacterial isolates with β-lactamase-mediated resistance. Infection 23: 384 388.
137. Ursua, P. R.,, M. J. Unzaga,, P. Melera,, I. Iturbura,, C. Expeleta,, and R. Cisterna. 1996. Serratia rubidaea as an invasive pathogen. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 216 217.
138. Vandenbrouck-Grauls, C. M. J. E.,, A. C. M. Baars,, M. R. Visser,, P. F. Hulstaert,, and J. Verhoef. 1993. An outbreak of Serratia marcescens traced to a contaminated bronchoscope. J. Hosp. Infect. 23: 263 270.
139. Vartian, C. V.,, and E. J. Septimus. 1989. Septic bursitis caused by gram-negative bacilli. J. Infect. Dis. 160: 908.
140. Viswanathan, P.,, and R. Kaur. 2001. Prevalence and growth of pathogens on salad vegetables, fruits and sprout. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 203: 205 213.
141. Walker, G.,, R. Hertle,, and V. Braun. 2004. Activation of Serratia marcescens hemolysin through a conformational change. Infect. Immun. 72: 611 614.
142. Watanakunakorn, C. 1989. Serratia bacteremia: a review of 44 episodes. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 21: 477 483.
143. Wisplinghoff, H.,, T. Bischoff,, S. M. Tallent,, H. Seifert,, R. P. Wenzel,, and M. B. Edmond. 2004. Nosocomial bloodstream infections in US hospitals: analysis of 24,179 cases from a prospective nationwide surveillance study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39: 309 317.
144. Woodfield, D. G. 1991. Transfusion acquired Serratia liquefaciens septicemia. N. Z. Med. J. 104: 141.
145. Wright, C.,, S. D. Kominos,, and R. B. Yee. 1976. Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa recovered from vegetable salads. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 31: 453 454.
146. Yannelli, B.,, P. E. Schoch,, and B. A. Cunha. 1987. Serratia marcescens. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 9: 157 160.
147. Yoo, J.-H.,, J.-H. Choi,, W.-S. Shin,, D.-H. Huh,, Y.-K. Cho,, K.-M. Kim,, M.-Y. Kim,, and M.-W. Kang. 1999. Application of infrequent-restriction-site PCR to clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Serratia marcescens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 3108 3112.
148. Yu, V. L. 1979. Serratia marcescens: historical perspective and clinical review. New Engl. J. Med. 300: 887 893.
149. Zaidi, M.,, J. Sifuentes,, M. Bobadilla,, D. Moncada,, and S. Ponce de Leon. 1989. Epidemic of Serratia marcescens bacteremia and meningitis in a neonatal unit in Mexico City. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 10: 14 20.
150. Zbinden, R.,, and R. Blass. 1988. Serratia plymuthica osteomyelitis following a motorcycle accident. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 1409 1410.
151. Zipper, R. P.,, M. A. Bustamante,, and R. Khatib. 1996. Serratia marcescens: a single pathogen in necrotizing fasciitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23: 648 649.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Members of the genus

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 137-150. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 2

Susceptibility of to selected antimicrobials

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 137-150. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch10

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error