1887

Chapter 11 : The Genus Enterobacter

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

The Genus Enterobacter, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817541/9781555813420_Chap11-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817541/9781555813420_Chap11-2.gif

Abstract:

The genus was first proposed by researchers in 1960 to resolve taxonomic inconsistencies in strains formerly assigned to the genus . With the advent of DNA-DNA hybridization as a standard tool in taxonomic studies, a more precise species definition for the genus unfolded. Several of these species have been isolated from trees, including , , and . Although most of the less frequently encountered species have been associated with blood infections, very little information is currently available regarding the epidemiology and clinical significance of such isolations. Epidemiologic investigations identified three environmental strains, two from handprints of health care workers and one from a multidose in-use dextrose vial that matched the human isolates in antimicrobial susceptibility profiles; they were very similar upon pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. During the past decade, there has been a relative explosion in laboratory techniques useful in the molecular fingerprinting of isolates. These tests include but are not limited to plasmid analysis, PFGE, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), ribotyping, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR, and amplified fragment length polymorphism. Only recently have studies looked at potential virulence factors associated with members of the genus , and our knowledge concerning pathogenicity determinants in enterobacteria is still in its infancy. Two additional species have recently been described, bringing the number of validly published species in the genus to 18, including .

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Enterobacter, p 151-180. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch11

Key Concept Ranking

Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA
0.41522214
0.41522214
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817541.chap11
1. Abbott, S. L.,, and J. M. Janda. 1997. Enterobacter cancerogenus (“Enterobacter taylorae”) infections associated with severe trauma or crush injuries. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 107:359361.
2. Acolet, D.,, Z. Ahmet,, E. Houang,, R. Hurley,, and M. E. Kaufmann. 1994. Enterobacter cloacae in a neonatal intensive care unit: account of an outbreak and its relationship to use of third generation cephalosporins. J. Hosp. Infect. 28:273286.
3. Adegbola, R. A.,, and D. C. Old. 1983. Fimbrial haemagglutinins in Enterobacter species. J. Gen. Microbiol. 129:21752180.
4. Andersen, B. M.,, D. Sørlie,, R. Hotvedt,, S. M. Almdahl,, K. Olafsen,, R. George,, and A. Gilfillian. 1989. Multiply betalactam resistant Enterobacter cloacae infections linked to the environmental flora in a unit for cardiothoracic and vascular surgery. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 21:181191.
5. Andresen, J.,, B. I. Asmar,, and A. S. Dajani. 1994. Increasing Enterobacter bacteremia in pediatric patients. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 13:787792.
6. Archibald, L. K.,, M. Ramos,, M. J. Arduino,, S. M. Aguero,, C. Deseda,, S. Banerjee,, and W. J. Jarvis. 1998. Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa polymicrobial bloodstream infections traced to extrinsic contamination of a dextrose multidose vial. J. Pediatr. 133:640644.
7. Bangaert, R. L.,, A. C. S. Ward,, E. H. Stauber,, B. R. Cho,, and P. R. Widders. 1988. A survey of aerobic bacteria in the feces of captive raptors. Avian Dis. 32:743748.
8. Barnes, A. I.,, C. Ortiz,, M. G. Paraje,, L. B. Balanzino,, and I. Albesa. 1997. Purification and characterization of a cytotoxin from Enterobacter cloacae. Can. J. Microbiol. 43:729733.
9. Barnes, A. I.,, M. G. Paraje,, P. D. C. Battán,, and I. Albesa. 2001. Molecular properties and metabolic effect on blood cells produced by a new toxin of Enterobacter cloacae. Cell Biol. Toxicol. 17:409418.
10. Bar-Oz, B.,, A. Preminger,, O. Peleg,, C. Block,, and I. Arad. 2001. Enterobacter sakazakii infection in the newborn. Acta Paediatr. 90:356358.
11. Bascomb, S.,, S. L. Abbott,, J. D. Bobolis,, D. A. Bruckner,, S. J. Connell,, S. K. Cullen,, M. Daugherty,, D. Glenn,, J. M. Janda,, S. J. Lentsch,, D. Lindquist,, P. B. Mayhew,, D. M. Nothaft,, J. R. Skinner,, G. B. Williams,, J. Wong,, and B. L. Zimmer. 1997. Multicenter evaluation of the MicroScan Rapid Gram-Negative Identification Type 3 Panel. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:25312536.
12. Biering, G.,, S. Karlsson,, N. C. Clark,, K. E. Jónsdóttir,, P. Lúdvígsson,, and Ó. Steingrímsson. 1989. Three cases of neonatal meningitis caused by Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered milk. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:20542056.
13. Block, C.,, O. Peleg,, N. Minster,, B. Bar-Oz,, A. Simhon,, I. Arad,, and M. Shapiro. 2002. Cluster of neonatal infections in Jerusalem due to unusual biochemical variant of Enterobacter sakazakii. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 21:613616.
14. Bodey, G. P.,, L. S. Elting,, and S. Rodriguez. 1991. Bacteremia caused by Enterobacter: 15 years experience in a cancer hospital. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13:550558.
15. Bohnert, J.,, B. Hübner,, and K. Botzenhart. 2000. Rapid identification of Enterobacteriaceae using a novel 23S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 203:7782.
16. Bollet, C.,, A. Elkouby,, P. Pietri,, and P. de Micco. 1991. Isolation of Enterobacter amnigenus from a heart transplant recipient. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 10:10711073.
17. Bonadio, W. A.,, D. Margolis,, and M. Tovar. 1991. Enterobacter cloacae bacteremia in children: a review of 30 cases in 12 years. Clin. Pediatr. 30:310313.
18. Bornet, C.,, A. Davin-Regli,, C. Bosi,, J.-M. Pages,, and C. Bollet. 2000. Imipenem resistance of Enterobacter aerogenes mediated by outer membrane permeability. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:10481052.
19. Bourbeau, P. P.,, and B. J. Heiter. 1998. Comparison of the Vitek GNI and GNI+ cards for identification of gram-negative bacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:27752777.
20. Bouza, E.,, M. García de la Torre,, A. Erice,, E. Loza,, J. M. Diaz-Borrego,, and L. Buzón. 1985. Enterobacter bacteremia. An analysis of 50 episodes. Arch. Intern. Med. 145:10241027.
21. Boye, K.,, and D. S. Hansen. 2003. Sequencing of 16S rDNA of Klebsiella: taxonomic relations within the genus and to other Enterobacteriaceae. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 292:495503.
22. Brenner, D. J.,, F. W. Hickman-Brenner,, B. Holmes,, P. M. Hawkey,, J. L. Penner,, P. A. D. Grimont,, and C. M. O’Hara. 1995. Replacement NCTC 4175, the current type strain of Proteus vulgaris, with ATCC 29905. Request for an opinion. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45:870871.
23. Brenner, D. J.,, A. C. McWhorter,, A. Kai,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, and J. J. Farmer III. 1986. Enterobacter asburiae sp. nov., a new species found in clinical specimens, and reassignment of Erwinia dissolvens and Erwinia nimipressuralis to the genus Enterobacter as Enterobacter dissolvens comb. nov. and Enterobacter nimipressuralis comb. nov. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23:11141120.
24. Brenner, D. J.,, C. Richard,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, M. A. Asbury,, and M. Mandel. 1980. Enterobacter gergoviae sp. nov.: a new species of Enterobacteriaceae found in clinical specimens and the environment. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 30:16.
25. Brenner, D. J.,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, and G. R. Fanning. 1972. Differentiation of Enterobacter aerogenes from klebsiellae by deoxyribonucleic acid reassociation. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 22:193200.
26. Burchard, K. W.,, D. T. Barrall,, M. Reed,, and G. J. Slotman. 1986. Enterobacter bacteremia in surgical patients. Surgery 100:857861.
27. Bush, K.,, G. A. Jacoby,, and A. A. Medeiros. 1995. A functional classification scheme for β-lactamases and its correlation with molecular structure. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:12111233.
28. Chang, W. N.,, C. H. Lu,, C. R. Huang,, and Y. C. Chuang. 2000. Mixed infection in adult bacterial meningitis. Infection 28:812.
29. Chassagn, P.,, O. Mejjad,, A. Daragon,, R. Lecomte,, X. Le Loet,, and P. Deshayes. 1990. Spondylodiscite à Enterobacter cloacae traitée par le céfixime. Presse Med. 19:673674.
30. Cheng, Y.,, and M. Chen. 1994. Extended-spectrum β- lactamases in clinical isolates of Enterobacter gergoviae and Escherichia coli in China. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:28382842.
31. Chotpitayasunondh, T. 1994. Bacterial meningitis in children: etiology and clinical features, an 11-year review of 618 cases. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 25:107115.
32. Chow, J. W.,, M. J. Fine,, D. M. Shlaes,, J. P. Quinn,, D. C. Hooper,, M. P. Johnson,, R. Ramphal,, M. M. Wagener,, D. K. Miyashiro,, and V. L. Yu. 1991. Enterobacter bacteremia: clinical features and emergence of antibiotic resistance during therapy. Ann. Intern. Med. 115:585590.
33. Chow, J. W.,, V. L. Yu,, and D. M. Shales. 1994. Epidemiologic perspectives on Enterobacter for the infection control professional. Am. J. Infect. Control 22:195201.
34. Clark, N. C.,, B. C. Hill,, C. M. O’Hara,, O. Steingrimsson,, and R. C. Cooksey. 1990. Epidemiologic typing of Enterobacter sakazakii in two neonatal nosocomial outbreaks. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 13:467472.
35. Clementino, M.,, I. De Filippis,, C. R. Nascimento,, R. Branquinho,, C. L. Rocha,, and O. B. Martins. 2001. PCR analyses of tRNA intergenic spacer, 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA reveal inter- and intraspecific relationships of Enterobacter cloacae strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:38653870.
36. Conus, P.,, and P. Francioli. 1992. Relationship between ceftriaxone use and resistance of Enterobacter species. J. Clin. Pharm. Ther. 17:303305.
37. Crane, L. R.,, and A. M. Lerner,. 1983. Gram-negative bacillary pneumonias, p. 227250. In J. E. Pennington (ed.), Respiratory Infections: Diagnosis and Management. Raven Press, New York, N.Y.
38. Darini,, A. L. C., Magalhães,, C. I. Levy,, A. L. Barth,, and A. L. Coscina. 1999. Phenotyping and genotyping methods applied to investigate the relatedness of Brazilian isolates of Enterobacter cloacae. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 32:10771081.
39. da Silva, C. L. P.,, L. E. Miranda,, B. M. Moreira,, D. Rebello,, L. A. Carson,, M. E. Kellum,, M. C. L. de Almeida,, J. L. M. Sampaio,, and C. M. O’Hara. 2002. Enterobacter hormaechei bloodstream infection at three neonatal intensive care units in Brazil. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 21:175177.
40. Dauga, C. 2002. Evolution of the gyrB gene and the molecular phylogeny of Enterobacteriaceae: a model molecule for molecular systematic studies. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52: 531547.
41. de Kort, G.,, A. Bolton,, G. Martin,, J. Stephen,, and J. A. M. van de Klundert. 1994. Invasion of rabbit ileal tissue by Enterobacter cloacae varies with the concentration of OmpX in the outer membrane. Infect. Immun. 62:47224726.
42. deMan, P.,, E. van der Vecke,, M. Leemreijze,, W. van Leeuwen,, G. Vos,, J. van den Anker,, H. Verbrugh,, and A. van Belkum. 2001. Enterobacter species in a pediatric hospital: horizontal transfer or selection in individual patients? J. Infect. Dis. 184:211214.
43. Dickey, R. S.,, and C. H. Zumoff. 1988. Emended description of Enterobacter cancerogenus comb. nov. (formerly Erwinia cancerogena). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 38:371374.
44. Diekema, D. J.,, M. A. Pfaller,, R. N. Jones,, G. V. Doern,, P. L. Winokur,, A. C. Gales,, H. S. Sader,, K. Kugler,, and M. Beach. 1999. Survey of bloodstream infections due to gram-negative bacilli: frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected in the United States, Canada, and Latin America for the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program, 1997. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:595607.
45. Donay, J.-L.,, D. Mathieu,, P. Fernandes,, C. Prégermain,, P. Bruel,, A. Wargnier,, I. Casin,, F. X. Weill,, P. H. Lagrange,, and J. L. Hermann. 2004. Evaluation of the automated Phoenix system for potential routine use in the clinical microbiology laboratory. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:15421546.
46. Eberhart, R. J. 1984. Coliform mastitis. Vet. Clin. North. Am. Large Anim. Pract. 6:287300.
47. Edmond, M. B.,, S. E. Wallace,, D. K. McClish,, M. A. Pfaller,, R. N. Jones,, and R. P. Wenzel. 1999. Nosocomial bloodstream infections in United States hospitals: a three-year analysis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:239244.
48. Ewing, W. H.,, and M. A. Fife. 1972. Enterobacter agglomerans (Beijerinck) comb. nov. (the Herbicola-Lathyri bacteria). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 22:411.
49. Falasca, G. F.,, and A. J. Reginato. 1994. The spectrum of myositis and rhabdomyolysis associated with bacterial infection. J. Rheumatol. 21:19321937.
50. Farmer, J. J., III,, B. R. Davis,, F. W. Hickman-Brenner,, A. McWhorter,, G. P. Huntley-Carter,, M. A. Asbury,, C. Riddle,, H. G. Wathen-Grady,, C. Elias,, G. R. Fanning,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, C. M. O’Hara,, G. K. Morris,, P. B. Smith,, and D. J. Brenner. 1985. Biochemical identification of new species and biogroups of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21:4676.
51. Farmer, J. J., III,, M. A. Asbury,, F. W. Hickman,, and D. J. Brenner. 1980. Enterobacter sakazakii: a new species of “Enterobacteriaceae” isolated from clinical specimens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 30:569584.
52. Fata, F.,, S. Chittivelu,, S. Tessler,, and Y. Kupfer. 1996. Gas gangrene of the arm due to Enterobacter cloacae in a neutropenic patient. South. Med. J. 89:10951096.
53. Fernández-Baca, V.,, F. Ballesteros,, J. A. Hervás,, P. Villalón,, M. A. Domínguez,, V. J. Benedi,, and S. Albertí. 2001. Molecular epidemiological typing of Enterobacter cloacae isolates from neonatal intensive care unit: three-year prospective study. J. Hosp. Infect. 49:173182.
54. Flynn, D. M.,, R. A. Weinstein,, C. Nathan,, M. A. Gaston,, and S. A. Kabins. 1987. Patient’s endogenous flora as the source of “nosocomial” Enterobacter in cardiac surgery. J. Infect. Dis. 156:363368.
55. Fok, T. J.,, C. H. Lee,, E. M. C. Wong,, D. J. Lyon,, W. Wong,, P. C. Ng,, K. L. Cheung,, and A. F. B. Cheng. 1998. Risk factors for Enterobacter septicemia in a neonatal unit: case-control study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:12041209.
56. Fung, C.-P.,, L.-S. Wang,, Y.-C. Juang,, C.-Y. Liu,, and D.-L. Cheng. 1988. Enterobacter cloacae bacteremia: clinical analysis of 41 cases. Chin. Med. J. (Taipei) 42:297304.
57. Funke, G.,, and P. Funke-Kissling. 2004. Use of the BD Phoenix automated microbiology system for direct identification and susceptibility testing of gram-negative rods from positive blood cultures in a three-phase trial. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:14661470.
58. Funke, G.,, and P. Funke-Kissling. 2004. Evaluation of the new VITEK 2 card for identification of clinically relevant gram-negative rods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:40674071.
59. Funke, G.,, D. Monnet,, C. deBernardis,, A. von Graevenitz,, and J. Freney. 1998. Evaluation of the Vitek 2 system for rapid identification of medically relevant gram-negative rods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:19481952.
60. Füssle, R.,, J. Biscoping,, R. Behr,, and A. Sziegoleit. 1994. Development of resistance by Enterobacter cloacae during therapy of pulmonary infections in intensive care patients. Clin. Investig. 72:10151019.
61. Gales, A. C.,, R. N. Jones,, K. A. Gordon,, H. S. Sader,, W. W. Wilke,, M. L. Beach,, M. A. Pfaller,, and G. V. Doern. 2000. Activity and spectrum of 22 antimicrobial agents tested against urinary tract infection pathogens in hospitalized patients in Latin America: report from the second year of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1998). J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 45:295303.
62. Gallagher, P. G. 1990. Enterobacter bacteremia in pediatric patients. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12:808812.
63. Gallagher, P. G.,, and W. S. Ball. 1991. Cerebral infarctions due to CNS infection with Enterobacter sakazakii. Pediatr. Radiol. 21:135136.
64. Ganelin, R. S.,, and M. Ellis. 1992. Cellulitis caused by Enterobacter cloacae. J. Infect. 24:218219.
65. Ganeswire, R.,, K. L. Thong,, and S. D. Puthucheary. 2003. Nosocomial outbreak of Enterobacter gergoviae bacteraemia in a neonatal intensive care unit. J. Hosp. Infect. 53:292296.
66. Garaizar, J.,, M. E. Kaufmann,, and T. L. Pitt. 1991. Comparison of ribotyping with conventional methods for the type identification of Enterobacter cloacae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 13031307.
67. Gaston, M. A. 1988. Enterobacter: an emerging nosocomial pathogen. J. Hosp. Infect. 11:197208.
68. Gaston, M. A.,, C. Bucher,, and T. L. Pitt. 1983. O serotyping scheme for Enterobacter cloacae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:10791083.
69. Gavini, F.,, J. Mergaert,, A. Beji,, C. Mielcarek,, D. Izard,, K. Kersters,, and J. De Ley. 1989. Transfer of Enterobacter agglomerans (Beijerinck 1888) Ewing and Fife 1972 to Pantoea gen. nov. as Pantoea agglomerans comb. nov. and description of Pantoea dispersa sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 39:337345.
70. Georghiou, P. R.,, R. J. Hamill,, C. E. Wright,, J. Versalovic,, T. Kocuth,, D. A. Watson,, and J. R. Lupski. 1995. Molecular epidemiology of infections due to Enterobacter aerogenes: identification of hospital outbreak-associated strains by molecular techniques. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20:8494.
71. Glustein, J. Z.,, and M. Kaplan. 1994. Enterobacter cloacae causing pneumatocele in a neonate. Acta Paediatr. 83:990991.
72. Gonçalves, C. R.,, T. M. I. Vaz,, D. Leite,, M. Simões,, M. A. M. Prandi,, M. M. M. Rocha,, P. C. Cesar,, P. Trabasso,, A. von Nowakonski,, and K. Irino. 2000. Molecular epidemiology of a nosocomial outbreak due to Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter agglomerans in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. S. Paulo 42:17.
73. González-Rodriguez, M.-N.,, J.-J. Sanz,, J.-A. Santos,, A. Otero,, M.-L. García-López. 2002. Numbers and types of microorganisms in vacuum-packed cold-smoked freshwater fish at the retail level. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 77:161168.
74. Gordon, D. M.,, and F. FitzGibbon. 1999. The distribution of enteric bacteria from Australian mammals: host and geographical effects. Microbiology 145:26612671.
75. Greenberg, D.,, E. S. Shinwell,, P. Yagupsky,, S. Greenberg,, E. Leibovitz,, M. Mazor,, and R. Dagan. 1997. A prospective study of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in southern Israel. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 16:768773.
76. Grimont, P. A. D.,, and E. Ageron. 1989. Enterobacter cancerogenus (Uroševic, 1966) Dickey and Zumoff 1988, a senior subjective synonym of Enterobacter taylorae Farmer et al. (1985). Res. Microbiol. 140:459465.
77. Grimont, F., and P. A. D. Grimont,. 1991. The genus Enterobacter, p. 27972815. In A. Balows,, H. G. Trüper,, M. Dworkin,, W. Harder,, and K.-H. Schleifer (ed.), The Prokaryotes: a Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria. Ecophysiology, Isolation, Identification, Applications, 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
78. Gross, N. D.,, and R. F. Meyer. 1985. Enterobacter cloacae ulceration in a failed corneal graft: a case report. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 69:542544.
79. Gürses, N. 1995. Enterobacter septicemia in neonates. Pediatr.Infect. Dis. J. 14:638.
80. Haddy, R. I.,, M. L. Cecil,, L. L. Norris,, and R. J. Markert. 1991. Enterobacter bacteremia in the community hospital. J. Fam. Pract. 32:601606.
81. Haertl, R.,, and G. Bandlow. 1993. Epidemiological fingerprinting of Enterobacter cloacae by small-fragment restriction endonuclease analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic restriction fragments. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:128133.
82. Hamilton, J. V.,, M. J. Lehane,, and H. R. Braig. 2003. Isolation of Enterobacter sakazakii from midgut of Stomoxys calcitrans. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:13551356.
83. Harada, H.,, and H. Ishikawa. 1997. Phylogenetical relationship based on groE genes among phenotypically related Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Serratia and Erwinia species. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 43:355361.
84. Harbath, S.,, P. Sudre,, S. Dharan,, M. Cadenas,, and D. Pittet. 1999. Outbreak of Enterobacter cloacae related to understaffing, overcrowding, and poor hygiene practices. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 20:598603.
85. Hauben, L.,, E. R. B. Moore,, L. Vauterin,, M. Steenackers,, J. Mergaert,, L. Verdonck,, and J. Swings. 1998. Phylogenetic position of phytopathogens within the Enterobacteriaceae. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 21:384397.
86. Hervas, J. A.,, F. Ballesteros,, A. Alomar,, J. Gil,, V. J. Bennedi,, and S. Alberti. 2001. Increase of Enterobacter in neonatal sepsis: a twenty-two-year study. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 20:134140.
87. Himelright, I.,, E. Harris,, V. Lorch,, M. Anderson,, T. Jones,, A. Craig,, M. Kuehnert,, T. Forster,, M. Arduino,, B. Jensen,, and D. Jernigan. 2002. Enterobacter sakazakii infections associated with the use of powdered infant formula—Tennessee, 2001. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51:298300.
88. Hoban, D. J.,, S. K. Bouchillon,, J. L. Johnson,, G. G. Zhanel,, D. L. Butler,, L. A. Miller,, J. A. Poupard, and the Gemifloxacin Surveillance Study Research Group. 2001. Comparative in vitro activity of gemifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and ofloxacin in a North American surveillance study. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 40:5157.
89. Hoffmann, H.,, and A. Roggenkamp. 2003. Population genetics of the nomenspecies Enterobacter cloacae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:53065318.
89a.. Hoffmann, H.,, S. Stindl,, W. Ludwig,, A. Stumpf,, A. Mehlen,, J. Heesemann,, D. Monget,, K. H. Schleifer,, and A. Roggenkamp. 2005. Reassignment of Enterobacter dissolvens to Enterobacter cloacae as E. cloacae subspecies dissolvens comb. nov. and emended description of Enterobacter asburiae and Enterobacter kobei. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 28:196205.
89b.. Hoffmann, H.,, S. Stindl,, A. Stumpf,, A. Mehlen,, D. Monget,, J. Heesemann,, K. H. Schleifer,, and A. Roggenkamp. 2005. Description of Enterobacter ludwigii sp. nov., a novel Enterobacter species of clinical relevance. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 28:206212.
90. Holmes, B.,, M. Costas,, M. Ganner,, S. L. W. On,, and M. Stevens. 1994. Evaluation of Biolog system for identification of some gram-negative bacteria of clinical importance. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:19701975.
91. Hormaeche, E.,, and P. R. Edwards. 1958. Observations on the genus Aerobacter with a description of two species. Int. Bull. Bacteriol. Nomencl. Taxon. 8:111115.
92. Hormaeche, E.,, and P. R. Edwards. 1960. Proposal for the rejection of the generic name Cloaca Castellani and Chalmers, and proposal of Enterobacter as a generic name with designation of type species and of its type culture. With request for an opinion. Int. Bull. Bacteriol. Nomencl. Taxon. 10:7576.
93. Huang, C. R.,, C. H. Lu,, and W. N. Chang. 2001. Adult Enterobacter meningitis: a high incidence of coinfection with other pathogens and frequent association with neurosurgical procedures. Infection 29:7579.
94. Inoue, K.,, K. Sugiyama,, Y. Kosako,, R. Sakazaki,, and S. Yamai. 2000. Enterobacter cowanii sp. nov., a new species of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Curr. Microbiol. 41:417420.
95. Ismail, N. H.,, P. K. Lieu,, C. T. Lien,, and M. L. Ling. 1997. Bacteraemia in the elderly. Ann. Acad. Med. Singapore 26:593598.
96. Iversen, C.,, M. Waddington,, S. L. W. On,, and S. Forsythe. 2004. Identification and phylogeny of Enterobacter sakazakii relative to Enterobacter and Citrobacter species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:53685370.
97. Izard, D.,, F. Gavini,, P. A. Trinel,, F. Krubwa,, and H. Leclerc. 1980. Contribution of DNA-DNA hybridization to the transfer of Enterobacter aerogenes to the genus Klebsiella as K. mobilis. Zentbl. Bakteriol. Hyg. I Abt C 1:257263.
98. Jalaluddin, S.,, J.-M. Devaster,, R. Scheen,, M. Gerrard,, and J.-P. Butzler. 1998. Molecular epidemiological study of nosocomial Enterobacter aerogenes isolates in a Belgian hospital. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:18461852.
99. Jang, E. B.,, and K. A. Nishijima. 1990. Identification and attractancy of bacteria associated with Dacus dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Environ. Entomol. 19:17261731.
100. John, J. F.,, R. J. Sharbaugh,, and E. R. Bannister. 1982. Enterobacter cloacae: bacteremia, epidemiology, and antibiotic resistance. Rev. Infect. Dis. 4:1328.
101. Jones, R. N.,, D. J. Biedenbach,, and A. C. Gales. 2003. Sustained activity and spectrum of selected extended-spectrum β-lactams (carbapenems and cefepime) against Enterobacter spp. and ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp.: report from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (USA, 1997-2000). Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 21:17.
102. Jones, R. N.,, S. G. Jenkins,, D. J. Hoban,, M. A. Pfaller,, and R. Ramphal. 2000. In vitro efficacy of six cephalosporins tested against Enterobacteriaceae isolated at 38 North American medical centers participating in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997-1998. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 15:111118.
103. Jorge, M. T.,, L. A. Ribeiro,, M. L. R. da Silva,, E. J. Kusano,, and J. S. de Mendonça. 1994. Microbiological studies of abscesses complicating Bothrops snakebite in humans: a prospective study. Toxicon 32:743748.
104. Jossart, M.-F.,, and R. J. Courcol. 1999. Evaluation of an automated system for identification of Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenting bacilli. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18:902907.
104a.. Kämpfer,, S. Ruppel,, and R. Remus. 2005. Enterobacter radicincitans sp. nov., a plant growth promoting species of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 28:213221.
105. Kandhai, M. C.,, M. W. Reij,, L. G. M. Gorris,, O. Guillaume-Gentil,, and M. van Schothorst. 2004. Occurrence of Enterobacter sakazakii in food production environments and households. Lancet 363:3940.
106. Kang, C.-I.,, S.-H. Kim,, W. B. Park,, K.-D. Lee,, M.-d. Oh,, E.-C. Kim,, and K.-W. Choe. 2004. Bloodstream infections caused by Enterobacter species: predictors of 30-day mortality rate and impact of broad-spectrum cephalosporin resistance on outcome. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:812818.
107. Karlowsky, J. A.,, M. E. Jones,, D. C. Mayfield,, C. Thornsberry,, and D. F. Sahm. 2002. Ceftriaxone activity against gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens isolated in the US clinical microbiology laboratories from 1996 to 2000: results from the Surveillance Network (TSN) Database-USA. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 19:413426.
108. Keller, R.,, M. Z. Pedrosos,, R. Ritchmann,, and R. M. Silva. 1998. Occurrence of virulence-associated properties in Enterobacter cloacae. Infect. Immun. 66:645649.
109. Kitch, T. T.,, M. R. Jacobs,, and P. C. Appelbaum. 1994. Evaluation of RapID onE system for identification of 379 strains in the family Enterobacteriaceae and oxidase-negative, gram-negative nonfermenters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:931934.
110. Kosako, Y.,, K. Tamura,, R. Sakazaki,, and K. Miki. 1996. Enterobacter kobei sp. nov., a new species of the family Enterobacteriaceae resembling Enterobacter cloacae. Curr. Microbiol. 33:261265.
111. Krag, M. L.,, and H. C. Schønheyder. 1997. Enterobacter cancerogenus (syn. Enterobacter taylorae) from a case of traumatic tibial osteomyelitis. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 19:3132.
112. Kuboyama, R. H.,, H. B. de Oliveira,, and M. L. Moretti- Branchini. 2003. Molecular epidemiology of the systemic infection caused by Enterobacter cloacae in a high-risk neonatal intensive care unit. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 24:490494.
113. Kuzina, L. V.,, J. J. Peloquin,, D. C. Vacek,, and T. A. Miller. 2001. Isolation and identification of bacteria associated with adult laboratory Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae). Curr. Microbiol. 42:290294.
114. Lacey, S. L.,, and S. V. Want. 1995. An outbreak of Enterobacter cloacae associated with contamination of a blood gas machine. J. Infect. 30:223226.
115. Lai, K. K. 2001. Enterobacter sakazakii infections among neonates, infants, children, and adults. Medicine 80:113122.
116. Lambert-Zechovsky, N.,, E. Bingen,, E. Denamur E,, N. Brahimi,, P. Brun,, H. Mathieu,, and J. Elion. 1992. Molecular analysis provides evidence for the endogenous origin of bacteremia and meningitis due to Enterobacter cloacae in an infant. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15:3032.
117. Lee, S. H.,, J. Y. Kim,, S. H. Shim,, Y. J. An,, Y. W. Choi,, Y. C. Jung,, H. I. Jung,, E. S. Sohn,, H. Jeong,, and K. J. Lee. 2003. Dissemination of SHV-12 and characterization of a new AmpC-type β-lactamase genes among clinical isolates of Enterobacter species in Korea. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:24772482.
118. Lee, E. H.,, M. H. Nicolas,, M. D. Kitzis,, G. Pialoux,, E. Collatz,, and L. Gutmann. 1991. Association of two resistance mechanisms in a clinical isolate of Enterobacter cloacae with high-level resistance to imipenem. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:10931098.
119. Leuschner, R. G. K.,, F. Baird,, B. Donald,, and L. J. Cox. 2004. A medium for the presumptive detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant formula. Food Microbiol. 21: 527533.
120. Limaye, A. P.,, R. K. Gautom,, D. Black,, and T. R. Fritsche. 1997. Rapid emergence of resistance to cefepime during treatment. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25:339340.
121. Lindberg, A.-M., Å. Ljungh, S. Ahrné, S. Löfdahl, and G. Molin. 1998. Enterobacteriaceae found in high numbers in fish, minced meat and pasteurized milk or cream and the presence of toxin encoding genes. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 39:1117.
122. Lindh, E.,, and J. Ursing. 1991. Genomic groups and biochemical profiles of clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae. APMIS 99:507514.
123. Ling, T. K. W.,, P. C. Tam,, Z. K. Liu,, and A. F. B. Cheng. 2001. Evaluation of Vitek 2 rapid identification and susceptibility testing system against gram-negative clinical isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:29642966.
124. Liu, S.-C.,, H.-S. Leu,, M.-Y. Yen,, P.-I. Lee,, and M.-C. Chou. 2002. Study of an outbreak of Enterobacter cloacae sepsis in a neonatal intensive care unit: the application of epidemiologic chromosome profiling by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Am. J. Infect. Control 30:381385.
125. Livingston, W.,, M. E. Grossman,, and G. Garvey. 1992. Hemorrhagic bullae in association with Enterobacter cloacae septicemia. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 27:637638.
126. Loiwal, V.,, A. Kumar,, P. Gupta,, S. Gomber,, and V. Ramachandran. 1999. Enterobacter aerogenes outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr. Int. 41:157161.
127. Lynch, J. P.III,. 2001. Hospital-acquired pneumonia: risk factors, microbiology, and treatment. Chest 119(2 Suppl.):373S384S.
128. Maki, D. G.,, F. S. Rhame,, D. C. Mackel,, and J. V. Bennett. 1976. Nationwide epidemic of septicemia caused by contaminated intravenous products. I. Epidemiologic and clinical features. Am. J. Med. 60:471485.
129. Marce, S.,, J.-F. Antoine,, T. Schaeverbeke,, J.-P. Vernhes,, B. Bannwarth,, and J. Dehais. 1993. Enterobacter cloacae vertebral infection in a heroin addict with HIV infection. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 52:695696.
130. Meis, J. F. G. M.,, J. Groot-Loonen,, and J. A. A. Hoogkamp- Korstanje. 1995. A brain abscess due to multiply-resistant Enterobacter cloacae successfully treated with meropenem. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20:1567.
131. Michowitz, M.,, S. A. Berger,, H. Nagar,, and D. Chayen. 1985. Crepitant cellulitis due to Enterobacter aerogenes. Isr. J. Med. Sci. 21:546547.
132. Milewski, S. A.,, and P. Klevjer-Anderson. 1993. Endophthalmitis caused by Enterobacter cloacae. Ann. Ophthalmol. 25:309311.
133. Modi, N.,, V. Damjanovic,, and R. W. I. Cooke. 1987. Outbreak of cephalosporin resistant Enterobacter cloacae infection in a neonatal intensive care unit. Arch. Dis. Child. 62:148151.
134. Mokracka, J.,, R. Koczura,, and A. Kaznowski. 2004. Yersiniabactin and other siderophores produced by clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 40:5155.
135. Molinari, G.,, V. Pugliese,, G. C. Schito,, and C. A. Guzmán. 1996. Bacteria involved in the blockage of biliary stents and their susceptibility to antibacterial agents. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15:8892.
136. Muytjens, H. L.,, H. C. Zanen,, H. J. Sonderkamp,, L. A. Kollée,, K. Wachsmuth,, and J. J. Farmer III. 1983. Analysis of eight cases of neonatal meningitis and sepsis due to Enterobacter sakazakii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:115120.
137. Nazarowec-White, M.,, and J. M. Farber. 1999. Phenotypic and genotypic typing of food and clinical isolates of Enterobacter sakazakii. J. Med. Microbiol. 48:559567.
138. Nicolle, L. E. 2001. Urinary tract pathogens in complicated infection and in elderly individuals. J. Infect. Dis. 183(Suppl. 1):S5S8.
139. Nicolle, L. E.,, L. J. Strausbaugh,, and R. A. Garibaldi. 1996. Infections and antibiotic resistance in nursing homes. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 9:117.
140.NNIS System. 2003. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System report, data summary from January 1992 through June 2003, issued August 2003. Am. J. Infect. Control 31:481498.
141. O’Hara, C. M.,, and J. M. Miller. 2000. Evaluation of the MicroScan Rapid Neg ID3 panel for identification of Enterobacteriaceae and some common gram-negative nonfermenters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:35773580.
142. O’Hara, C. M.,, and J. M. Miller. 2003. Evaluation of the Vitek 2 ID-GNB assay for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other nonenteric gramnegative bacilli and comparison with the Vitek GNI+ card. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:20962101.
143. O’Hara, C. M.,, C. D. Steward,, J. L. Wright,, F. C. Tenover,, and J. M. Miller. 1998. Isolation of Enterobacter intermedium from the gallbladder of a patient with cholecystitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:30553056.
144. O’Hara, C. M.,, G. L. Westbrook,, and J. M. Miller. 1997. Evaluation of Vitek GNI+ and Becton Dickinson Microbiology Systems Crystal E/NF Identification Systems for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other gram-negative, glucose-fermenting and non-glucose-fermenting bacilli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:32693273.
145. Ongrádi, J. 2002. Vaginal infection by Enterobacter sakazakii. Sex. Trans. Dis. 78:467.
146. Ootsubo, M.,, T. Shimizu,, R. Tanaka,, T. Sawabe,, K. Tajima,, M. Yoshimizu,, Y. Ezura,, T. Ezaki,, and H. Oyaizu. 2002. Oligonucleotide probe for detecting Enterobacteriaceae by in situ hybridization. J. Appl. Microbiol. 93:6068.
147. Österblad, M.,, O. Pensala,, M. Peterzéns,, H. Helenius,, and P. Huovinen. 1999. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from vegetables. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 43:503509.
148. Pagotto, F. J.,, M. Nazarowec-White,, S. Bidawid,, and J. M. Farber. 2003. Enterobacter sakazakii: infectivity and enterotoxin production in vitro and in vivo. J. Food Protect. 66:370375.
149. Pan, Y. T.,, B. Xin,, K. Rice,, S. Smith,, R. Jackson,, and A. D. Elbein. 1997. Specificity of the high-mannose recognition site between Enterobacter cloacae pili adhesin and HT-29 cell membranes. Infect. Immun. 65:41994206.
150. Parodi, S.,, A. Lechner,, R. Osili,, P. Vespa,, and D. Pegues. 2003. Nosocomial Enterobacter meningitis: risk factors, management, and treatment outcomes. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:159166.
151. Paton, A. W.,, and J. C. Paton. 1996. Enterobacter cloacae producing a Shiga-like toxin II-related cytotoxin associated with a case of hemolytic-uremic syndrome. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:463465.
152. Paton, J. C.,, and A. W. Paton. 1997. Instability of a Shiga toxin type 2 gene in Enterobacter cloacae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:1917.
153. Pavan, M. E.,, R. J. Franco,, J. M. Rodriguez,, P. Gadaleta,, S. L. Abbott,, J. M. Janda,, and J. Zorzópulos. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Kluyvera: transfer of Enterobacter intermedius Izard et al. 1980 to the genus Kluyvera as Kluyvera intermedia comb. nov. and reclassification of Kluyvera cochleae as a later synonym of K. intermedia. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55:437442.
154. Peters, S. M.,, J. Bryan,, and M. F. Cole. 2000. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction typing of isolates of Enterobacter cloacae from an outbreak of infection in a neonatal intensive care unit. Am. J. Infect. Control 28:123129.
155. Pfaller, M. A.,, R. N. Jones,, D. I. Biedenbach, and the MYSTIC Program Study Group. 2001. Antimicrobial resistance trends in medical centers using carbapenems: report of 1999 and 2000 results from the MYSTIC Program (USA). Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 41:177182.
156. Piagnerelli, M.,, E. Carlier,, A. Deplano,, P. Lejeune,, and D. Govaerts. 2002. Risk factors for infection and molecular typing in patients in the intensive care unit colonized with nosocomial Enterobacter aerogenes. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 23:452456.
157. Piagnerelli, M.,, B. Kennes,, Y. Brogniez,, A. Deplano,, and D. Govaerts. 2000. Outbreak of nosocomial multidrug-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes in a geriatric unit: failure of isolation contact, analysis of risk factors, and use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 21:651653.
158. Pneumaticos, S. G.,, S. N. Chatziioannou,, and R. W. Lindsey. 2002. Superinfection of chronic multifocal oseteomyelitis with Enterobacter cloacae. Am. J. Orthop. 31:264267.
159. Podschun, R.,, and U. Ullmann. 1998. Klebsiella spp. as nosocomial pathogens: epidemiology, taxonomy, typing methods, and pathogenicity factors. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11:589603.
160. Prada, J.,, and L. Beutin. 1991. Detection of Escherichia coli α-haemolysin genes and their expression in a human faecal strain of Enterobacter cloacae. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 79:111114.
161. Prats, G.,, C. Richard,, B. Mirelis,, and P. Lopez. 1987. Human isolates of Enterobacter intermedium. Zentbl. Bakteriol. Hyg. A 266:422424.
162. Quinn, J. P.,, C. A. DiVincenzo,, and J. Foster. 1987. Emergence of resistance to ceftazidime during therapy for Enterobacter cloacae. J. Infect. Dis. 155:942947.
163. Quint, L.,, B. Fantin,, N. Belmatoug,, and C. Carbon. 1991. Bursite hémorragique infectée par Enterobacter cloacae. Presse Med. 20:1787.
164. Raimondi, A.,, A. Traverso,, and H. Nikaido. 1991. Imipenem- and meropenem-resistant mutants of Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus rettgeri lack porins. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:11741180.
165. Reina, J.,, F. Salva,, J. Gil,, and P. Alomar. 1989. Urinary tract infection caused by Enterobacter taylorae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:2877.
166. Richards, M. J.,, J. R. Edwards,, D. H. Culver,, and R. P. Gaynes. 1999. Nosocomial infections in pediatric intensive care units in the United States. Pediatrics 103:e39.
167. Richards, M. J.,, J. R. Edwards,, D. H. Culver,, and R. P. Gaynes. 1999. Nosocomial infections in medical intensive care units in the United States. Crit. Care Med. 27:887892.
168. Richards, M. J.,, J. R. Edwards,, D. H. Culver,, and R. P. Gaynes. 2000. Nosocomial infections in combined medical-surgical intensive care units in the United States. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 21:510515.
169. Rhoads, S.,, L. Marinelli,, C. A. Imperatrice,, and I. Nachamkin. 1995. Comparison of MicroScan WalkAway system and Vitek system for identification of gram-negative bacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:30443046.
170. Rhodes, A. N.,, J. W. Urbance,, H. Youga,, H. Corlew-Newman,, C. A. Reddy,, M. J. Klug,, J. M. Tiedje,, and D. C. Fisher. 1998. Identification of bacterial isolates obtained from intestinal contents associated with 12,000-year-old mastodon remains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:651658.
171. Roberts, D. P.,, A. M. Marty,, P. D. Perry,, and J. S. Hartung. 1996. Isolation and modulation of growth of a colonization-impaired strain of Enterobacter cloacae in cucumber spermosphere. Can. J. Microbiol. 42:196201.
172. Robinson, A.,, Y. S. McCarter,, and J. Tetreault. 1995. Comparison of Crystal Enteric/Nonfermenter system, API 20E system, and Vitek Automicrobic System for identification of gram-negative bacilli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:364370.
173. Ronald, A. 2002. The etiology of urinary tract infection: traditional and emerging pathogens. Am. J. Med. 113(Suppl. 1A):14S19S.
174. Rubinstein, E. M.,, P. Klevjer-Anderson,, C. A. Smith,, M. T. Drouin,, and J. E. Patterson. 1993. Enterobacter taylorae, a new opportunistic pathogen: report of four cases. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:249254.
175. Salso, S.,, E. Culebras,, R. Andrade,, and J. J. Picazo. 2003. Outbreak of TEM-24-producing Enterobacter aerogenes in a Spanish hospital. Microb. Drug Resist. 9:299305.
176. Samaha-Kfoury, J. N.,, and G. F. Araj. 2003. Recent developments in β lactamases and extended spectrum β lactamases. Br. Med. J. 327:12091213.
177. Sanders, W. E., Jr.,, and C. C. Sanders. 1997. Enterobacter spp.: pathogens poised to flourish at the turn of the century. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10:220241.
178. Scheider, D. M.,, P. D. King,, and B. W. Miedema. 1994. Ascites and secondary bacterial peritonitis associated with small bowel obstruction. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 89:12381240.
179. Seveik, C.,, J. Noriega,, and G. D’Suze. 2003. Identification of Enterobacter bacteria as saxitoxin producers in cattle’s rumen and surface water from Venezuelan savannahs. Toxicon42:359366.
180. Shah, A. A.,, F. Hasan,, S. Ahmed,, and A. Hameed. 2004. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs): characterization, epidemiology and detection. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 30:2532.
181. Simi, S.,, G. V. Carbonell,, R. M. Falcón,, M. S. V. Gatti,, P. P. Joazeiro,, A. L. Darini,, and T. Yano. 2003. A low molecular weight enterotoxic hemolysin from clinical Enterobacter cloacae. Can. J. Microbiol. 49:479482.
182. Sirot, J.,, M. H. Nicolas-Chanoine,, H. Chardon,, J. L. Avril,, C. Cattoen,, J. C. Croix,, H. Dubernat,, T. Fosse,, J. C. Ghnassia,, E. Lecaillon,, A. Marmonier,, M. Roussel-Delvallez,, C. J. Soussy,, A. Trevoux,, F. Vandenesch,, C. Dib,, N. Moniot-Ville,, and Y. Rezvani. 2001. Susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae to β-lactam agents and fluoroquinolones: a 3-year survey in France. Clin. Microbiol. Infect 8:207213.
183. Solans, R.,, P. Simeon,, R. Cuenca,, V. Fonollosa,, J. Bago,, and M. Vilardell. 1992. Infectious discitis caused by Enterobacter cloacae. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 51:906907.
184. Stamm, W. E.,, M. McKevitt,, P. L. Roberts,, and N. J. White. 1991. Natural history of recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13:7784.
185. Stark, R. P.,, and D. G. Maki. 1984. Bacteriuria in the catheterized patient. What quantitative level of bacteriuria is relevant? N. Engl. J. Med. 311:560564.
186. Steigerwalt, A. G.,, G. R. Fanning,, M. A. Fife-Asbury,, and D. J. Brenner. 1976. DNA relatedness among species of Enterobacter and Serratia. Can. J. Microbiol. 22:121137.
187. Steward, C. D.,, J. M. Mohammed,, J. M. Swenson,, S. A. Stocker,, P. P. Williams,, R. P. Gaynes,, J. E. McGowan, Jr.,, and F. C. Tenover. 2003. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to carbapenems: multicenter validity testing and accuracy levels of five antimicrobial test methods for detecting resistance in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:351358.
188. Stewart, J. M.,, and J. R. Quirk. 2001. Community-acquired pneumonia caused by Enterobacter asburiae. Am. J. Med. 111:8283.
189. Stiles, M. E., and L.-K. Ng. 1981. Biochemical characteristics and identification of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from meats. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41:639645.
190. Stock, I. 2002. Natural antibiotic susceptibility of Enterobacter spp., with special reference to Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterobacter intermedius. J. Chemother. 14:444460.
191. Stock, I.,, T. Grüger,, and B. Wiedemann. 2001. Natural antibiotic susceptibility of strains of the Enterobacter cloacae complex. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 18:537545.
192. Stock, I.,, and B. Wiedemann. 2002. Natural antibiotic susceptibility of Enterobacter amnigenus, Enterobacter cancerogenus, Enterobacter gergoviae, and Enterobacter sakazakii strains. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 8:564578.
193. Stoll, B. J.,, N. Hansen,, A. A. Fanaroff,, and J. A. Lemons. 2004. Enterobacter sakazakii is a rare cause of neonatal septicemia or meningitis in VLBW infants. J. Pediatr. 144:821823.
194. Stoorvogel, J.,, M. J. van Bussel,, J. Tommassen,, and J. A. M. van de Klundert. 1991. Molecular characterization of an Enterobacter cloacae outer membrane protein (OmpX). J. Bacteriol. 173:156160.
195. Takao, M.,, M. Ido,, K. Hamaguchi,, H. Chikusa,, S. Namikawa,, and M. Kusagawa. 1994. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis secondary to a retropharyngeal abscess. Eur. Respir. J. 7:17161718.
196. Tang, Y.-W.,, N. M. Ellis,, M. K. Hopkins,, D. H. Smith,, D. E. Dodge,, and D. H. Persing. 1998. Comparison of phenotypic and genotypic techniques for identification of unusual aerobic pathogenic gram-negative bacilli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:36743679.
197. Tenover, F. C.,, M. J. Mohammed,, J. Stelling,, T. O’Brien,, and R. Williams. 2001. Ability of laboratories to detect emerging antimicrobial resistance: proficiency testing and quality control results from the World Health Organization’s External Quality Assurance System for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:241250.
198. Thomson, K. S. 2001. Controversies about extendedspectrum and AmpC beta-lactamases. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:333336.
199. Thornton, S. M.,, S. Nolan,, and F. M. D. Gulland. 1998. Bacterial isolates from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) admitted to a rehabilitation center along the central California coast, 1994-1995. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 29:171176.
200. Tresoldi, A. T.,, M. C. Padoveze,, P. Trabasso,, J. F. S. Velga,, S. T. M. Marba,, A. von Nowakonski,, and M. L. M. Branchini. 2000. Enterobacter cloacae sepsis outbreak in a newborn unit caused by contaminated total parenteral nutrition solution. Am. J. Infect. Control 28:258261.
201. Tunkel, A. R.,, M. J. Fisch,, A. Schlein,, and W. M. Scheld. 1992. Enterobacter endocarditis. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 24:233240.
202. Tzelepi, E.,, P. Giakkoupi,, D. Sofianou,, V. Loukova,, A. Kemeroglou,, and A. Tsakris. 2000. Detection of extendedspectrum β-lactamases in clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:542546.
203. Tzouvelekis, L. S.,, E. Tzelepi,, M. E. Kaufmann,, and A. F. Mentis. 1994. Consecutive mutations leading to the emergence in vivo of imipenem resistance in a clinical strain of Enterobacter aerogenes. J. Med. Microbiol. 40:403407.
204. van Acker, J.,, F. de Smet,, G. Muyldermans,, A. Bougatef,, A. Naessens,, and S. Lauwers. 2001. Outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis associated with Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered milk formula. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:293297.
205. vandenHazel, S. J.,, P. Speelman,, G. N. J. Tytgat,, J. Dankert,, and D. J. van Leeuwen. 1994. Role of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of acute and recurrent cholangitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19:279286.
206. van Dijk, Y.,, E. M. Bik,, S. Hochstenbach-Vernooij,, G. J. V. D. Vlist,, P. H. M. Savelkoul,, J. A. Kaan,, and R. J. A. Diepersloot. 2002. Management of an outbreak of Enterobacter cloacae in a neonatal unit using simple preventive measures. J. Hosp. Infect. 51:2126.
207. Viswanathan, P.,, and R. Kaur. 2001. Prevalence and growth of pathogens on salad vegetables, fruits and sprouts. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 203:205213.
208. von Graevenitz, A. 1990. Revised nomenclature of Campylobacter laridis, Enterobacter intermedium, and “Flavobacterium branchiophila.” Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 40:211.
209. Wang, S. A.,, J. T. Tokara,, P. J. Biannchine,, L. A. Carson,, M. J. Arduino,, A. L. Smith,, N. C. Hansen,, E. A. Fitzgerald,, J. S. Epstein,, and W. R. Jarvis. 2000. Enterobacter cloacae bloodstream infections traced to contaminated human albumin. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30:3540.
210. Watanakunakorn, C.,, and J. Weber. 1989. Enterobacter bacteremia: a review of 58 episodes. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 21:18.
211. Wauters, G.,, V. Avesani,, J. Charlier,, M. Janssens,, and M. Delmée. 2004. Histidine decarboxylase in Enterobacteriaceae revisited. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:59235924.
212. Wauters, G.,, A. Boel,, G. P. Voorn,, J. Verhaegen,, F. Meunier,, M. Janssens,, and L. Verbist. 1995. Evaluation of a new identification system, Crystal Enteric/Non-Fermenter, for gram-negative bacilli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:845849.
213. Weir, E. 2002. Powdered infant formula and fatal infection with Enterobacter sakazakii. Can. Med. Assoc. 166:1570.
214. Weischer, M.,, and H. J. Kolmos. 1992. Retrospective 6-year study of enterobacter bacteraemia in a Danish university hospital. J. Hosp. Infect. 20:1524.
215. Wellinghausen, N.,, B. Wirths,, A. Essig,, and L. Wassill. 2004. Evaluation of the Hyplex BloodScreen multiplex PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system for direct detection of gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli from positive blood cultures. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:31473152.
216. Wenger, P. N.,, J. I. Tokars,, P. Brennan,, C. Samel,, L. Bland,, M. Miller,, L. Carson,, M. Arduino,, P. Edelstein,, S. Aguero,, C. Riddle,, C. O’Hara,, and W. Jarvis. 1997. An outbreak of Enterobacter hormaechei infection and colonization in an intensive care nursery. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24:12431244.
217. Westblom, T. U.,, and M. E. Coggins. 1987. Osteomyelitis caused by Enterobacter taylorae, formerly enteric group 19. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:24322433.
218. Willis, J.,, and J. E. Robinson. 1988. Enterobacter sakazakii meningitis in neonates. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 7:196199.
219. Winsor, D. K.,, A. P. Bloebaum,, and J. J. Mathewson. 1981. Gram-negative, aerobic, enteric pathogens among intestinal microflora of wild turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in west central Texas. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 42:11231124.
220. Wisplinghoff, H.,, T. Bischoff,, S. M. Tallent,, H. Seifert,, R. P. Wenzel,, and M. B. Edmond. 2004. Nosocomial bloodstream infections in US hospitals: analysis of 24, 179 cases from a prospective nationwide surveillance study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:309317.
221. Wisplinghoff, H.,, H. Seifert,, S. M. Tallent,, T. Bischoff,, R. P. Wenzel,, and M. A. Edmond. 2003. Nosocomial bloodstream infections in pediatric patients in the United States hospitals: epidemiology, clinical features and susceptibilities. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 22:686691.
222. Wolff, M. A.,, C. L. Young,, and R. Ramphal. 1993. Antibiotic therapy for Enterobacter meningitis: a retrospective review of 13 episodes and review of the literature. Clin. Infect. Dis. 16:772777.
223. Woo, P. C. Y.,, E. Y. L. Cheung,, K.-W. Leung,, and K.-Y. Yuen. 2001. Identification by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of an Enterobacteriaceae species with ambiguous biochemical profile from a renal transplant recipient. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 39:8593.
224. Yan, J.-J.,, W.-C. Ko,, C.-L. Chuang,, and J.-J. Wu. 2002. Metallo-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates in a university hospital in Taiwan: prevalence of IMP-8 in Enterobacter cloacae and first identification of VIM-2 in Citrobacter freundii. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 50:503511.
225. Yigit, H.,, G. J. Anderson,, J. W. Biddle,, C. D. Steward,, J. K. Rasheed,, L. L. Valera,, J. E. McGowan, Jr.,, and F. C. Tenover. 2002. Carbapenem resistance in a clinical isolate of Enterobacter aerogenes is associated with decreased expression of OmpF and OmpC porin analogs. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:38173822.
226. Yu, W.-L.,, H.-S. Cheng,, H.-C. Lin,, C.-T. Peng,, and C.-H. Tsai. 2000. Outbreak investigation of nosocomial Enterobacter cloacae bacteraemia in a neonatal intensive care unit. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 32:293298.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Current composition of the genus

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Enterobacter, p 151-180. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 2

. Genetic heterogeneity of

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Enterobacter, p 151-180. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 3

. Clinical and environmental distribution of species

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Enterobacter, p 151-180. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 4

. Selected outbreaks, 1998 to 2004

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Enterobacter, p 151-180. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 5

. Clinical presentation of meningitis in children and adults

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Enterobacter, p 151-180. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 6

Identification of species by commercial systems

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Enterobacter, p 151-180. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 10

Susceptibility of major species to select antimicrobial agents

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Enterobacter, p 151-180. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 7

Selected epidemiologic investigations employing different techniques to type strains

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Enterobacter, p 151-180. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 8

Potential virulence factors associated with species

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Enterobacter, p 151-180. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 9

General susceptibility profile of members of the genus

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus Enterobacter, p 151-180. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch11

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error