1887

Chapter 4 :

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817541/9781555813420_Chap04-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817541/9781555813420_Chap04-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter discusses six pathogenic or putative pathogenic groups of diarrheal that are incapable of causing infection outside the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in detail. Commonly used acronyms for these groups are enteroinvasive (EIEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing (STEC, also known as enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), enteroaggregative (EAEC), and diffuse adhering (DAEC). strains involved in extraintestinal infections are related by the presence of specific virulence traits, and extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) has been proposed for these strains. Molecular studies where DNA containing the alpha-hemolysin gene of one isolate has been recombined into a nonhemolytic fecal isolate have resulted in the recipient developing enhanced virulence in the rat peritonitis model. Production of cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF), a recently described virulence-associated factor, may also be associated with bacteremic strains. The K1 capsule is the major virulence determinant in strains, causing neonatal meningitis. GI disease involves the oral ingestion of pathogenic strains, with their subsequent colonization and infection of the small intestine and/or colon. Susceptibility testing of cysteine-requiring auxotrophs isolated from the urinary tract or other extraintestinal sites does not require supplementation for accurate results.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. , p 23-58. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch4

Key Concept Ranking

Traveler's Diarrhea
0.4674352
Type III Secretion System
0.40911055
0.4674352
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Schematic representation of adherence patterns representing EPEC (localized), EAEC (aggregative), and DAEC (diffuse) types.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. , p 23-58. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

(Right) Normal Y1 sheet; (left) Y1 cells exposed to heat-labile toxin (LT) for 24 h.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. , p 23-58. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

(A) Normal Vero cell sheet; (B) Vero cells exposed to Shiga toxin (Stx) for 48 h.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. , p 23-58. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Pellicle formation by three EAEC strains in Mueller-Hinton broth. The strongest reaction is indicated at the far left (with autoagglutination), and the weakest reaction is at the right.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. , p 23-58. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817541.chap4
1. Abbott, S. L. 1997. Laboratory aspects of non-O157 toxigenic E. coli. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 19:105108.
2. Abbott, S. L.,, D. F. Hanson,, T. Felland,, S. Connell,, A. H. Shum,, and J. M. Janda. 1994. Escherichia coli O157:H7 generates a unique biochemical profile on MicroScan conventional gram-negative identification panels. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:823824.
3. Adachi, J. A.,, C. D. Ericsson,, Z. D. Jiang,, M. W. Dupont,, S. R. Pallegar,, and H. L. Dupont. 2002. Natural history of enteroaggregative and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection among US travelers to Guadalajara, Mexico. J. Infect. Dis. 185:16811683.
4. Afset, J. E.,, L. Bevanger,, P. Romundstad,, and K. Bergh. 2004. Association of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) with prolonged diarrhea. J. Med. Microbiol. 53:11371144.
5. Ahmed, R.,, C. Bopp,, A. Borczyk,, and S. Katatiya. 1987. Phage-typing scheme for Escherichia coli O157:H7. J. Infect. Dis. 155:806809.
6. Albert, M. J.,, F. Qadri,, A. Haque,, and N. A. Bhuiyan. 1993. Bacterial clump formation at the surface of liquid culture as a rapid test for identification of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:13971399.
7. Aleksić, S.,, H. Karch,, and J. Bockemühl. 1992. A biotyping scheme for Shiga-like (Vero) toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and a list of serological cross-reactions between O157 and other gram-negative bacteria. Zentbl. Bakteriol. 276:221230.
8. Anderson, J. D.,, A. J. MacNab,, W. R. Gransden,, S. M. A. Damm,, W. M. Johnson,, and H. Lior. 1987. Gastroenteritis and encephalopathy associated with a strain of Escherichia coli O55:K59:H4 that produced a cytolethal distending toxin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 6:11351136.
9. Armstrong, G. L.,, J. Hollingsworth,, and J. G. Morris, Jr. 1996. Emerging foodborne pathogens: Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model of entry of a new pathogen into the food supply of the developed world. Epidemiol. Rev. 18:2951.
10. Askenazi, S. 1993. Role of bacterial cytotoxins in hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Ann. Rev. Med. 44:1118.
11. Banatvala, N.,, M. M. Debeukelaer,, P. M. Griffin,, T. J. Barrett,, K. D. Greene,, J. H. Green,, and J. G. Wells. 1996. Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli O111 and associated hemolytic-uremic syndrome: a family outbreak. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 15:10081011.
12. Banatvala, N.,, P. M. Griffin,, K. D. Greene,, T. J. Barrett,, W. F. Bibb,, J. H. Green,, J. G. Wells, and the Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Study Collaborators. 2001. The United States National Prospective Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Study: microbiologic, serologic, clinical, and epidemiologic findings. J. Infect. Dis. 183:10631070.
13. Barrett, T. J.,, H. Lior,, J. H. Green,, R. Khakhria,, J. G. Wells,, B. P. Bell,, K. D. Greene,, J. Lewis,, and P. M. Griffin. 1994. Laboratory investigation of a multistate food-borne outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and phage typing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:30133017.
14. Barry, M. 1992. Traveler’s diarrhea: new perspectives. Infect. Agents Dis. 1:114118.
15. Bascomb, S. L. Abbott, J. D. Bobolis, D. A. Bruckner, S. J. Connell, S. K. Cullen, M. Daugherty, D. Glenn, J. M. Janda, S. J. Lentsch, D. Lindquist, P. B. Mayhew, D. M. Nothaft, J. R. Skinner, G. B. Williams, J. Wong, and B. L. Zimmer. 1997. Multicenter evaluation of the MicroScan Rapid Gram-Negative Identification Type 3 Panel. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 25312536.
16. Beatty, M. A.,, C. A. Bopp,, J. G. Wells,, K. D. Greene,, N. D. Puhr,, and E. D. Mintz. 2004. Enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O169:H41, United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:518521.
17. Bekal, S.,, R. Brousseau,, L. Masson,, G. Prefontaine,, J. Fairbrother,, and J. Harrel. 2003. Rapid identification of Escherichia coli pathotypes by virulence gene detection with DNA microarrays. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:21132125.
18. Berk, S. L.,, P. Neumann,, S. Holtsclaw,, and J. K. Smith. 1982. Escherichia coli pneumonia in the elderly: with reference to the role of E. coli K1 capsular polysaccharide antigen. Am. J. Med. 72:899902.
19. Bert, F.,, and N. Lambert-Zechovsky. 1996. Pathogens responsible for concurrent sinusitis and pneumonia in intensive care unit patients. Infection 24:5253.
20. Besser, T. E.,, D. D. Hancock,, L. C. Pritchett,, E. M. McRae,, D. H. Rice,, and P. I. Tarr. 1997. Duration of detection of fecal excretion of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle. J. Infect. Dis. 175:726729.
21. Bessesen, M. T.,, E. Wang,, P. Echeverria,, and M. J. Blaser. 1991. Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli: a cause of bacteremia in patients with AIDS. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:26752677.
22. Bettelheim, K. A., 1991. The genus Escherichia, p. 26962736. In A. Balows,, H. G. Trüper,, M. Dworkin,, W. Harder,, and K.-H. Schleifer (ed.) The Prokaryotes: a Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria: Ecophysiology, Isolation, Identification, Applications. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.
23. Bettelheim, K. A.,, H. Evangelidis,, J. L. Pearce,, E. Sowers,, and N. A. Strockbine. 1993. Isolation of a Citrobacter freundii strain which carries the Escherichia coli O157 antigen. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:760761.
24. Beutin, L. 1991. The different hemolysins of Escherichia coli. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 180:167172.
25. Beutin, L.,, K. Gleier,, I. Kontny,, P. Echeverria,, and F. Scheutz. 1997. Origin and characteristics of enteroinvasive strains of Escherichia coli (EIEC) isolated from Germany. Epidemiol. Infect. 118:199205.
26. Beutin, L.,, D. Geier,, S. Zimmermann,, and H. Karch. 1995. Virulence markers of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia colistrains originating from healthy domestic animals of different species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:631635.
27. Beutin, L.,, M. A. Montenegro,, I. Ørskov,, F. Ørskov,, J. Prada,, S. Zimmermann,, and R. Stephan. 1989. Close association of verotoxin (Shiga-like toxin) production with enterohemolysin production in strains of Escherichia coli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:25592564.
28. Bingen, E.,, E. Denamur,, N. Brahimi,, and J. Elion. 1996. Genotyping may provide rapid identification of Escherichia coli K1 organisms that cause neonatal menigitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22:152156.
29. Black, R. E.,, M. H. Merson,, B. Rowe,, P. R. Taylor,, A. R. Abdul Alim,, R. J. Gross,, and D. A. Sack. 1981. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhoea: acquired immunity and transmission in an endemic area. Bull. W. H. O. 59:263268.
30. Blanco, J.,, M. P. Alonso,, E. A. Gonzalez,, M. Blanco,, and J. I. Garabal. 1990. Virulence factors of bacteraemic Escherichia coli with particular reference to production of cytotoxic necrotising factor (CNF) by P-fimbriate strains. J. Med. Microbiol. 31:175183.
31. Blanco, J.,, M. Blanco,, M. P. Alonso,, J. E. Blanco,, E. A. González,, and G. I. Garabal. 1992. Characteristics of haemolytic Escherichia coli with particular reference to production of cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1). Res. Microbiol. 143:869878.
32. Blanco, J.,, E. A. González,, P. Espinosa,, M. Blanco,, J. I. Garabal,, and M. P. Alonso. 1992. Enterotoxigenic and necrotizing Escherichia coli in human diarrhoea in Spain. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 8:548552.
33. Bogosian, G.,, L. E. Sammons,, P. J. L. Morris,, J. P. O’Neil,, M. A. Heitkamp,, and D. B. Weber. 1996. Death of the Escherichia coli K-12 strain W3110 in soil and water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:41144120.
34. Booth, L.,, and B. Rowe. 1993. Possible occupational acquisition of Escherichia coli O157 infection. Lancet 342:12981299.
35. Bouckenooghe, A. R.,, Z. D. Jiang,, F. J. De La Cabada,, C. D. Ericsson,, and H. L. DuPont. 2002. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli as cause of diarrhea among Mexican adults and US travelers in Mexico. J. Travel Med. 9:137140.
36. Bourbeau, P. P.,, and B. J. Heitner. 1998. Comparison of Vitek GNI and GNI+ cards for identification of gram-negative bacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:27752777.
37. Boyce, T. G.,, D. L. Swerdlow,, and P. M. Griffin. 1995. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 333:364368.
38. Brauner, A.,, B. Kaijser,, and I. Kühn. 1994. Recurrent Escherichia coli bacteraemia—clinical characteristics and bacterial properties. J. Infect. 28:4957.
39. Brenner, D. J.,, B. R. Davis,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, C. F. Riddle,, A. C. McWhorter,, S. D. Allen,, J. J. Farmer III,, Y. Saitoh,, and G. R. Fanning. 1982. Atypical biogroups of Escherichia coli found in clinical specimens and description of Escherichia hermanni sp. nov. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15:703713.
40. Brenner, K. P.,, C. C. Rankin,, M. Sivaganesan,, and P. V. Scarpino. 1996. Comparison of the recoveries of Escherichia coli and total coliforms from drinking water by the MI agar method and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencyapproved membrane filter method. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:203208.
41. Brook, I.,, and E. H. Frazier. 1996. Microbiological analysis of pancreatic abscess. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22:384385.
42. Brooks, J. T.,, D. Bergmire-Sweat,, M. Kennedy,, K. Hendricks,, M. Garcia,, L. Marengo,, J. Wells,, M. Ying,, W. Bibb,, P. M. Griffin,, R. M. Hoekstra,, and C. R. Friedman. 2004. Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O111:H8 infections among attendees of a high school cheerleading camp. Clin. Infect. Dis.38:190198.
43. Burke, V.,, J. Robinson,, and M. Gracey. 1987. Biotyping as a method of screening for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Pathology 19:8083.
44. Burnens, A. P.,, R. Zbinden,, L. Kaempf,, I. Heinzer,, and J. Nicolet. 1993. A case of laboratory acquired infection with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Zentbl. Bakteriol. 279:512517.
45. Bush, K.,, G. A. Jacoby,, and A. A. Medeiros. 1995. A functional classification scheme for β-lactamases and its correlattion with molecular structure. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 39:12111233.
46. Calderwood, S. B.,, D. W. K. Acheson,, and G. T. Keusch. 1996. Proposed new nomenclature for SLT (VT) family. ASM News 62:118119.
47. Caprioli, A.,, V. Falbo,, L. G. Roda,, F. M. Ruggeri,, and C. Zona. 1983. Partial purification and characterization of an Escherichia colitoxic factor that induces morphological cell alterations. Infect. Immun. 39:13001306.
48. Caprioli, A.,, I. Luzzi,, F. Rosmini,, C. Resti,, A. Edefonti,, F. Perfumo,, C. Farina,, A. Goglio,, A. Gianvitti,, and G. Rizzoni. 1994. Communitywide outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome associated with non-O157 verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. J. Infect. Dis. 169:208211.
49. Caugant, D. A.,, B. R. Levin,, and R. K. Selander. 1981. Genetic diversity and temporal variation in the E. coli population of a human host. Genetics 98:467490.
50. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1995. Outbreak of acute gastroenteritis attributable to Escherichia coli serotype O104:H21—Helena, Montana, 1994. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 44:501503.
51. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1995. Community outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome attributable to Escherichia coli O111:NM—South Australia, 1995. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 44:550554.
52. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Summary of Outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157 and Other Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli Reported to the CDC in 1999. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Disease, Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch, Atlanta, Ga. [Online.] http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/files/ecoli___99summary.pdf.
53. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of foodborne illnesses—selected sites, United States, 2002. Morbid. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 52:340343.
54. Cerna, J. F.,, J. P. Nataro,, and T. Estrada-Garcia. 2003. Multiplex PCR for detection of three plasmid-borne genes of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:21382140.
55. Chatterjee, B. D.,, and S. N. Sanyal. 1984. Is it all shigellosis? Lancet ii:574.
56. Christopher, G. W. 1985. Escherichia coli bacteremia, meningitis, and hemochromatosis. Arch. Intern. Med. 145:1908.
57. Cieslak, P. R.,, T. J. Barrett,, P. M. Griffin,, K. F. Gensheimer,, G. Beckett,, J. Buffington,, and M. G. Smith. 1993. Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from a manured garden. Lancet 342:367.
58. Č obeljić, M.,, B. Miljković-Selimović,, D. Paunović-Todosijević,, Z. Velickovic,, Z. Lepsanovic,, N. Zec,, D. Savic,, R. Ilic,, S. Konstantinovic,, B. Jovanovic,, and V. Kostic. 1996. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli associated with an outbreak of diarrhoea in a neonatal nursery ward. Epidemiol. Infect. 117:1116.
59. Cockerill, F. R., III, J. G. Hughes, E. A. Vetter, R. A. Mueller, A. L. Weaver, D. M. Ilstrup, J. E. Rosenblatt, and W. R. Wilson. 1997. Analysis of 281,797 consecutive blood cultures performed over an eight-year period: trends in microorganisms isolated and the value of anaerobic culture of blood. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24:403418.
60. Cohen, M. B.,, and R. A. Giannella,. 1991. Bacterial infections: pathophysiology, clinical features, and treatment, p. 395428. In S. F. Phillips,, J. H. Pemberton,, and R. G. Shorter (ed.), The Large Intestine: Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Disease. Raven Press, New York, N.Y.
61. Cornish, N.,, B. A. Kirkley,, K. A. Easley,, and J. A. Washington. 1998. Reassessment of the incubation time in a controlled clinical comparison of the BacT/Alert aerobic FAN bottle and standard anaerobic bottle used aerobically for the detection of bloodstream infections. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 32:17.
62. Cravioto, A.,, R. J. Gross,, S. M. Scotland,, and B. Rowe. 1979. An adhesive factor found in strains of Escherichia coli belonging to the traditional infantile enteropathogenic serotypes. Curr. Microbiol. 3:9599.
63. Cravioto, A.,, A. Tello,, A. Navarro,, J. Ruiz,, H. Villafan,, F. Uribe,, and C. Eslava. 1991. Association of Escherichia coli HEp-2 adherence patterns with type and duration of diarrhoea. Lancet 337:262264.
64. Czirok, E.,, G. Semjem,, H. Steinruck,, H. Herpay,, H. Milch,, I. Nyomarkay,, Z. Stverteczky,, and A. Szeness. 1992. Comparison of rapid methods for detection of heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) enterotoxin in Escherichia coli. J. Med. Microbiol. 36:398402.
65. Dalton, C. B.,, E. D. Mintz,, J. G. Wells,, C. A. Bopp,, and R. V. Tauxe. 1999. Outbreaks of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in American adults: a clinical and epidemiologic profile. Epidemiol. Infect. 123:916.
66. Darfeuille-Michaud, A. 2002. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli: a putative new E. coli pathotype associated with Crohn’s disease. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 292:185193.
67. Diekma, D. J.,, M. A. Pfaller,, R. N. Jones, and the SENTRY Participants Group. 2002. Age-related trends in pathogen frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility of bloodstream isolates in North America SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997-2000. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 20:412418.
68. Donay, J.-L.,, D. Mathieu,, P. Fernandes,, C. Pregermain,, P. Bruel,, A. Wargnier,, I. Casin,, F. X. Weill,, P. H. Lagrange,, and J. L. Herrmann. 2004. Evaluation of the automated Phoenix systems for potential use in the clinical microbiology laboratory. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:15421546.
69. Donnenberg, M. S.,, and J. B. Kaper. 1992. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 60:39533961.
70. Donnenberg, M. S.,, and J. P. Nataro. 1995. Methods for studying adhesion of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Methods Enzymol. 253:324336.
71. Droual, R.,, R. P. Chin,, and M. Rezvani. 1996. Synovitis, osteomyelitis, and green liver in turkeys associated with Escherichia coli. Avian Dis. 40:417424.
72. Echeverria, P.,, N. R. Blacklow,, L. B. Sanford,, and G. C. Cukor. 1981. Travelers’ diarrhea among American Peace Corps volunteers in rural Thailand. J. Infect. Dis. 143:767771.
73. Edelman, R.,, and M. M. Levine. 1983. Summary of a workshop on enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. J. Infect. Dis. 147:11081118.
74. Ephros, M.,, D. Cohen,, M. Yavzori,, N. Rotman,, B. Novic,, and S. Ashkenazi. 1996. Encephalopathy associated with enteroinvasive Escherichia coli O144:NM infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:24322434.
75. Ewing, W. H.,, B. R. Davis,, and W. J. Martin. 1981. Biochemical Characterization of Escherichia coli. Publication no. 818109:115. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga.
76. Farmer, J. J., III, D. J. Brenner, and W. H. Ewing. 1980. Opposition to recent proposals which would reject the family name Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia as its type genus. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 30:660673.
77. Farrell, D.,, J. I. Morrissey,, D. De Rubeis,, M. Robbins,, and D. Felmingham. 2003. A UK multicentre study of the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens causing urinary tract infections. J. Infect. 46:94100.
78. Faruque, A. S.,, M. A. Malek,, A. I., Khan,, S. Huq,, M. A. Salam,, and D. A. Sack. 2004. Diarrhoea in elderly people: aetiology, and clinical characteristics. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 36:204208.
79. Feng, P. F. 1995. Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7: novel vehicles of infection and emergence of phenotypic variants. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1:4752.
80. Field, P. I.,, K. Blom,, H. J. Hughes,, L. O. Helsel,, P. Feng,, and B. Swaminathan. 1997. Molecular characterization of the gene encoding H antigen in Escherichia coli and development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism test for identification of E. coli O157:H7 and O157:NM. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:10661070.
81. Finegold, S. M. 1969. Intestinal bacteria, the role they play in normal physiology, pathologic physiology, and infection. Calif. Med. 110:455459.
82. Funke, G.,, and P. Funke-Kissling. 2004. Use of the BD PHOENIX automated microbiology system for direct identification and susceptibility testing of gram-negative rods from positive blood cultures in a three-phase trial. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:14661470.
83. Funke, G.,, D. Monnet,, C. DeBernardis,, A. Von Graevenitz,, and J. Freney. 1998. Evaluation of the VITEK 2 System for rapid identification of medically relevant gram-negative rods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:19481952.
84. Garcia, M.-I.,, and C. Le Bouguénec. 1996. Role of adhesion in pathogenicity of human uropathogenic and diarrhoeogenic Escherichia coli. Bull. Inst. Pasteur 94:201236.
85. Gorbach, S. L. 1971. Progress in gastroenterology. Intestinal microflora. Gastroenterology 60:11101129.
86. Gordon, K. A.,, R. N. Jones, and SENTRY Participant Groups (Europe, Latin America, North America). 2003. Susceptibility patterns of orally administered antimicrobials among urinary tract infection pathogens from hospitalized patients in North America: comparison report to Europe and Latin America. Results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2000). Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 45:295301.
87. Grandsen, W. R.,, S. J. Eykyn,, I. Phillips,, and B. Rowe. 1990. Bacteremia due to Escherichia coli: a study of 861 episodes. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12:10081018.
88. Griffin, P. M.,, and R. V. Tauxe. 1991. The epidemiology of infections caused by Escherichia coll O157:H7, other enterohemorrhagic E. coli, and the associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Epidemiol. Rev. 13:6098.
89. Gross, R. J.,, and B. Rowe. 1985. Escherichia coli diarrhoea. J. Hyg. Lond. 95:531550.
90. Gunzer, F.,, H. Böhm,, H. Rüssmann,, M. Bitzan,, S. Aleksic´,, and H. Karch. 1992. Molecular detection of sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157 in patients with hemolyticuremic- syndrome. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:18071810.
91. Gyles, C. L. 1992. Escherichia coli cytotoxins and enterotoxins. Can. J. Microbiol. 38:734746.
92. Hacker, J. 1992. Role of fimbrial adhesins in the pathogenesis of Escherichia coli infections. Can. J. Microbiol. 38:720727.
93. Haider, K.,, S. M. Faruque,, M. J. Albert,, S. Nahar,, P. K. B. Neogi,, and A. Hossain. 1992. Comparison of a modified adherence assay with existing assay methods for identification of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:16141616.
94. Haldane, D. J. M.,, M. A. S. Damm,, and J. D. Anderson. 1986. Improved biochemical screening procedure for small clinical laboratories for Vero (Shiga-like)-toxin-producing strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7. J. Clin. Microbiol. 24:652653.
95. Harris, J. R.,, J. Mariano,, J. G. Wells,, B. J. Payne,, H. D. Donnell,, and M. L. Cohen. 1985. Person-to-person transmission in an outbreak of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Am. J. Epidemiol. 122:245252.
96. Hayes, P. S.,, K. Blom,, P. Feng,, J. Lewis,, N. A. Strockbine,, and B. Swaminathan. 1995. Isolation and characterization of a β-D-glucuronidase-producing strain of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 in the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:33473348.
97. Hengstler, K. A.,, R. Hamman,, and A.-M. Fahr. 1997. Evaluation of BBL CHROMagar Orientation medium for detection and presumptive identification of urinary tract infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:27732777.
98. Holmes, B.,, M. Costas,, M. Ganner,, S. L. W. On,, and M. Stevens. 1994. Evaluation of Biolog System for identification of some gram-negative bacteria of clinical importance. J. Clin. Microbiol.32:19701975.
99. Huerta, M.,, I. Grotto,, M. Gdalevich,, D. Mimouni,, B. Gavriela,, M. Yavzori,, D. Cohen,, and O. Shpilberg. 2000. A waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis in the Golan Heights due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Infection 28:267271.
100. Hyams, K. C.,, A. L. Bourgeois,, B. R. Merrell,, P. Rozmajzl,, J. Escamilla,, S. A. Thorton,, G. M. Wasserman,, A. Burke,, P. Echeverria,, and K. Y. Green. 1991. Diarrheal disease during Operation Desert Shield. N. Engl. J. Med. 325:14231428.
101. Izumiya, H.,, J. Terajima,, A. Wada,, Y. Inagaki,, K. I. Itoh,, K. Tamura,, and H. Watanabe. 1997. Molecular typing of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates in Japan by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:16751680.
102. Jacoby, G. A.,, and A. A. Medeiros. 1991. More extended-spectrum β-lactamases. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:16971704.
103. Jallat, C.,, V. Livrelli,, A. Darfeuille-Michgaud,, C. Rich,, and B. Joly. 1993. Escherichia coli strains involved in diarrhea in France: high prevalence and heterogeneity of diffusely adhering strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:20312037.
104. Janda, J. M.,, E. P. Desmond,, and S. L. Abbott,. 1991. Animal and animal cell culture systems, p. 137146. In A. Balows,, W. J. Hausler,, K. Hermann,, H. D. Isenberg,, and H. J. Shadomy (ed). Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
105. Jann, K.,, and B. Jann. 1987. Polysaccharide antigens of Escherichia coli. Rev. Infect. Dis. 9(Suppl.):S517S526.
106. Jiang, J. D. B. Lowe, M. P. Verenkar, D. Ashley, R. Steffen, N. Tornieporth, F. von Sonnenburg, P. Waiyaki, and H. L. Dupont. 2002. Prevalence of enteric pathogens among international travelers with diarrhea acquired in Kenya (Mombasa), India (Goa), or Jamaica (Montego Bay). J. Infect. Dis. 185:497502.
107. Johnson, C. C.,, J. Baldessarre,, and M. E. Levison. 1997. Peritonitis: update on pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24:10351047.
108. Johnson, J. R. 1991. Virulence factors in Escherichia coli urinary tract infection. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 4:80128.
109. Johnson, J. R.,, S. L. Moseley,, M. B. Coyle,, and W. E. Stamm. 1992. Success of DNA fingerprinting after failure of biotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and plasmid analysis to reveal clonality of multiple blood and urine isolates from a patient with Escherichia coli urosepsis. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15:399405.
110. Johnson, W. M.,, and H. Lior. 1988. A new heat-labile cytolethal distending toxin (CLDT) produced by Escherichia coli isolates from clinical material. Microb. Pathog. 4:103113.
111. Johnson, J. R.,, E. Oswald,, T. T. O’Bryan,, M. A. Kuskowski,, and L. Spanjaard. 2002. Phylogenetic distribution of virulence-associated genes among Escherichia coli isolates associated with neonatal bacterial meningitis in The Netherlands. J. Infect. Dis. 185:774784.
112. Jonas, M.,, and B. A. Cunha. 1982. Bacteremic Escherichia coli pneumonia. Arch. Intern. Med. 142:21572159.
113. Jones, R. N.,, K. C. Kugler,, M. A. Pfaller,, and P. L. Winokur. 1999. Characteristics of pathogens causing urinary tract infections in hospitals in North America: results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1977. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 35:5563.
114. Joseph, T. A.,, S. P. Pyati,, and N. Jacobs. 1998. Neonatal early-onset Escherichia coli disease. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 152:3540.
115. Jossart, M.-F.,, and R. J. Courcol. 1999. Evaluation of an automated system for identification of Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenting bacilli. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18:902907.
116. Jossart, M.-F., Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Bacteriological Nomenclature. 1958. Conservation of the family name Enterobacteriaceae, of the name of the type genus and designation of the type species. Int. Bull. Bacteriol. Nomencl. Taxon.8:7374.
117. Kaper, J. B., 1994. Molecular pathogenesis of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, p.173195. In V. L. Miller,, J. B. Kaper,, D. A. Portnoy,, and R. R. Isberg (ed.), Molecular Genetics of Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
118. Kaper, J. B.,, J. P. Nataro,, and H. L. Mobley. 2004. Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Nat. Rev. 2:123140.
119. Karch, H.,, H. Rüssmann,, H. Schmidt,, A. Schwarzkopf,, and J. Heesemann. 1995. Long-term shedding and clonal turnover of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 in diarrheal diseases. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:16021605.
120. Karlowsky, J. A.,, M. E. Jones,, D. C. Draghi,, C. Thornsberry,, D. F. Sahm,, and G. A. Volturo. 2004. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from blood cultures of hospitalized patients in the United States. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob. 3:715.
121. Karmali, M. A. 1989. Infection by verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2:1538.
122. Kassenborg, H. D.,, C. W. Hedberg,, M. Hoekstra,, M. C. Evans,, A. E. Chin,, R. Marcus,, D. J. Vugia,, K. Smith,, S. D. Ahuja,, L. Slutsker,, and P. M. Griffin for the Emerging Infections Program Food Net Working Group.2004. Farm visits and undercooked hamburgers as major risk factors for sporadic Escherichia coli, O157:H7 infection:data from a case-control study in 5 FoodNet sites. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38(Suppl. 3):S271S278.
123. Khaira, H. S.,, A. Allan,, and M. C. Crowson. 1996. Escherichia coli infection of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. J. Infect. 32:161163.
124. Kitch, T. T.,, M. R. Jacobs,, and P. C. Appelbaum. 1994. Evaluation of RapID onE System for identification of 379 strains in the family Enterobacteriaceae and oxidase-negative gram-negative nonfermenters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:931934.
125. Knutton, S.,, T. Baldwin,, P. H. Williams,, and A. S. McNeish. 1989. Actin accumulation at sites of bacterial adhesion to tissue culture cells: basis of a new diagnostic test for enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 57:12901298.
126. Konowalchuk, J.,, J. I. Speirs,, and S. Stavric. 1977. Vero response to a cytotoxin of Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 18:775779.
127. Krause, U.,, F. M. Thomson-Carter,, and T. H. Pennington. 1996. Molecular epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and comparison with that of bacteriophage typing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:959961.
128. Krishnan, C.,, V. A. Fitzgerald,, S. J. Dakin,, and R. J. Behme. 1987. Laboratory investigation of outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:10431047.
129. Kudva, I. T.,, P. G. Hatfield,, and C. J. Hovde. 1996. Escherichia coli O157:H7 in microbial flora of sheep. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:431433.
130. Kuikka, A.,, A. Sivonen,, A. Emelianova,, and V. V. Valtonen. 1997. Prognostic factors associated with improved outcome of Escherichia coli in a Finnish university hospital. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol Infect. Dis. 16:125134.
131. Lark, R. L.,, S. Saint,, C. Chenoweth,, J. K. Zemencuk,, B. A. Lipsky,, and J. J. Plorde. 2001. Four-year prospective evaluation of community-acquired bacteremia: epidemiology, microbiology, and patient outcome. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 41:1522.
132. Lehn, M. N.,, J. Stöwer-Hoffmann,, T. Kott,, C. Strassner,, H. Wagner,, M. Kronke,, and W. Schneider-Brachert. 1996. Characterization of clinical isolates of Escherichia coli showing high levels of fluoroquinolone resistance. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:597602.
133. LeSaux, N.,, J. S. Spika,, B. Friesen,, I. Johnson,, D. Melnychuck,, C. Anderson,, R. Dion,, M. Rahman,, and W. Tostowarky. 1993. Ground beef consumption in noncommercial settings is a risk factor for sporadic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in Canada. J. Infect. Dis. 167:500502.
134. Levine, M. M. 1987. Escherichia coli that cause diarrhea: enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, enteroinvasive, enterohemorrhagic, and enteroadherent. J. Infect. Dis. 155:377389.
135. Levine, M. M.,, and R. Edelman. 1984. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coliof classic serotypes associated with infant diarrhea: epidemiology and pathogenesis. Epidemiol. Rev. 6:3151.
136. Ling, T. K. W.,, P. C. Tam,, Z. K. Liu,, and A. F. B. Cheng. 2001. Evaluation of VITEK 2 rapid identification and susceptibility testing system against gram-negative clinical isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:29642966.
137. Linton, A. H.,, and M. H. Hinton. 1988. Enterobacteriaceae associated with animals in health and disease. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 17(Suppl.):71S85S.
138. Lior, H.,, and A. A. Borczyk. 1987. False positive identifications of Eschercihia coli O157. Lancet ii:333.
139. Lopez, E. L.,, M. Diaz,, S. Grinstein,, S. Devoto,, M. Mendilaharzu,, B. E. Murray,, S. Ashkenazi,, E. Rubeglio,, M. Woloj,, and M. Vasquez. 1989. Hemolytic uremic syndrome and diarrhea in Argentine children: the role of Shiga-like toxins. J. Infect. Dis. 160:469475.
140. MacDonald, P.,, D. Alexander,, C. Catz,, and R. Edelman. 1983. Summary of a workshop on maternal genitourinary infections and the outcome of pregnancy. J. Infect. Dis. 147:596605.
141. MacDonald, K. L.,, M. Eidson,, C. Strohmeyer,, M. E. Levy,, J. G. Wells,, N. D. Puhr,, K. Wachsmuth,, N. T. Hargrett,, and M. L. Cohen. 1985. A multistate outbreak of gastrointestinal illness caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in imported semisoft cheese. J. Infect. Dis. 151:716720.
142. Maneval, D. R., Jr.,, R. R. Colwell,, S. W. Joseph,, R. Gray,, and S. T. Donta. 1980. A. tissue culture method for the detection of bacterial enterotoxins. J. Tissue Cult. Methods 6:8590.
143. Manges, A. R.,, J. R. Johnson,, B. Foxman,, T. T. O’Bryan,, K. E. Fullerton,, and L. W. Riley. 2001. Widespread distribution of urinary tract infections caused by a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli clonal group. New Engl. J. Med. 345:10071013.
144. March, S. B.,, and S. Ratnam. 1986. Sorbitol-MacConkey medium for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with hemorrhagic colitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23:869872.
145. Maslow, J. N.,, M. E. Mulligan,, K. S. Adams,, J. C. Justis,, and R. D. Arbeit. 1993. Bacterial adhesins and host factors: role in the development and outcome of Escherichia coli bacteremia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17:8997.
146. Maslow, J. N.,, M. E. Mulligan,, and R. D. Arbeit. 1994. Recurrent Escherichia coli bacteremia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:710714.
147. Mathewson, J. J.,, P. C. Johnson,, H. L. DuPont,, D. R. Morgan,, S. A. Thornton,, L. V. Wood,, and C. D. Ericsson. 1985. A newly recognized cause of travelers’ diarrhea: enteroadherent Escherichia coli. J. Infect. Dis. 151:471475.
148. Mathewson, J. J.,, P. C. Johnson,, H. L. DuPont,, T. K. Satterwhite,, and D. K. Winsor. 1986. Pathogenicity of enteroadherent Escherichia coli in adult volunteers. J. Infect. Dis. 154:524527.
149. Mayhall, C. G. 2003. The epidemiology of burn wound infections: then and now. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:543550.
150. McDaniel, T. K.,, K. G. Jarvis,, M. S. Donnenberg,, and J. B. Kaper. 1995. A genetic locus of enterocyte effacement conserved among diverse enterobacterial pathogens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:16641668.
151. McIver, C. J.,, and J. W. Tapsall. 1990. Assessment of conventional and commercial methods for identification of clinical isolates of cysteine-requiring strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:19471951.
152. McIver, C. J.,, and J. W. Tapsall. 1991. In vitro susceptibilities of clinical isolates of cysteine-requiring Escherichia coli to 12 antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:995997.
153. Miedema, C. J.,, and J. L. L. Kimpen. 1996. Hematogenous dissemination of Escherichia coli to a preexistent subdural hematoma in a child. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23:662.
154. Montgomerie, J. Z.,, A. Bindereif,, J. B. Neilands,, G. M. Kalmanson,, and L. B. Guze. 1984. Association of hydroxymate siderophore (aerobactin) with Escherichia coli isolated from patients with bacteremia. Infect. Immun. 46:835838.
155. Morris, J. A.,, and W. J. Sojka,. 1985. Escherichia coli as a pathogen in animals, p. 4777. In M. Sussman (ed.) The Virulence of Escherichia coli: Reviews and Methods. Academic Press, London, United Kingdom.
156. Muhldorfer, I.,, and J. Hacker. 1994. Genetic aspects of Escherichia coli virulence. Microb. Pathog. 16:171181.
157. Munoz, F. M. 1999. Emergent antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in the pediatric intensive care unit. Semin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 10:243248.
158. Nataro, J. P.,, and J. B. Kaper. 1998. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11:42201.
159. Nataro, J. P.,, J. B. Kaper,, R. Robins-Browne,, V. Prado,, P. Vial,, and M. M. Levine. 1987. Patterns of adherence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli to HEp-2 cells. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 6:829831.
160. Nataro, J. P.,, D. Yikang,, S. Cookson,, A. Cravioto,, S. J. Savarino,, L. D. Guers,, M. M. Levine,, and C. O. Tackett. 1995. Heterogeneity of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli virulence demonstrated in volunteers. J. Infect. Dis. 171: 465468.
161. Nguyen, T. V.,, P. L. Van,, C. L. Huy,, K. N. Gia,, and A. Weintraub. 2005. Detection and characterization of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli from young children in Hanoi, Vietnam. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:755760.
162. Nicolle, L. E.,, G. K. M. Harding,, J. Preikaitis,, and A. R. Ronald. 1982. The association of urinary tract infection with sexual intercourse. J. Infect. Dis. 146:579583.
163. Nicolle, L. E.,, L. J. Strausbaugh,, and R. A. Garibaldi. 1996. Infections and antibiotic resistance in nursing homes. Clin. Microbiol. Rev.9:117.
164. Nilius, A. M.,, and D. C. Savage. 1984. Serum resistance encoded by colicin V plasmids in Escherichia coli and its relationship to the plasmid transfer system. Infect. Immun. 43:947953.
165. Nishikawa, Y.,, Z. Zhou,, A. Hase,, J. Ogasawara,, J. Kitase,, A. N. Nakamura,, T. Wada,, I. E. Haruki, and Surveillance Team. 2002. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from stools of sporadic cases of diarrheal illness in Osaka City, Japan between 1997 and 2000: prevalence of enteroaggregative E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 gene-possessing E. coli. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 55:183190.
166. Nordmann, P. 1998. Trends in β-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27(Suppl. 1):S100S106.
167. Ogorek, C. P.,, and R. S. Fisher. 1994. Differentiation between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Med. Clin. North Am. 78:12491258.
168. O’Hara, C. M.,, and J. M. Miller. 1992. Evaluation of the autoSCAN-W/A system for rapid (2-hour) identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:15411543.
169. O’Hara, C. M.,, and J. M. Miller. 2000. Evaluation of the MicroScan Rapid Neg ID3 Panel for identification of Enterobacteriaceae and some common gram-negative nonfermenters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:35773580.
170. O’Hara, C. M.,, and J. M. Miller. 2003. Evaluation of the Vitek 2 ID-GNB assay for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other nonenteric gram-negative bacilli and comparison with the Vitek GNI+ Card. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:20962101.
171. O’Hara, C. M.,, D. L. Rhoden,, and J. M. Miller. 1992. Reevaluation of the API 20E identification system versus conventional biochemicals for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae: a new look at an old product. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:123125.
172. O’Hara, C. M.,, G. L. Westbrook,, and J. M. Miller. 1997. Evaluation of Vitek GNI+ and Becton Dickinson Microbiology Systems Crystal E/NF Identification Systems for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other gram-negative, glucose-fermenting and non-glucose-fermenting bacilli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:32693273.
173. Ohkusu, K. 2000. Cost-effective and rapid presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli in routine urine, pus, and stool cultures: evaluation of the use of CHROMagar Orientation medium in conjunction with simple biochemical tests. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:45864592.
174. Ojeda, A.,, V. Prado,, J. Martinez,, C. Arellano,, A. Borczyk,, W. Johnson,, H. Lior,, and M. M. Levine. 1995. Sorbitol-negative phenotype among enterohemorrhagic Escherichia colistrains of different serotypes and from different sources. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:21992201.
175. Okeke, I. N.,, O. Ojo,, A. Lamikanra,, and J. B. Kaper. 2003. Etiology of acute diarrhea in adults in Southwestern Nigeria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:45254530.
176. Okhuysen, P. C. X.,, and C. D. Ericsson. 1992. Travelers’ diarrhea: prevention and treatment. Med. Clin. North Am. 76:13571373.
177. Okuda, J.,, M. Fukumoto,, Y. Takeda,, and M. Nishibuchi. 1997. Examination of diarrheagenicity of cytolethal distending toxin: suckling mouse response to the products of the cdtABC genes of Shigella dysenteriae. Infect. Immun. 65:428433.
178. Olesen, B.,, H. J. Kolmos,, F. Ørskov,, I. Ørskov,, and A. Gottschau. 1995. Bacteraemia due to Escherichia coli in a Danish university hospital, 1986-1990. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 27:253257.
179.Olsvik, Ø., T. Popovic, E. Skjerve, K. S. Cudjoe, E. Homes, J. Ugelstad, and M. Uhlen. 1994. Magnetic separation techniques in diagnostic microbiology. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 7:4354.
180. Ørskov, F.,, and I. Ørskov. 1992. Escherichia coli serotyping and disease in man and animals. Can. J. Microbiol. 38:699704.
181. Oswald, E.,, P. Pohl,, E. Jacquemin,, P. Lintermans,, K. Van Muylem,, and A. D. O’Brien. 1994. Specific DNA probes to detect Escherichia coli strains producing cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 or type 2. J. Med. Microbiol. 40:428434.
182. Pabst, W. L.,, M. Altwegg,, C. Kind,, S. Mirjanic,, D. Hardegger,, and D. Nadal. 2003. Prevalence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli among children with and without diarrhea in Switzerland. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:22892293.
183. Pacheco, A. B. F.,, B. E. C. Guth,, K. C. C. Soares,, L. Nishimura,, D. F. DeAlemeida,, and L. C. S. Ferreira. 1997. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA reveals serotype-specific clonal clusters among enterotoxigenic Escherichia colistrains isolated from humans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:15211525.
184. Pai, C. H.,, R. Gordon,, H. V. Sims,, and L. E. Bryan. 1984. Sporadic cases of hemorrhagic colitis associated with Escherichia coliO157:H7. Ann. Intern. Med. 101:738742.
185. Pan, T.-M.,, T.-K. Wang,, C.-L. Lee,, S.-W. Chien,, and C.-B. Horng. 1997. Food-borne disease outbreaks due to bacteria in Taiwan, 1986 to 1995. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:12601262.
186. Parry, S. M.,, and S. R. Palmer. 2000. The public health significance of VTEC O157. J. Appl. Microbiol. 88(Symposium Suppl.):1S9S.
187. Paul, M.,, T. Tsukamoto,, A. R. Ghosh,, S. K. Bhattacharya,, B. Manna,, S. Chakrabarti,, G. B. Nair,, D. A. Sack,, D. Sen,, and Y. Takeda. 1994. The significance of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in the etiology of hospitalized diarrhoea in Calcutta, India and the demonstration of a new honeycombed pattern of aggregative adherence. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 117:319326.
188. Peacock, S. J.,, P. Maxwell,, A. Stanton,, and K. J. M. Jeffrey. 1995. Two cases of infected atherosclerotic aneurysms and a comparison with infective endocarditis. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.14:10041008.
189. Peele, D.,, J. Bradfield,, W. Pryor,, and S. Vore. 1997. Comparison of identifications of human and animal source gram-negative bacteria by API 20E and Crystal E/NF systems. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:213216.
190. Pfaller, M. A.,, and R. N. Jones. 1997. A review of the in vitro activity of meropenem and comparative antimicrobial agents tested against 30,254 aerobic and anaerobic pathogens isolated world wide. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 28:157163.
191. Pierard, D.,, N. Crowcroft,, S. De Bock,, D. Potters,, G. Crabbe,, F. Van Loock,, and S. Lauwers. 1999. A case-control study of sporadic infection with O157 and non-O157 verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. Epidemiol. Infect. 122:359365.
192. Presterl, E.,, R. H. Zwick,, S. Reichmann,, A. Aichburg,, S. Winkler,, P. G. Kremsner,, and W. Graininger. 2003. Frequency and virulence properties of diarrheagenic Escherichia coliin children with diarrhea in Gabon. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 69:406410.
193. Rademaker, C. M. A.,, A. C. Fluit,, M. Fausze,, M. Rosenberg- Arska,, J. H. Glerum,, and J. Verhoef. 1993. Enterovirulent Escherichia coli can cause bacteraemia in immunocompromised patients. J. Infect. 26:226228. (Letter.)
194. Rahav, G.,, S. Levinger,, and J. Frucht-Pery. 1994. Escherichia coliendophthalmitis secondary to pyelonephritis: another complication of diabetes? Clin. Infect. Dis. 18:117118. (Letter.)
195. Raidal, S. R.,, M. Ohara,, R. P. Hobbs,, and R. I. Prince. 1998. Gram-negative bacterial infections and cardiovascular parasitism in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). Aust. Vet. J. 76:415417.
196. Ramachandran, V.,, K. Brett,, M. A. Hornitzky,, M. Dowton,, K. A. Bettelheim,, M. J. Walker,, and S. P. Djordjevic. 2003. Distribution of intimin subtypes among Escherichia coli isolates from ruminant and human sources. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:50225032.
197. Rao, M. R.,, R. Abu-Elyazeed,, S. J. Savarino,, A. B. Naficy,, T. F. Wierzba,, I. Abdel-Messih,, H. Shaheen,, R. W. Frenck Jr., A.-M. Svennerholm, and J. D. Clemens. 2003. High disease burden of diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli among rural Egyptian infants and young children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:48624864.
198. Rao, G. G.,, B. P. Saunders,, and R. G. Masterton. 1996. Laboratory acquired verotoxin producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) infection. J. Hosp. Infect. 33:228230. (Letter.)
199. Rappelli, P.,, E. Folgosa,, M. L. Solinas,, J. L. Dacosta,, C. Pisanu,, M. Sidat,, J. Melo,, P. Cappuccinelli,, and M. M. Colombo. 2005. Pathogenic enteric Escherichia coli in children with and without diarrhea in Maputo, Mozambique. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 43:6772.
200. Ratchtrachenchai, O.-A.,, S. Subpasu,, H. Hayashi,, and W. Ba-Thein. 2004. Prevalence of childhood diarrhea-associatedEscherichia coli in Thailand. J. Med. Microbiol. 53:237243.
201. Ricotti, G. C.,, M. I. Buonomini,, A. Merlitti,, H. Karch,, I. Luzzi,, and A. Caprioli. 1994. A fatal case of hemorrhagic colitis, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure associated with verocytotoxin-producing, non-O157 Escherichia coli. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19:815816.
202. Riley, L. W.,, R. S. Reims,, S. D. Helgerson,, H. B. McGee,, J. G. Wells,, B. R. Davis,, R. J. Herbert,, E. S. Olcott,, L. M. Johnson,, N. T. Hargrett,, P. A. Blake,, and M. L. Cohen. 1983. Hemorrhagic colitis associated with a rare Escherichia coli serotype. N. Engl. J. Med. 308:681685.
203. Roberts, F. J.,, I. W. Geere,, and A. Coldman. 1991. A three-year study of positive blood cultures, with emphasis on prognosis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13:3446.
204. Robins-Browne, R. M. 1987. Traditional enteropathogenic Escherichia coli of infantile diarrhea. Rev. Infect. Dis. 9:2853.
205. Robins-Browne, R. M.,, A.-M. Bordun,, M. Tauschek,, V. R. Bennett-Wood,, J. Russell,, F. Oppedisano,, N. A. Lister,, K. A. Bettelheim,, C. K. Fairley,, M. I. Sinclair,, and M. E. Hellard. 2004. Escherichia coli and community-acquired gastroenteritis, Melbourne, Australia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:17971805.
206. Rodrigues, J.,, C. M. Thomazini,, A. Morelli,, and G. C. M. de Batista. 2004. Reduced etiological role for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in cases of diarrhea in Brazilian infants. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:398400.
207. Roels, T.,, J. Mellen,, and M. Proctor. 1995. A large outbreak of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection in Milwaukee. Abstr. 35th Intersci. Conf Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., abstr. K149, p. 314.
208. Russo, T. A.,, and J. R. Johnson. 2000. Proposal for a new inclusive designation for extraintestinal pathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli: ExPEC. J. Infect. Dis. 181:17531754.
209. Russo, T. A.,, and J. R. Johnson. 2003. Medical and economic impact of extraintestinal infections due to Escherichia coli: focus on an increasingly important endemic problem. Microbes Infect. 5:449456.
210. Samra, Z.,, M. Heifetz,, J. Talmor,, E. Bain,, and J. Bahar. 1998. Evaluation of use of a new chromogenic agar in detection of urinary tract pathogens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:990994.
211. Sanders, C. C.,, and W. E. Sanders, Jr. 1992. β-Lactam resistance in gram-negative bacteria: global trends and clinical impact. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15:824839.
212. Saratuya, J.,, J. Nishi,, J., N. Wakimoto, S. Erdene, J. P. Nataro, J. Sheikh, M. Iwashita, K. Manago, K. Tokuda, M. Yoshinaga, K. Miyata, and Y. Kawano. 2004. Typical enteroaggregative Escherichia coli is the most prevalent pathotype among E. coli strains causing diarrhea in Mongolian children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:133139.
213. Savarino, S. J.,, A. Fasano,, J. Watson,, B. M. Martin,, M. M. Levine,, S. Guandalini,, and P. Guerry. 1993. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 represents another subfamily of E. coli heat-stable toxin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:30933097.
214. Scaletsky, I. C. A.,, S. H. Fabbricotti,, R. L. B. Carvalho,, C. R. Nunes,, H. S. Maranhao,, M. B. Morais,, and U. Fagundes-Neto. 2002. Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli as a cause of acute diarrhea in young children in northeast Brazil: a case-control study. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:645648.
215. Scaletsky, I. C. A.,, M. L. M. Silva,, and L. R. Trabulsi. 1984. Distinctive patterns of adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to HeLa cells. Infect. Immun. 45:534536.
216. Schaberg, D. R.,, D. H. Culver,, and R. P. Gaynes. 1991. Major trends in the microbial etiology of nosocomial infection. Am. J. Med. 91(Suppl. 3B):72S75S.
217. Schlager, T. A.,, and R. L. Guerrant. 1988. Seven possible mechanisms for Escherichia coli diarrhea. Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 2:607624.
218. Schultsz, C.,, J. van den Ende,, F. Cobelens,, T. Vervoort,, A. van Gompel,, J. C. F. Wetsteyn,, and J. Dankert. 2000. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and acute and persistent diarrhea in returned travelers. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:35503554.
219. Scotland, S. M.,, H. R. Smith,, B. Said,, G. A. Willshaw,, T. Cheasty,, and B. Rowe. 1991. Identification of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated in Britain as enteroaggregative or as members of a subsclass of attaching-and-effacing E. colinot hybridising with the EPEC adherence-factor probe. J. Med. Microbiol. 35:278283.
220. Sears, C. L.,, and J. B. Kaper. 1996. Enteric bacterial toxins: mechanisms of action and linkage to intestinal secretion. Microbiol. Rev.60:167215.
221. Selander, R. K.,, D. A. Caugant,, H. Ochman,, J. M. Musser,, M. N. Gilmour,, and T. S. Whittam. 1986. Methods for multilocus electrophoresis for bacterial population genetics and systematics. J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 51:873884.
222. Shah, S.,, R. Hoffman,, P. Shillam,, and B. Wilson. 1996. Prolonged fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during an outbreak at a daycare center. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23:835836.
223. Siegler, R. L. 1994. Spectrum of extrarenal involvement in postdiarrheal hemolytic-uremic syndrome. J. Pediatr. 125:511518.
224. Silver, R. P.,, W. Aaronson,, and W. F. Vaan. 1988. The K1 capsular polysaccharide of Escherichia coli. Rev. Infect. Dis. 10(Suppl.):S282S286.
225. Slutsker, L.,, A. A. Ries,, K. D. Greene,, J. G. Wells,, L. Hutwagner,, and P. M. Griffin. 1997. Escherichia coli O157:H7 diarrhea in the United States: clinical and epidemiologic features. Ann. Intern. Med. 126:505513.
226. Small, P. L. C.,, and S. Falkow. 1988. Identification of regions on a 230-kilobase plasmid from enteroinvasive Escherichia coli that are required for entry into HEp-2 cells. Infect. Immun. 56:225229.
227. Smith, H. R.,, S. M. Scotland,, G. A. Willshaw,, B. Rowe,, A. Cravioto,, and C. Eslava. 1994. Isolates of Escherichia coli O44:H18 of diverse origin are enteroaggregative. J. Infect. Dis. 170:16101613.
228. Snyder, J. D.,, J. G. Wells,, J. Yashuk,, N. Puhr,, and P. A. Blake. 1984. Outbreak of invasive Escherichia coli gastroenteritis on a cruise ship. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 32:281284.
229. Spacek, L. A.,, B. P. Jurley,, D. W. K. Acheson,, A. Granok,, A. Currie,, K. Doing,, and C. L. Sears. 2004. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli as a possible etiological agent of chronic diarrhea. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:e46e48.
230. Spierings, G.,, C. Ockhuijsen,, H. Hofstra,, and J. Thommasen. 1993. Polymerase chain reaction for the specific detection of Escherichia coli/Shigella. Res. Microbiol. 144:557564.
231. Stamm, W. E.,, and T. M. Hooton. 1993. Management of urinary tract infections in adults. N. Engl. J. Med. 329:13281334.
232. Stephan, R.,, and F. Untermann. 1999. Virulence factors and phenotypical traits of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from asymptomatic human carriers. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:15701572.
233. Su, C.,, and L. J. Brandt. 1995. Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in humans. Ann. Intern. Med. 123:698714.
234. Sussman, M., 1985. Theodor Escherich (1857-1911): a biographical note, p. 14. In M. Sussman (ed.). The Virulence of Escherichia coli: Reviews and Methods. Academic Press, London, United Kingdom.
235. Swenson, J. M.,, J. F. Hindler,, and J. H. Jorgensen,. 2003. Special phenotypic methods for detecting antibacterial resistance, p. 11781195. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. A. Pfaller,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.