Chapter 6 : The Genus

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

The Genus , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817541/9781555813420_Chap06-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817541/9781555813420_Chap06-2.gif


is host adapted to the human intestine. In animals, only rare isolations from dogs and sporadic cases or outbreaks in primates have been reported. A variety of primates, including rhesus monkeys, tamarins, and marmosets, are susceptible to shigellosis and have been used as experimental models to study pathogenesis. The majority of infections in developing countries are caused by (60%), followed by (15%), (8%), and (8%). Serotyping is always the first epidemiologic test performed, but the prevalence of and mandates the use of other techniques to further define the strains. Techniques used include phage typing, antibiograms, plasmid fingerprinting, ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Most clinical laboratories must rely on commercial sera to confirm their identifications of shigellae. Due to cross-reactions, should be identified biochemically prior to undertaking serotyping and should never be reported based on serotyping alone. The triad of clinical symptoms (fever, intestinal cramps, and bloody diarrhea) associated with infection is the result of a series of molecular events triggering invasion of the colonic mucosa and the subsequent elicitation of an intense inflammatory response. Counterindications for treatment include cost (particularly in developing countries) and the development of resistance. This resistance has been facilitated by the emergence of antimicrobial resistance genes, located on plasmids, which are capable of promoting their own spread; insertion of these genes into the chromosome maintains a stable resistant population.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 65-80. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch6

Key Concept Ranking

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Smooth and rough colony formation of on heart infusion agar. Large, flat, translucent colonies are rough, avirulent forms caused by the loss of a 180- to 200-kb plasmid.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 65-80. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Evolution of pathogenic shigellae from nonpathogenic : gain of virulence genes and loss of unnecessary genes.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 65-80. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Adkins, H. J.,, and L. T. Santiago. 1987. Increased recovery of enteric pathogens by use of both stool and rectal swab specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:158159.
2. Aleksic, S.,, A. Katz,, V. Aleksic,, and J. Bockemuhl. 1993. Antibiotic resistance of shigella strains isolated in the Federal Republic of Germany 1989-1990. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 279:484493.
3. Al-Qarawi, S.,, R. E. Fontaine,, and M.-S. Al-Qahtani. 1995. An outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with antibiotic treatment of hospital inpatients for dysentery. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1:138140.
4. Altwegg, M.,, J. Buser,, and A. von Graevenitz. 1996. Stool cultures for Shigella spp: improved specificity by using Mac-Conkey agar with xylose. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 24:121124.
5. Ansaruzzaman, M.,, K. M. G. Kibriya,, A. Rahman,, P. K. B. Neogi,, A. S. G. Faruque,, B. Rowe,, and M. J. Albert. 1995. Detection of provisional serovars of Shigella dysenteriae and designation as S. dysenteriae serotypes 14 and 15. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:14231425.
6. Ashkenazi, S.,, M. May-Zahav,, G. Dinari,, U. Zilberberg,, and Z. Samra. 1993. Recent trends in the epidemiology of Shigella species in Israel. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17:897899.
7. Baer, J. T.,, D. J. Vugia,, A. L. Reingold,, T. Aragon,, F. Angulo,, and W. Bradford. 1999. HIV infection as a risk factor for shigellosis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:820823.
8. Baiulescu, M.,, P. R. Hannon,, J. F. Marcinak,, W. M. Janda,, and P. C. Schreckenberger. 2002. Chronic vulvovaginitis caused by antibiotic-resistant Shigella flexneri in a prepubertal child. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 21:170171.
9. Bascomb, S.,, S. L. Abbott,, J. D. Bobolis,, D. A. Bruckner,, S. J. Connell,, S. K. Cullen,, M. Daugherty,, D. Glenn,, J. M. Janda,, S. J. Lentsch,, D. Lindquist,, P. B. Mayhew,, D. M. Nothaft,, J. R. Skinner,, G. B. Williams,, J. Wong,, and B. L. Zimmer. 1997. Multicenter evaluation of the MicroScan Rapid Gram-Negative Identification Type 3 Panel. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:25312536.
10. Bennish, M. L. 1991. Potentially lethal complications of shigellosis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13(Suppl.):S319S324.
11. Bennish, M. L.,, and B. J. Wojtyniak. 1991. Mortality due to shigellosis: community and hospital data. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13(Suppl.):S245S251.
12. Bouvet, P. J. M.,, and S. Jeanjean. 1992. Evaluation of two colored latex kits, the Wellcolex Colour Salmonella test and the Wellcolex Colour Shigella test for serological grouping of Salmonella and Shigella. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:21842816.
13. Brenner, D. J.,, G. R. Fanning,, G. V. Miklos,, and A. G. Steigerwalt. 1973. Polynucleotide sequence relatedness among Shigella species. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 23:17.
14. Brenner, D. J.,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, H. G. Wathen,, R. J. Gross,, and B. Rowe. 1982. Confirmation of aerogenic strains of Shigella boydii 13 and further study of Shigella serotypes by DNA relatedness. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16:432436.
15. Brenner, D. J. 1984. Recommendations on recent proposals for the classification of shigellae. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 34:8788.
16. Butler, T.,, D. Dunn,, B. Dahms,, and M. Islam. 1989. Causes of death and the histopathologic finding in fatal shigellosis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 8:767772.
17. Butler, T.,, P. Speelman,, I. Kabir,, and J. Banwell. 1986. Colonic dysfunction during shigellosis. J. Infect. Dis. 154:817824.
18. Casalino, M.,, M. Nicoletti,, A. Salvia,, B. Colonna,, C. Pazzani,, A. Calconi,, K. A. Mohamud,, and F. Maimone. 1994. Characterization of endemic Shigella flexneri strains in Somalia: antimicrobial resistance, plasmid profiles, and serotype correlation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:11791183.
19.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Outbreak of Shigella sonnei infections associated with eating a nationally distributed dip—California, Oregon, and Washington, January 2000. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49:6061.
20. Cherla, R. P.,, S.-Y. Lee,, and V. L. Tesh. 2001. Shiga toxins and apoptosis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 228:159166.
21. Coimbra, R. S.,, M. Lefevre,, F. Grimont,, and P. A. D. Grimont. 2001. Clonal relationship among Shigella serotypes suggested by cryptic flagellin gene polymorphism. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:670674.
22. Coimbra, R. S.,, P. Lenormand,, F. Grimont,, P. Bouvet,, S. Matsushita,, and P. A. D. Grimont. 2001. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of potentially new Shigella dysenteriae serotype. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:618621.
23. Cooper, J. E.,, and J. R. Needham. 1976. An outbreak of shigellosis in laboratory marmosets and tamarins (Family: Callithricidae). J. Hyg. Camb. 76:415425.
24. Dobrindt, U.,, B. Hochhut,, and J. Hacker. 2004. Genomic islands in pathogenic and environmental microorganisms. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2:414424.
25. DuPont, H. L.,, and L. K. Pickering. 1980. Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Microbiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Features, p. 6178. Plenum Medical Book Company, New York, N.Y.
26. Dutta, S.,, D. Dutta,, P. Dutta,, S. Matsushita,, S. K. Bhattacharya,, and S.-I. Yoshida. 2003. Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1, Kolkata, India. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:14711474.
27. Evins, G. M.,, L. L. Gheesling,, and R. V. Tauxe. 1988. Quality of commercially produced Shigella serogrouping and serotyping antisera. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:438442.
28. Ewing, E. H. 1986. Edwards and Ewing’s Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, 4th ed., p. 137172. Elsevier, New York, N.Y.
29. Feng, L.,, S. N. Senchenkova,, J. Yang,, A. S. Shashkov,, J. Tao,, H. Guo,, G. Zhao,, Y. A. Knirel,, P. Reeves,, and L. Wang. 2004. Structural and genetic characterization of the Shigella boydii type 13 O antigen. J. Bacteriol. 186:383392.
30. Frankel, G.,, L. Riley,, J. A. Giron,, J. Valmassol,, A. Friedmann,, N. Strockbine,, S. Falkow,, and G. K. Schoolnik. 1990. Detection of Shigella in feces using DNA amplification. J. Infect. Dis. 161:12521256.
31. Fuchs, P. C.,, A. L. Barry,, and S. D. Brown. 1998. Multicenter survey of the in vitro activity of four expanded-spectrum β-lactams against consecutive contemporary clinical isolates. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 32:281287.
32. Fuchs, P. C.,, A. L. Barry,, S. D. Brown, and the AST Surveillance Group. 1996. Survey of antimicrobial activity of four commonly used third generation cephalosporins tested against recent bacterial isolates from ten American medical centers, and assessment of disk diffusion test performance. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 24:213219.
33. Funke, G.,, D. Monnet,, C. deBernardis,, A. von Graevenitz,, and J. Freney. 1998. Evaluation of the VITEK 2 system for rapid identification of medically relevant gram-negative rods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:19481952.
34. Garcia-Fulguieras A.,, S. Sanchez,, J. J. Guillen,, B. Marsilla,, A. Aladuena,, and C. Navarro. 2001. A large outbreak of Shigella sonnei gastroenteritis associated with consumption of fresh pasteurized milk cheese. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 17:533538.
35. Germani, Y.,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 2001. The genus Shigella. In The Prokaryotes: an Evolving Electronic Source for the Microbiological Community, 2nd ed., release 3.7. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
36. Gessner, B. D.,, and M. Beller. 1994. Moose soup shigellosis in Alaska. West. J. Med. 160:430433.
37. Giron, J. A. 1995. Expression of flagella and motility by Shigella. Mol. Microbiol. 18:6375.
38. Gomez, H. F.,, and T. G. Cleary. 1996. Drug-resistant Salmonella, Shigella, and diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 7:212222.
39. Goosney, D. L.,, D. G. Knoechel,, and B. B. Finlay. 1999. Enteropathogenic E. coli, Salmonella, and Shigella: masters of host cell cytoskeletal exploitation. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5: 216223.
40. Greenberg, D.,, S. Marcu,, R. Melamed,, and M. Lifshitz. 2003. Shigella bacteremia: a retrospective study. Clin. Pediatr. 42:411415.
41. Gupta, A.,, C. S. Polyak,, R. D. Bishop,, J. Sobel,, and E. D. Mintz. 2004. Laboratory-confirmed shigellosis in the United States, 1989-2002: epidemiologic trends and patterns. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:13721377.
42. Halpern, Z.,, M. Dan,, M. Giladi,, I. Schwartz,, O. Sela,, and Y. Levo. 1989. Shigellosis in adults: epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory features. Medicine 68:210217.
43. Hentges, D. J. 1969. Inhibition of Shigella flexneri by the normal intestinal flora. J. Bacteriol. 97:513517.
44. Holmes, B.,, M. Costas,, M. Ganner,, S. L. W. On,, and M. Stevens. 1994. Evaluation of Biolog system for identification of some gram-negative bacteria of clinical importance. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:19701975.
45. Houdouin, V.,, C. Doit,, P. Mariani,, N. Brahimi,, C. Loirat,, A. Bourrillon,, and E. Bingen. 2004. A pediatric cluster of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 diarrhea with hemolytic uremic syndrome in 2 families from France. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:e96e99.
46. Huskins, W. C.,, J. K. Griffiths,, A. S. Faruque,, and M. L. Bennish. 1994. Shigellosis in neonates and young infants. J. Pediatr. 125:1422.
47.International Enterobacteriaceae Subcommittee. 1951. Nomenclature and classification of the dysentery bacillus. Int. Bull. Bacteriol. Nomencl. Taxon. 1:150167.
48. Islam, D.,, S. Tzipori,, M. Islam,, and A. A. Lindberg. 1993. Rapid detection of Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri in faeces by an immunomagnetic assay with monoclonal antibodies. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 12:2532.
49. Jennison, A. V.,, and N. K. Verma. 2004. Shigella flexneri infection: pathogenesis and vaccine development. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 28:4358.
50. Jin, Q.,, Z. Yuan,, J. Xu,, Y. Wang,, Y. Shen,, W. Lu,, J. Wang,, H. Liu,, J. Yang,, F. Yang,, X. Zhang,, J. Zhang,, G. Yang,, H. Wu,, D. Qu,, J. Dong,, L. Sun,, Y. Xue,, A. Zhao,, Y. Gao,, J. Zhu,, B. Kan,, K. Ding,, S. Chen,, H. Cheng,, Z. Yao,, B. He,, R. Chen,, D. Ma,, B. Qiang,, Y. Wen,, Y. Hou,, and J. Yu. 2002. Genome sequence of Shigella flexneri 2a: insights into pathogenicity through comparison with genomes of Escherichia coli K12 and O157. Nucleic Acids Res. 30:44324441.
51. Johnson, J. R. 2000. Shigella and Escherichia coli at the crossroads: machiavellian masqueraders or taxonomic treachery? J. Med. Microbiol. 49:58385.
52. Johnson, K. J., Boase,, S. D. Helgersen,, and J. M. Kobayashi. Shigellosis in day-care centers—Washington 1983. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 33:250251.
53. Jossart, M.-F.,, and R. J. Courcol. 1999. Evaluation of an automated system for identification of Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenting bacilli. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18:902907.
54. Kalluri, P.,, K. C. Cummings,, S. Abbott,, G. B. Malcolm,, K. Hutcheson,, A. Beall,, K. Joyce,, C. Polyak,, D. Woodward,, R. Caldeira,, F. Rodgers,, E. D. Mintz,, and N. Strockbine. 2001. Epidemiological features of a newly described serotype of Shigella boydii. Epidemiol. Infect. 132:579583.
55. Kapperud, G.,, L. M. Rorvik,, V. Hasseltveldt,, E. A. Hoiby,, B. G. Iversen,, K. Staveland,, G. Johnsen,, J. Leitano,, H. Herikstad,, Y. Andersson,, G. Langeland,, B. Gondrosen,, and J. Lassen. 1995. Outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection traced to imported lettuce. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:609614.
56. Karaolis, D. K. R.,, R. Lan,, and P. R. Reeves. 1994. Sequence variation in Shigella sonnei (Sonnei), a pathogenic clone of Escherichia coli, over four continents and 41 years. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:796802.
57. Katz, D. E.,, T. S. Coster,, M. K. Wolf,, F. C. Trespalacios,, D. Cohen,, G. Robins,, A. B. Hartman,, M. M. Venkatesan,, D. N. Taylor,, and T. L. Hale. 2004. Two studies evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of a live, attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine (SC602) and excretion of vaccine organisms in North American volunteers. Infect. Immun. 72:923930.
58. Keusch, G. T., 2002. Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, p. 643667. In M. J. Blaser,, P. D. Smith,, J. I. Ravdin,, H. B. Greenberg,, and R. L. Guerrant (ed.), Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, New York, N.Y.
59. Keusch, G. T.,, and D. W. K. Acheson,. 1996. Shigella infection, p. 7994. In L. J. Paradise,, M. Bendinelli,, and H. Friedman (ed.), Enteric Infections and Immunity. Plenum Press, New York, N.Y.
60. Keusch, G. T.,, and M. L. Bennish. 1989. Shigellosis: recent progress, persisting problems and research issues. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 8:713719.
61. Kitch, T. T.,, M. R. Jacobs,, and P. C. Appelbaum. 1994. Evaluation of RapID onE system for identification of 379 strains in the family Enterobacteriaceae and oxidase-negative, gramnegative nonfermenters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:931934.
62. Kocka, F. E.,, F. D. Dorigan,, Q. T. Abbasi,, A. L. Swiatlo,, and M. Hubbard-Shepard. 1992. Clinical evaluations of the Wellcolex Colour Shigella and Salmonella test. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15:14.
63. Kolavic, S. A.,, A. Kimura,, S. L. Simons,, L. Slutsker,, S. Barth,, and C. E. Haley. 1997. An outbreak of Shigella dysenteriae type 2 among laboratory workers due to intentional food contamination. JAMA 278:396398.
64. Koo, D.,, K. Maloney,, and R. Tauxe. 1996. Epidemiology of diarrheal disease outbreaks on cruise ships, 1986 through 1993. JAMA 275:545547.
65. Kotloff, K. L.,, J. P. Winickoff,, B. Ivanoff,, J. D. Clemins,, D. L. Swerdlow,, P. J. Sansonetti,, G. K. Adak,, and M. M. Levine. 1999. Global burden of Shigella infections: implications for vaccine development and implementation of control strategies. Bull. W. H. O. 77:651666.
66. Lan, R.,, and P. R. Reeves. 2002. Escherichia coli in disguise: molecular origins of Shigella. Microb. Infect. 4:11251132.
67. Lefebvre, J.,, F. Gosselin,, F. J. Ismail,, M. Lorange,, H. Lior,, and D. Woodward. 1995. Evaluation of commercial antisera for Shigella serogrouping. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:19972001.
68. Levine, M. M.,, H. L. DuPont,, M. Khodabandelou,, and H. D. Hornick. 1973. Long-term shigella-carrier state. N. Engl. J. Med. 288:11691171.
69. Lindberg, A. A.,, A. Karnell,, and A. Weintraub. 1991. The lipopolysaccharide of Shigella bacteria as a virulence factor. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13(Suppl. 4):S279S284.
70. Litwin, C. M.,, R. B. Leonard,, K. C. Carroll,, W. K. Drummond,, and A. T. Pavia. 1997. Characterization of endemic strains of Shigella sonnei by use of plasmid DNA analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to detect patterns of transmission. J. Infect. Dis. 175:864870.
71. Liu, P. Y.,, Y. J. Lau,, S. Hu,, M. J. Shyr,, Z. Y. Shi,, W. S. Tsai,, Y. H. Lin,, and C. Y. Tang. 1995. Analysis of clonal relationships among isolates of Shigella sonnei by different molecular typing methods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:17791783.
72. Loleka, S.,, S. Vibulbandhitki,, and P. Poonyarit. 1991. Response to antimicrobial therapy for shigellosis in Thailand. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13(Suppl. 4):S342S346.
73. Margolin, L.,, and D. Engelhard. 2003. Bilateral pneumonia associated with Shigella sonnei dysentery. Am. J. Infect. Control 31:445446.
74. Mathan, V. I.,, and M. M. Mathan. 1991. Intestinal manifestations of invasive diarrheas and their diagnosis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13(Suppl.):S311S313.
75. Maurelli, A. T.,, R. E. Fernández,, C. A. Bloch,, C. R. Rode,, and A. Fasano. 1998. “Black holes” and bacterial pathogenicity: a large genomic deletion that enhances the virulence of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 95:39433948.
76. Mermel, L. A.,, S. L. Josephson,, J. Dempsey,, S. Parenteau,, C. Perry,, and N. Magill. 1997. Outbreak of Shigella sonnei in a clinical microbiology laboratory. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:31633165.
77. Miron, D.,, I. Sochotnick,, D. Yardeni,, B. Kawar,, and L. Siplovich. 2000. Surgical complications of shigellosis in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 19:898899.
78. Mulder, J. B. 1971. Shigellosis in non-human primates: a review. Lab. Animal Sci. 21:734738.
79. Mulligan, K.,, S. Nelson,, H. S. Friedman,, and P. I. Andrews. 1992. Shigellosis-associated encephalopathy. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 11:889890.
80. Namdari, H.,, A. Taroli,, and S. Piemontese. 2002. Shigella flexneri as a cause of chronic vaginitis in an allegedly sexually abused five-year-old girl. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 24:187188.
81. Navia, M. M.,, L. Capitano,, J. Ruiz,, M. Vargas,, H. Urassa,, D. Schellemberg,, J. Gascon,, and J. Vila. 1999. Typing and characterization of mechanisms of resistance of Shigella spp. isolated from feces of children under 5 years of age from Ifakara, Tanzania. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:31133117.
82. O’Hara, C. M.,, and J. M. Miller. 2000. Evaluation of the MicroScan Rapid Neg ID3 panel for identification of Enterobacteriaceae and some common gram-negative nonfermenters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:35773580.
83. O’Hara, C. M.,, and J. M. Miller. 2003. Evaluation of the Vitek 2 ID-GNB assay for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other nonenteric gramnegative bacilli and comparison with the Vitek GNI+ card. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:20962101.
84. O’Hara, C. M.,, F. C. Tenover,, and J. M. Miller. 1993. Parallel comparison of accuracy of API 20E, Vitek GNI, MicroScan Walk/Away Rapid ID, and Becton Dickinson Cobas Micro ID-E/NF for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and common gram-negative, non-glucose-fermenting bacilli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:31653169.
85. O’Hara, C. M.,, G. L. Westbrook,, and J. M. Miller. 1997. Evaluation of Vitek GNI+ and Becton Dickinson Microbiology Systems Crystal E/NF identification systems for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other gram-negative, glucose-fermenting and non-glucose-fermenting bacilli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:32693273.
86. Papasian. C. J.,, S. Enna-Kifer,, and J. M. Garrison. 1995. Symptomatic Shigella sonnei urinary tract infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:22222223.
87. Parsonnet, J.,, K. D. Green,, A. R. Gerber,, R. V. Tauxe,, O. L. A. Vallejo,, and P. A. Blake. 1989. Shigella dysenteriae type 1 infections in US travelers to Mexico, 1988. Lancet ii:543545.
88. Patel, R.,, D. R. Osmon,, J. M. Steckelberg,, M. B. Dekutoski,, and W. R. Wilson. 1996. Vertebral osteomyelitis due to Shigella boydii. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22:863864.
89. Pickering, L. K. 1986. The day care center diarrhea dilemma. Am. J. Public Health 76:623624.
90. Pickering, L. K. 1996. Emerging antibiotic resistance in enteric bacterial pathogens. Semin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 7:272280.
91. Pickering, L. K. 2004. Antimicrobial resistance among enteric pathogens. Semin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 15:7177.
92. Pruneda, R. C.,, and J. J. FarmerIII. 1977. Bacteriophage typing of Shigella sonnei. J. Clin. Microbiol. 5:6674.
93. Pupo, G. M.,, R. Lan,, and P. R. Reeves. 2000. Multiple independent origins of Shigella clones of Escherichia coli and convergent evolution of many of their characteristics. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:1056710572.
94. Raiden, R. M.,, S. S. Sumner,, J. D. Eifert,, and M. D. Pierson. 2003. Efficacy of detergents in removing Salmonella and Shigella spp. from the surface of fresh produce. J. Food Prot. 66:22102215.
95. Rolland, K.,, N. Lambert-Zechovsky,, B. Picard,, and E. Denamur. 1998. Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli strains are derived from distinct ancestral strains of E. coli. Microbiology 144:26672672.
96. Rosenberg, M. L.,, K. K. Hazlet,, J. Schaefer,, J. G. Wells,, R. C. Pruneda. 1976. Shigellosis from swimming. JAMA 236:18491852.
97. Rowe, B.,, and R. J. Gross,. 1984. Shigella Castellani and Chalmers 1919, 936AL, p. 423427. In N. R. Krieg, and J. G. Holt (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md.
98. Rowe, B.,, R. J. Gross,, and M. Guiney. 1976. Antigenic relationships between Escherichia coli O antigens O149 and O163 and Shigella O antigens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 26:7678.
99. Saeed, A. A. A. B.,, H. E. El Bushra,, and N. A. Al-Hamdan. 1995. Does treatment of bloody diarrhea due to Shigella dysenteriae type 1 with ampicillin precipitate hemolytic uremic syndrome? Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1:134137.
100. Sansonetti, P. J. 2001. Microbes and microbial toxins: paradigms for microbial-mucosal interactions. III. Shigellosis: from symptoms to molecular pathogenesis. Am. J. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 280:G319G323.
101. Sansonetti, P. 2002. Host-pathogen interactions: the seduction of molecular cross talk. Gut 50(Suppl. III):iii2iii8.
102. Scerpella, E. G.,, J. J. Mathewson,, H. L. DuPont,, S. K. Marani,, and C. D. Ericsson. Shigella sonnei strains isolated from U.S. summer students in Guadalajara, Mexico, from 1986 to 1992. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:25492552.
103. Schulman, S. K. 1988. Clinical experience during a large Shigella sonnei outbreak: when the “hoofbeats” were really “zebras.” Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 7:296297.
104. Seymour, C.,, H. M. Crowe,, and M. E. Wilson. 1994. Comparative virulence of blood and stool isolates of Shigella sonnei. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:835838.
105. Simonet, M. L. 1999. Enterobacteria in reactive arthritis: Yersinia, Shigella, and Salmonella. Rev. Rhum. Engl. Ed. 66(Suppl. 1):14S19S.
106. Stoll, D. M. 1986. Cutaneous shigellosis. Arch. Dermatol. 122:22.
107. Strockbine, N. A.,, J. Parsonnet,, K. Green,, J. A. Kiehlbauch,, and I. K. Wachsmuth. 1991. Molecular epidemiologic techniques in analysis of epidemic and endemic Shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains. J. Infect. Dis. 163:405409.
108. Subekti, D.,, B. A. Oyoto,, P. Tjaniadi,, A. L. Corwin,, W. Larasati,, M. Putri,, C. H. Simanjuntak,, N. H. Punjabi,, J. Taslim,, B. Setiawan,, A. A. G. S. Djelantik,, L. Sriwati,, A. Sumardiati,, E. Putra,, J. R. Campbell,, and M. Lesmana. 2001. Shigella spp. surveillance in Indonesia: the emergence or reemergence of S. dysenteriae. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:137140.
109. Talukder, K. A.,, M. A. Islam,, B. K. Khajanchi,, D. K. Dutta,, Z. Islam,, A. Safa,, K. Alam,, A. Hossain,, G. B. Nair,, and D. A. Sack. 2003. Temporal shifts in the dominance of serotypes of Shigella dysenteriae from 1999 to 2002 in Dhaka, Bangladesh. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:50535058.
110. Taylor, D.,, N. Bodhidata,, and P. Echeverria. 1991. Epidemiologic aspects of shigellosis and other causes of dysentery in Thailand. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13(Suppl.):S226S230.
111. Terajima, J.,, K. Tamura,, K. Hirose,, H. Izumiya,, M. Miyahara,, H. Konuma,, and H. Watanbe. 2004. A multi-prefectual outbreak of Shigella sonnei infections associated with eating oysters in Japan. Microbiol. Immunol. 48:4952.
112. Tobias, J. D.,, J. R. Starke,, and M. F. Tosi. 1987. Shigella keratitis: a report of two cases and a review of the literature. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 6:7981.
113. Toledo, M. R. F.,, R. M. Silva,, and L. R. Trabulsi. 1981. Sachs’ “Enterobacterium A12” is an aerogenic variant of Shigella boydii 14. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 31:242244.
114. Trevejo, R. T.,, S. L. Abbott,, M. I. Wolfe,, J. Meshulam,, D. Yong,, and G. R. Flores. 1999. An untypeable Shigella flexneri strain associated with an outbreak in California. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:23522353.
115. Trofa, A. F.,, H. Ueno-Olsen,, R. Oiwa,, and M. Yoshikawa. 1999. Dr. Kiyoshi Shiga: discoverer of the dysentery bacillus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:13031306.
116. Viret, J.-F.,, U. Bruderer,, and A. B. Lang. 1992. Characterization of the Shigella serotype D (S. sonnei) O polysaccharide and the enterobacterial R1 lipopolysaccharide core by use of use monoclonal antibodies. Infect. Immun. 60:27412747.
117. Watanabe, H., and N. Okamura,. 1981. The genus Shigella, p. 27542759. In M. P. Starr,, H. Stolp,, H. G. Truper,, and H. G. Schlegel (ed.), The Prokaryotes: a Handbook on Habitats, Isolation and Identification of Bacteria. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
118. Waterman, S. R.,, and P. L. Small. 2003. Identification of the promoter regions and σs-dependent regulation of the gadA and gadBC genes associated with glutamate-dependent acid resistance in Shigella flexneri. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 225:155160.
119. Wells, J. G.,, and G. K. Morris. 1981. Evaluation of transport methods for isolating Shigella spp. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13: 789790.
120. William, D. C.,, Y. M. Felman,, J. S. Marr,, and H. B. Shookhoff. 1977. Sexually transmitted enteric pathogens in male homosexual population. N. Y. State J. Med. 77: 20502052.


Generic image for table
Table 1.

Nomenclature of the genus

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 65-80. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 2

Differentiation of shigellae from other fecal flora in TSI, LIA, and MIO agars

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 65-80. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 3

Identifications of spp. by commonly used commercial systems

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 65-80. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch6

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error