1887

Chapter 6 : The Genus

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

The Genus , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817541/9781555813420_Chap06-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817541/9781555813420_Chap06-2.gif

Abstract:

is host adapted to the human intestine. In animals, only rare isolations from dogs and sporadic cases or outbreaks in primates have been reported. A variety of primates, including rhesus monkeys, tamarins, and marmosets, are susceptible to shigellosis and have been used as experimental models to study pathogenesis. The majority of infections in developing countries are caused by (60%), followed by (15%), (8%), and (8%). Serotyping is always the first epidemiologic test performed, but the prevalence of and mandates the use of other techniques to further define the strains. Techniques used include phage typing, antibiograms, plasmid fingerprinting, ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Most clinical laboratories must rely on commercial sera to confirm their identifications of shigellae. Due to cross-reactions, should be identified biochemically prior to undertaking serotyping and should never be reported based on serotyping alone. The triad of clinical symptoms (fever, intestinal cramps, and bloody diarrhea) associated with infection is the result of a series of molecular events triggering invasion of the colonic mucosa and the subsequent elicitation of an intense inflammatory response. Counterindications for treatment include cost (particularly in developing countries) and the development of resistance. This resistance has been facilitated by the emergence of antimicrobial resistance genes, located on plasmids, which are capable of promoting their own spread; insertion of these genes into the chromosome maintains a stable resistant population.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 65-80. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch6

Key Concept Ranking

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.44392747
Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA
0.44137615
0.44392747
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Smooth and rough colony formation of on heart infusion agar. Large, flat, translucent colonies are rough, avirulent forms caused by the loss of a 180- to 200-kb plasmid.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 65-80. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Evolution of pathogenic shigellae from nonpathogenic : gain of virulence genes and loss of unnecessary genes.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 65-80. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817541.chap6
1. Adkins, H. J.,, and L. T. Santiago. 1987. Increased recovery of enteric pathogens by use of both stool and rectal swab specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 158 159.
2. Aleksic, S.,, A. Katz,, V. Aleksic,, and J. Bockemuhl. 1993. Antibiotic resistance of shigella strains isolated in the Federal Republic of Germany 1989-1990. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 279: 484 493.
3. Al-Qarawi, S.,, R. E. Fontaine,, and M.-S. Al-Qahtani. 1995. An outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with antibiotic treatment of hospital inpatients for dysentery. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1: 138 140.
4. Altwegg, M.,, J. Buser,, and A. von Graevenitz. 1996. Stool cultures for Shigella spp: improved specificity by using Mac-Conkey agar with xylose. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 24: 121 124.
5. Ansaruzzaman, M.,, K. M. G. Kibriya,, A. Rahman,, P. K. B. Neogi,, A. S. G. Faruque,, B. Rowe,, and M. J. Albert. 1995. Detection of provisional serovars of Shigella dysenteriae and designation as S. dysenteriae serotypes 14 and 15. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 1423 1425.
6. Ashkenazi, S.,, M. May-Zahav,, G. Dinari,, U. Zilberberg,, and Z. Samra. 1993. Recent trends in the epidemiology of Shigella species in Israel. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17: 897 899.
7. Baer, J. T.,, D. J. Vugia,, A. L. Reingold,, T. Aragon,, F. Angulo,, and W. Bradford. 1999. HIV infection as a risk factor for shigellosis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5: 820 823.
8. Baiulescu, M.,, P. R. Hannon,, J. F. Marcinak,, W. M. Janda,, and P. C. Schreckenberger. 2002. Chronic vulvovaginitis caused by antibiotic-resistant Shigella flexneri in a prepubertal child. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 21: 170 171.
9. Bascomb, S.,, S. L. Abbott,, J. D. Bobolis,, D. A. Bruckner,, S. J. Connell,, S. K. Cullen,, M. Daugherty,, D. Glenn,, J. M. Janda,, S. J. Lentsch,, D. Lindquist,, P. B. Mayhew,, D. M. Nothaft,, J. R. Skinner,, G. B. Williams,, J. Wong,, and B. L. Zimmer. 1997. Multicenter evaluation of the MicroScan Rapid Gram-Negative Identification Type 3 Panel. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 2531 2536.
10. Bennish, M. L. 1991. Potentially lethal complications of shigellosis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13( Suppl.): S319 S324.
11. Bennish, M. L.,, and B. J. Wojtyniak. 1991. Mortality due to shigellosis: community and hospital data. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13( Suppl.): S245 S251.
12. Bouvet, P. J. M.,, and S. Jeanjean. 1992. Evaluation of two colored latex kits, the Wellcolex Colour Salmonella test and the Wellcolex Colour Shigella test for serological grouping of Salmonella and Shigella. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 2184 2816.
13. Brenner, D. J.,, G. R. Fanning,, G. V. Miklos,, and A. G. Steigerwalt. 1973. Polynucleotide sequence relatedness among Shigella species. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 23: 1 7.
14. Brenner, D. J.,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, H. G. Wathen,, R. J. Gross,, and B. Rowe. 1982. Confirmation of aerogenic strains of Shigella boydii 13 and further study of Shigella serotypes by DNA relatedness. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16: 432 436.
15. Brenner, D. J. 1984. Recommendations on recent proposals for the classification of shigellae. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 34: 87 88.
16. Butler, T.,, D. Dunn,, B. Dahms,, and M. Islam. 1989. Causes of death and the histopathologic finding in fatal shigellosis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 8: 767 772.
17. Butler, T.,, P. Speelman,, I. Kabir,, and J. Banwell. 1986. Colonic dysfunction during shigellosis. J. Infect. Dis. 154: 817 824.
18. Casalino, M.,, M. Nicoletti,, A. Salvia,, B. Colonna,, C. Pazzani,, A. Calconi,, K. A. Mohamud,, and F. Maimone. 1994. Characterization of endemic Shigella flexneri strains in Somalia: antimicrobial resistance, plasmid profiles, and serotype correlation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 1179 1183.
19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Outbreak of Shigella sonnei infections associated with eating a nationally distributed dip—California, Oregon, and Washington, January 2000. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49: 6061.
20. Cherla, R. P.,, S.-Y. Lee,, and V. L. Tesh. 2001. Shiga toxins and apoptosis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 228: 159 166.
21. Coimbra, R. S.,, M. Lefevre,, F. Grimont,, and P. A. D. Grimont. 2001. Clonal relationship among Shigella serotypes suggested by cryptic flagellin gene polymorphism. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 670 674.
22. Coimbra, R. S.,, P. Lenormand,, F. Grimont,, P. Bouvet,, S. Matsushita,, and P. A. D. Grimont. 2001. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of potentially new Shigella dysenteriae serotype. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 618 621.
23. Cooper, J. E.,, and J. R. Needham. 1976. An outbreak of shigellosis in laboratory marmosets and tamarins (Family: Callithricidae). J. Hyg. Camb. 76: 415 425.
24. Dobrindt, U.,, B. Hochhut,, and J. Hacker. 2004. Genomic islands in pathogenic and environmental microorganisms. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2: 414 424.
25. DuPont, H. L.,, and L. K. Pickering. 1980. Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Microbiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Features, p. 61 78. Plenum Medical Book Company, New York, N.Y.
26. Dutta, S.,, D. Dutta,, P. Dutta,, S. Matsushita,, S. K. Bhattacharya,, and S.-I. Yoshida. 2003. Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1, Kolkata, India. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9: 1471 1474.
27. Evins, G. M.,, L. L. Gheesling,, and R. V. Tauxe. 1988. Quality of commercially produced Shigella serogrouping and serotyping antisera. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 438 442.
28. Ewing, E. H. 1986. Edwards and Ewing’s Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, 4th ed., p. 137 172. Elsevier, New York, N.Y.
29. Feng, L.,, S. N. Senchenkova,, J. Yang,, A. S. Shashkov,, J. Tao,, H. Guo,, G. Zhao,, Y. A. Knirel,, P. Reeves,, and L. Wang. 2004. Structural and genetic characterization of the Shigella boydii type 13 O antigen. J. Bacteriol. 186: 383 392.
30. Frankel, G.,, L. Riley,, J. A. Giron,, J. Valmassol,, A. Friedmann,, N. Strockbine,, S. Falkow,, and G. K. Schoolnik. 1990. Detection of Shigella in feces using DNA amplification. J. Infect. Dis. 161: 1252 1256.
31. Fuchs, P. C.,, A. L. Barry,, and S. D. Brown. 1998. Multicenter survey of the in vitro activity of four expanded-spectrum β-lactams against consecutive contemporary clinical isolates. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 32: 281 287.
32. Fuchs, P. C.,, A. L. Barry,, S. D. Brown, and the AST Surveillance Group. 1996. Survey of antimicrobial activity of four commonly used third generation cephalosporins tested against recent bacterial isolates from ten American medical centers, and assessment of disk diffusion test performance. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 24: 213 219.
33. Funke, G.,, D. Monnet,, C. deBernardis,, A. von Graevenitz,, and J. Freney. 1998. Evaluation of the VITEK 2 system for rapid identification of medically relevant gram-negative rods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 1948 1952.
34. Garcia-Fulguieras A.,, S. Sanchez,, J. J. Guillen,, B. Marsilla,, A. Aladuena,, and C. Navarro. 2001. A large outbreak of Shigella sonnei gastroenteritis associated with consumption of fresh pasteurized milk cheese. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 17: 533 538.
35. Germani, Y.,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 2001. The genus Shigella. In The Prokaryotes: an Evolving Electronic Source for the Microbiological Community, 2nd ed., release 3.7. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
36. Gessner, B. D.,, and M. Beller. 1994. Moose soup shigellosis in Alaska. West. J. Med. 160: 430 433.
37. Giron, J. A. 1995. Expression of flagella and motility by Shigella. Mol. Microbiol. 18: 63 75.
38. Gomez, H. F.,, and T. G. Cleary. 1996. Drug-resistant Salmonella, Shigella, and diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 7: 212 222.
39. Goosney, D. L.,, D. G. Knoechel,, and B. B. Finlay. 1999. Enteropathogenic E. coli, Salmonella, and Shigella: masters of host cell cytoskeletal exploitation. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5: 216 223.
40. Greenberg, D.,, S. Marcu,, R. Melamed,, and M. Lifshitz. 2003. Shigella bacteremia: a retrospective study. Clin. Pediatr. 42: 411 415.
41. Gupta, A.,, C. S. Polyak,, R. D. Bishop,, J. Sobel,, and E. D. Mintz. 2004. Laboratory-confirmed shigellosis in the United States, 1989-2002: epidemiologic trends and patterns. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38: 1372 1377.
42. Halpern, Z.,, M. Dan,, M. Giladi,, I. Schwartz,, O. Sela,, and Y. Levo. 1989. Shigellosis in adults: epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory features. Medicine 68: 210 217.
43. Hentges, D. J. 1969. Inhibition of Shigella flexneri by the normal intestinal flora. J. Bacteriol. 97: 513 517.
44. Holmes, B.,, M. Costas,, M. Ganner,, S. L. W. On,, and M. Stevens. 1994. Evaluation of Biolog system for identification of some gram-negative bacteria of clinical importance. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 1970 1975.
45. Houdouin, V.,, C. Doit,, P. Mariani,, N. Brahimi,, C. Loirat,, A. Bourrillon,, and E. Bingen. 2004. A pediatric cluster of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 diarrhea with hemolytic uremic syndrome in 2 families from France. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38: e96 e99.
46. Huskins, W. C.,, J. K. Griffiths,, A. S. Faruque,, and M. L. Bennish. 1994. Shigellosis in neonates and young infants. J. Pediatr. 125: 14 22.
47.International Enterobacteriaceae Subcommittee. 1951. Nomenclature and classification of the dysentery bacillus. Int. Bull. Bacteriol. Nomencl. Taxon. 1: 150167.
48. Islam, D.,, S. Tzipori,, M. Islam,, and A. A. Lindberg. 1993. Rapid detection of Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri in faeces by an immunomagnetic assay with monoclonal antibodies. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 12: 25 32.
49. Jennison, A. V.,, and N. K. Verma. 2004. Shigella flexneri infection: pathogenesis and vaccine development. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 28: 43 58.
50. Jin, Q.,, Z. Yuan,, J. Xu,, Y. Wang,, Y. Shen,, W. Lu,, J. Wang,, H. Liu,, J. Yang,, F. Yang,, X. Zhang,, J. Zhang,, G. Yang,, H. Wu,, D. Qu,, J. Dong,, L. Sun,, Y. Xue,, A. Zhao,, Y. Gao,, J. Zhu,, B. Kan,, K. Ding,, S. Chen,, H. Cheng,, Z. Yao,, B. He,, R. Chen,, D. Ma,, B. Qiang,, Y. Wen,, Y. Hou,, and J. Yu. 2002. Genome sequence of Shigella flexneri 2a: insights into pathogenicity through comparison with genomes of Escherichia coli K12 and O157. Nucleic Acids Res. 30: 4432 4441.
51. Johnson, J. R. 2000. Shigella and Escherichia coli at the crossroads: machiavellian masqueraders or taxonomic treachery? J. Med. Microbiol. 49: 583 85.
52. Johnson, K. J., Boase,, S. D. Helgersen,, and J. M. Kobayashi. Shigellosis in day-care centers—Washington 1983. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 33: 250 251.
53. Jossart, M.-F.,, and R. J. Courcol. 1999. Evaluation of an automated system for identification of Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenting bacilli. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18: 902 907.
54. Kalluri, P.,, K. C. Cummings,, S. Abbott,, G. B. Malcolm,, K. Hutcheson,, A. Beall,, K. Joyce,, C. Polyak,, D. Woodward,, R. Caldeira,, F. Rodgers,, E. D. Mintz,, and N. Strockbine. 2001. Epidemiological features of a newly described serotype of Shigella boydii. Epidemiol. Infect. 132: 579 583.
55. Kapperud, G.,, L. M. Rorvik,, V. Hasseltveldt,, E. A. Hoiby,, B. G. Iversen,, K. Staveland,, G. Johnsen,, J. Leitano,, H. Herikstad,, Y. Andersson,, G. Langeland,, B. Gondrosen,, and J. Lassen. 1995. Outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection traced to imported lettuce. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 609 614.
56. Karaolis, D. K. R.,, R. Lan,, and P. R. Reeves. 1994. Sequence variation in Shigella sonnei (Sonnei), a pathogenic clone of Escherichia coli, over four continents and 41 years. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 796 802.
57. Katz, D. E.,, T. S. Coster,, M. K. Wolf,, F. C. Trespalacios,, D. Cohen,, G. Robins,, A. B. Hartman,, M. M. Venkatesan,, D. N. Taylor,, and T. L. Hale. 2004. Two studies evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of a live, attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine (SC602) and excretion of vaccine organisms in North American volunteers. Infect. Immun. 72: 923 930.
58. Keusch, G. T., 2002. Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, p. 643 667. In M. J. Blaser,, P. D. Smith,, J. I. Ravdin,, H. B. Greenberg,, and R. L. Guerrant (ed.), Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, New York, N.Y.
59. Keusch, G. T.,, and D. W. K. Acheson,. 1996. Shigella infection, p. 79 94. In L. J. Paradise,, M. Bendinelli,, and H. Friedman (ed.), Enteric Infections and Immunity. Plenum Press, New York, N.Y.
60. Keusch, G. T.,, and M. L. Bennish. 1989. Shigellosis: recent progress, persisting problems and research issues. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 8: 713 719.
61. Kitch, T. T.,, M. R. Jacobs,, and P. C. Appelbaum. 1994. Evaluation of RapID onE system for identification of 379 strains in the family Enterobacteriaceae and oxidase-negative, gramnegative nonfermenters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 931 934.
62. Kocka, F. E.,, F. D. Dorigan,, Q. T. Abbasi,, A. L. Swiatlo,, and M. Hubbard-Shepard. 1992. Clinical evaluations of the Wellcolex Colour Shigella and Salmonella test. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15: 1 4.
63. Kolavic, S. A.,, A. Kimura,, S. L. Simons,, L. Slutsker,, S. Barth,, and C. E. Haley. 1997. An outbreak of Shigella dysenteriae type 2 among laboratory workers due to intentional food contamination. JAMA 278: 396 398.
64. Koo, D.,, K. Maloney,, and R. Tauxe. 1996. Epidemiology of diarrheal disease outbreaks on cruise ships, 1986 through 1993. JAMA 275: 545 547.
65. Kotloff, K. L.,, J. P. Winickoff,, B. Ivanoff,, J. D. Clemins,, D. L. Swerdlow,, P. J. Sansonetti,, G. K. Adak,, and M. M. Levine. 1999. Global burden of Shigella infections: implications for vaccine development and implementation of control strategies. Bull. W. H. O. 77: 651 666.
66. Lan, R.,, and P. R. Reeves. 2002. Escherichia coli in disguise: molecular origins of Shigella. Microb. Infect. 4: 1125 1132.
67. Lefebvre, J.,, F. Gosselin,, F. J. Ismail,, M. Lorange,, H. Lior,, and D. Woodward. 1995. Evaluation of commercial antisera for Shigella serogrouping. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 1997 2001.
68. Levine, M. M.,, H. L. DuPont,, M. Khodabandelou,, and H. D. Hornick. 1973. Long-term shigella-carrier state. N. Engl. J. Med. 288: 1169 1171.
69. Lindberg, A. A.,, A. Karnell,, and A. Weintraub. 1991. The lipopolysaccharide of Shigella bacteria as a virulence factor. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13( Suppl. 4): S279 S284.
70. Litwin, C. M.,, R. B. Leonard,, K. C. Carroll,, W. K. Drummond,, and A. T. Pavia. 1997. Characterization of endemic strains of Shigella sonnei by use of plasmid DNA analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to detect patterns of transmission. J. Infect. Dis. 175: 864 870.
71. Liu, P. Y.,, Y. J. Lau,, S. Hu,, M. J. Shyr,, Z. Y. Shi,, W. S. Tsai,, Y. H. Lin,, and C. Y. Tang. 1995. Analysis of clonal relationships among isolates of Shigella sonnei by different molecular typing methods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 1779 1783.
72. Loleka, S.,, S. Vibulbandhitki,, and P. Poonyarit. 1991. Response to antimicrobial therapy for shigellosis in Thailand. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13( Suppl. 4): S342 S346.
73. Margolin, L.,, and D. Engelhard. 2003. Bilateral pneumonia associated with Shigella sonnei dysentery. Am. J. Infect. Control 31: 445 446.
74. Mathan, V. I.,, and M. M. Mathan. 1991. Intestinal manifestations of invasive diarrheas and their diagnosis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13( Suppl.): S311 S313.
75. Maurelli, A. T.,, R. E. Fernández,, C. A. Bloch,, C. R. Rode,, and A. Fasano. 1998. “Black holes” and bacterial pathogenicity: a large genomic deletion that enhances the virulence of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 3943 3948.
76. Mermel, L. A.,, S. L. Josephson,, J. Dempsey,, S. Parenteau,, C. Perry,, and N. Magill. 1997. Outbreak of Shigella sonnei in a clinical microbiology laboratory. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 3163 3165.
77. Miron, D.,, I. Sochotnick,, D. Yardeni,, B. Kawar,, and L. Siplovich. 2000. Surgical complications of shigellosis in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 19: 898 899.
78. Mulder, J. B. 1971. Shigellosis in non-human primates: a review. Lab. Animal Sci. 21: 734 738.
79. Mulligan, K.,, S. Nelson,, H. S. Friedman,, and P. I. Andrews. 1992. Shigellosis-associated encephalopathy. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 11: 889 890.
80. Namdari, H.,, A. Taroli,, and S. Piemontese. 2002. Shigella flexneri as a cause of chronic vaginitis in an allegedly sexually abused five-year-old girl. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 24: 187 188.
81. Navia, M. M.,, L. Capitano,, J. Ruiz,, M. Vargas,, H. Urassa,, D. Schellemberg,, J. Gascon,, and J. Vila. 1999. Typing and characterization of mechanisms of resistance of Shigella spp. isolated from feces of children under 5 years of age from Ifakara, Tanzania. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 3113 3117.
82. O’Hara, C. M.,, and J. M. Miller. 2000. Evaluation of the MicroScan Rapid Neg ID3 panel for identification of Enterobacteriaceae and some common gram-negative nonfermenters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 3577 3580.
83. O’Hara, C. M.,, and J. M. Miller. 2003. Evaluation of the Vitek 2 ID-GNB assay for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other nonenteric gramnegative bacilli and comparison with the Vitek GNI+ card. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 2096 2101.
84. O’Hara, C. M.,, F. C. Tenover,, and J. M. Miller. 1993. Parallel comparison of accuracy of API 20E, Vitek GNI, MicroScan Walk/Away Rapid ID, and Becton Dickinson Cobas Micro ID-E/NF for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and common gram-negative, non-glucose-fermenting bacilli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 3165 3169.
85. O’Hara, C. M.,, G. L. Westbrook,, and J. M. Miller. 1997. Evaluation of Vitek GNI+ and Becton Dickinson Microbiology Systems Crystal E/NF identification systems for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other gram-negative, glucose-fermenting and non-glucose-fermenting bacilli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 3269 3273.
86. Papasian. C. J.,, S. Enna-Kifer,, and J. M. Garrison. 1995. Symptomatic Shigella sonnei urinary tract infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 2222 2223.
87. Parsonnet, J.,, K. D. Green,, A. R. Gerber,, R. V. Tauxe,, O. L. A. Vallejo,, and P. A. Blake. 1989. Shigella dysenteriae type 1 infections in US travelers to Mexico, 1988. Lancet ii: 543 545.
88. Patel, R.,, D. R. Osmon,, J. M. Steckelberg,, M. B. Dekutoski,, and W. R. Wilson. 1996. Vertebral osteomyelitis due to Shigella boydii. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22: 863 864.
89. Pickering, L. K. 1986. The day care center diarrhea dilemma. Am. J. Public Health 76: 623 624.
90. Pickering, L. K. 1996. Emerging antibiotic resistance in enteric bacterial pathogens. Semin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 7: 272 280.
91. Pickering, L. K. 2004. Antimicrobial resistance among enteric pathogens. Semin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 15: 71 77.
92. Pruneda, R. C.,, and J. J. Farmer III. 1977. Bacteriophage typing of Shigella sonnei. J. Clin. Microbiol. 5: 66 74.
93. Pupo, G. M.,, R. Lan,, and P. R. Reeves. 2000. Multiple independent origins of Shigella clones of Escherichia coli and convergent evolution of many of their characteristics. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 10567 10572.
94. Raiden, R. M.,, S. S. Sumner,, J. D. Eifert,, and M. D. Pierson. 2003. Efficacy of detergents in removing Salmonella and Shigella spp. from the surface of fresh produce. J. Food Prot. 66: 2210 2215.
95. Rolland, K.,, N. Lambert-Zechovsky,, B. Picard,, and E. Denamur. 1998. Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli strains are derived from distinct ancestral strains of E. coli. Microbiology 144: 2667 2672.
96. Rosenberg, M. L.,, K. K. Hazlet,, J. Schaefer,, J. G. Wells,, R. C. Pruneda. 1976. Shigellosis from swimming. JAMA 236: 1849 1852.
97. Rowe, B.,, and R. J. Gross,. 1984. Shigella Castellani and Chalmers 1919, 936 AL, p. 423 427. In N. R. Krieg, and J. G. Holt (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md.
98. Rowe, B.,, R. J. Gross,, and M. Guiney. 1976. Antigenic relationships between Escherichia coli O antigens O149 and O163 and Shigella O antigens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 26: 76 78.
99. Saeed, A. A. A. B.,, H. E. El Bushra,, and N. A. Al-Hamdan. 1995. Does treatment of bloody diarrhea due to Shigella dysenteriae type 1 with ampicillin precipitate hemolytic uremic syndrome? Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1: 134 137.
100. Sansonetti, P. J. 2001. Microbes and microbial toxins: paradigms for microbial-mucosal interactions. III. Shigellosis: from symptoms to molecular pathogenesis. Am. J. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 280: G319 G323.
101. Sansonetti, P. 2002. Host-pathogen interactions: the seduction of molecular cross talk. Gut 50( Suppl. III): iii2 iii8.
102. Scerpella, E. G.,, J. J. Mathewson,, H. L. DuPont,, S. K. Marani,, and C. D. Ericsson. Shigella sonnei strains isolated from U.S. summer students in Guadalajara, Mexico, from 1986 to 1992. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 2549 2552.
103. Schulman, S. K. 1988. Clinical experience during a large Shigella sonnei outbreak: when the “hoofbeats” were really “zebras.” Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 7: 296 297.
104. Seymour, C.,, H. M. Crowe,, and M. E. Wilson. 1994. Comparative virulence of blood and stool isolates of Shigella sonnei. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 835 838.
105. Simonet, M. L. 1999. Enterobacteria in reactive arthritis: Yersinia, Shigella, and Salmonella. Rev. Rhum. Engl. Ed. 66( Suppl. 1): 14S 19S.
106. Stoll, D. M. 1986. Cutaneous shigellosis. Arch. Dermatol. 122: 22.
107. Strockbine, N. A.,, J. Parsonnet,, K. Green,, J. A. Kiehlbauch,, and I. K. Wachsmuth. 1991. Molecular epidemiologic techniques in analysis of epidemic and endemic Shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains. J. Infect. Dis. 163: 405 409.
108. Subekti, D.,, B. A. Oyoto,, P. Tjaniadi,, A. L. Corwin,, W. Larasati,, M. Putri,, C. H. Simanjuntak,, N. H. Punjabi,, J. Taslim,, B. Setiawan,, A. A. G. S. Djelantik,, L. Sriwati,, A. Sumardiati,, E. Putra,, J. R. Campbell,, and M. Lesmana. 2001. Shigella spp. surveillance in Indonesia: the emergence or reemergence of S. dysenteriae. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7: 137 140.
109. Talukder, K. A.,, M. A. Islam,, B. K. Khajanchi,, D. K. Dutta,, Z. Islam,, A. Safa,, K. Alam,, A. Hossain,, G. B. Nair,, and D. A. Sack. 2003. Temporal shifts in the dominance of serotypes of Shigella dysenteriae from 1999 to 2002 in Dhaka, Bangladesh. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 5053 5058.
110. Taylor, D.,, N. Bodhidata,, and P. Echeverria. 1991. Epidemiologic aspects of shigellosis and other causes of dysentery in Thailand. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13( Suppl.): S226 S230.
111. Terajima, J.,, K. Tamura,, K. Hirose,, H. Izumiya,, M. Miyahara,, H. Konuma,, and H. Watanbe. 2004. A multi-prefectual outbreak of Shigella sonnei infections associated with eating oysters in Japan. Microbiol. Immunol. 48: 49 52.
112. Tobias, J. D.,, J. R. Starke,, and M. F. Tosi. 1987. Shigella keratitis: a report of two cases and a review of the literature. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 6: 79 81.
113. Toledo, M. R. F.,, R. M. Silva,, and L. R. Trabulsi. 1981. Sachs’ “Enterobacterium A12” is an aerogenic variant of Shigella boydii 14 . Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 31: 242 244.
114. Trevejo, R. T.,, S. L. Abbott,, M. I. Wolfe,, J. Meshulam,, D. Yong,, and G. R. Flores. 1999. An untypeable Shigella flexneri strain associated with an outbreak in California. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2352 2353.
115. Trofa, A. F.,, H. Ueno-Olsen,, R. Oiwa,, and M. Yoshikawa. 1999. Dr. Kiyoshi Shiga: discoverer of the dysentery bacillus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29: 1303 1306.
116. Viret, J.-F.,, U. Bruderer,, and A. B. Lang. 1992. Characterization of the Shigella serotype D ( S. sonnei) O polysaccharide and the enterobacterial R1 lipopolysaccharide core by use of use monoclonal antibodies. Infect. Immun. 60: 2741 2747.
117. Watanabe, H., and N. Okamura,. 1981. The genus Shigella, p. 2754 2759. In M. P. Starr,, H. Stolp,, H. G. Truper,, and H. G. Schlegel (ed.), The Prokaryotes: a Handbook on Habitats, Isolation and Identification of Bacteria. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
118. Waterman, S. R.,, and P. L. Small. 2003. Identification of the promoter regions and σ s-dependent regulation of the gadA and gadBC genes associated with glutamate-dependent acid resistance in Shigella flexneri. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 225: 155 160.
119. Wells, J. G.,, and G. K. Morris. 1981. Evaluation of transport methods for isolating Shigella spp. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13: 789 790.
120. William, D. C.,, Y. M. Felman,, J. S. Marr,, and H. B. Shookhoff. 1977. Sexually transmitted enteric pathogens in male homosexual population. N. Y. State J. Med. 77: 2050 2052.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Nomenclature of the genus

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 65-80. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 2

Differentiation of shigellae from other fecal flora in TSI, LIA, and MIO agars

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 65-80. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 3

Identifications of spp. by commonly used commercial systems

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 65-80. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch6

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error