Chapter 7 : Nontyphoidal Salmonellae

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Nontyphoidal Salmonellae, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817541/9781555813420_Chap07-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817541/9781555813420_Chap07-2.gif


The epithet has remained unchanged, but the species designations have undergone numerous changes, of which only the most recent changes are covered in this chapter. The initial method of naming salmonellae for clinical conditions and/or the animal host from which they were isolated (e.g., the name choleraesuis, from hog cholera) was abandoned, as it became apparent that many strains were not host specific or were not responsible for the disease for which they were named. The concept of three species, , serovar Typhi, and , was proposed by Ewing in 1963, an idea originally put forth by Borman in 1944. Household pets capable of transmitting salmonellosis include cats, rabbits, ferrets, rodents (mice, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, gerbils, and squirrels), turtles, lizards, snakes, and aquarium fish. Two major genetic elements have been identified in many important serotypes that appear to play key roles in pathogenesis in both localized (enteritis) and extraintestinal (bacteremia) infections.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. Nontyphoidal Salmonellae, p 81-103. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch7

Key Concept Ranking

Salmonella enterica
16s rRNA Sequencing
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of >Figure 1
>Figure 1

PFGE of .

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. Nontyphoidal Salmonellae, p 81-103. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Pathogenic bacterial properties and host factors conferring increased susceptibility to infection. (Reprinted with permission from reference ).

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. Nontyphoidal Salmonellae, p 81-103. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abbott, S. L.,, B. A. Portoni,, and J. M. Janda. 1999. Urinary tract infections associated with nontyphoidal Salmonella serogroups. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:41774178.
2. Aguirre, P. M.,, J. B. Cacho,, L. Folgueira,, M. López,, J. Garcia,, and A. C. Velasco. 1990. Rapid fluorescence method for screening Salmonella spp. from enteric differential agars. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:148149.
3. Aleksic, S.,, F. Heinzerling,, and J. Bockemuhl. 1996. Human infection caused by salmonellae of subspecies II to VI in Germany, 1977-1992. Zentbl. Bakteriol. 283:391398.
4. Aliaga, L.,, J. D. Mediavilla,, A. L. delaOsa,, M. Lopez- Gomez,, M. de Cueto,, and C. Miranda. 1997. Nontyphoidal Salmonella intracranial infections in HIV-infected patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25:11181120.
5. Alvarez, J.,, M. Sota,, A. Belen,, V. I. Perales,, R. Cisterna,, A. Rementeria,, and J. Garaizar. 2004. Development of a multiplex PCR technique for detection and epidemiological typing of Salmonella in human clinical samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:17341738.
6. Aserkoff, B.,, and J. V. Bennett. 1969. Effect of therapy in acute salmonellosis on salmonellae in feces. N. Engl. J. Med. 281:636640.
7. Aspinall, S. T.,, M. A. Hindle,, and D. N. Hutchinson. 1992. Improved isolation of salmonellae from feces using a semisolid Rappaport-Vassiliadis medium. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 11:936938.
8. Atkins, B. L.,, E. H. Price,, L. Tillyer,, V. Novelli,, and J. Evans. 1997. Salmonella osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease children in the East End of London. J. Infect. 34:133138.
9. Balfour, A. E.,, R. Lewis,, and S. Ahmed. 1999. Convalescent excretion of Salmonella enteritidis in infants. J. Infect. 38:2425.
10. Bangert, R. L.,, A. C. S. Ward,, E. H. Stauber,, B. R. Cho,, and P. R. Widders. 1988. A survey of the aerobic bacteria in the feces of captive raptors. Avian Dis. 32:5362.
11. Baquar, N.,, A. Burnens,, and J. Stanley. 1994. Comparative evaluation of molecular typing of strains from a national epidemic due to Salmonella brandenburg by rRNA gene and IS200 probes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:18761880.
12. Baraniak, A.,, E. Sadowy,, W. Hryniewicz,, and M. Gniadkowski. 2002. Two different extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in one of the first ESBL-producing salmonella isolates in Poland. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:10951097.
13. Barker, R.,, and D. C. Old. 1980. Phage type/biotype groups of Salmonella typhimurium in Scotland 1974-1976: variation during spread of epidemic clones. J. Hyg. Camb. 84:115125.
14. Barrow, P. A.,, and M. A. Lovell. 1989. Invasion of Vero cells by Salmonella species. J. Med. Microbiol. 28:5967.
15. Bascomb,, S. L. Abbott,, J. D. Bobolis,, D. A. Bruckner,, S. J. Connell,, S. K. Cullen,, M. Daugherty,, D. Glenn,, J. M. Janda,, S. J. Lentsch,, D. Lindquist,, P. B. Mayhew,, D. M. Nothaft,, J. R. Skinner,, G. B. Williams,, J. Wong,, and B. L. Zimmer. 1997. Multicenter evaluation of the MicroScan Rapid Gram-Negative Identification Type 3 Panel. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:25312536.
16. Bäumler, A. J.,, and F. Heffron. 1995. Identification and sequence analysis of lpfABCDE, a putative fimbrial operon of Salmonella typhimurium. J. Bacteriol. 177:20872097.
17. Bäumler, A. J.,, R. M. Tsolis,, T. A. Ficht,, and L. G. Adams. 1998. Evolution of host adaptation in Salmonella enterica. Infect. Immun. 66:45794587.
18. Bäumler, A. J.,, R. M. Tsolis,, and F. Heffron. 1996. The lpf fimbrial operon mediates adhesion of Salmonella typhimurium to murine Peyer’s patches. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 279283.
19. Beatty, M. E.,, T. N. LaPorte,, G. Phan,, S. V. Van Duyne,, and C. Braden. 2004. A multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Saintpaul infections linked to mango consumption: a recurrent theme. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:13371338.
20. Bender, J. B.,, C. W. Hedberg,, D. J. Boxrud,, J. M. Besser,, J. H. Wicklund,, K. E. Smith,, and M. T. Osterholm. 2001. Use of molecular subtyping in surveillance for Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. N. Engl. J. Med. 344:189195.
21. Betts, J.,, and B. B. Finlay. 1993. Identification of Salmonella typhimurium invasiveness loci. Can. J. Microbiol. 38:852857.
22. Bjorkman, P.,, A. Nilsson,, and K. Riesbeck. 2002. A pilot with pain in his leg: thigh abscess caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Brandenburg. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:35303531.
23. Blaser, M. J. 1996. How safe is our food? N. Engl. J. Med. 334:13241325.
24. Blaser, M. J.,, and L. S. Newman. 1982. A review of human salmonellosis. I. infective dose. Rev. Infect. Dis. 4:10961106.
25. Bouvet, P. J. M.,, and S. Jeanjean. 1992. Evaluation of two colored latex kits, the Wellcolex Colour Salmonella test and the Wellcolex Colour Shigella test, for serological grouping of Salmonella and Shigella species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:21842186.
26. Boyce, T. G.,, D. Koo,, D. L. Swerdlow,, T. M. Gomez,, B. Serrano,, L. N. Nickey,, F. W. Hickman-Brenner,, G. B. Malcolm,, and P. M. Griffin. 1996. Recurrent outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis infections in a Texas restaurant: phage type 4 arrives in the United States. Epidemiol. Infect. 117:2934.
27. Boyd, E. F.,, F.-S. Wang,, T. S. Whittam,, and R. K. Selander. 1996. Molecular genetic relationships of the salmonellae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:804808.
28. Brenner, F. W.,, R. G. Villar,, F. J. Angulo,, R. Tauxe,, and B. Swaminathan. 2000. Salmonella nomenclature. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:24652467.
29. Buchwald, D. S.,, and M. J. Blaser. 1984. A review of human salmonellosis. II. Duration of excretion following infection with nontyphi Salmonella. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6:345356.
30. Can, F.,, M. Demirbilek,, B. Erdem,, U. Ciftci,, M. Tunaoglu,, and Y. Laleli. 2004. A purulent pericarditis caused by Salmonella typhimurium. J. Med. Microbiol. 53:12.
31. Casin, I.,, J. Breuil,, A. Brisabois,, F. Moury,, F. Grimont,, and E. Collatz. 1999. Multidrug-resistant human and animal Salmonella typhimurium isolates in France belong predominantly to a DT104 clone with the chromosome-and integron-encoded β-lactamase PSE-1. J. Infect. Dis. 179:11731182.
32. Casin, I.,, J. Breuil,, J. P. Darchis,, C. Guelpa,, and E. Collatz. 2003. Fluoroquinolone resistance linked to GyrA, GyrB, and ParC mutations in Salmonella enterica typhimurium isolates in humans. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:14551457.
33. Cassar, R.,, and P. Cuschieri. 2003. Comparison of Salmonella chromogenic medium with DCLS agar for isolation of Salmonella species from stool specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 32293232.
34. Castro, D.,, M. A. Morinigo,, E. Martinez-Manzanares,, R. Cornax,, M. C. Balebona,, A. Luque,, and J. J. Borrego. 1992. Development and application of a new scheme of phages for typing and differentiating Salmonella strains from different sources. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:14181423.
35.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1995. Reptile associated salmonellosis—selected states, 1994-1995. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 44:347350.
36.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Outbreaks of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis infection associated with eating shell eggs—United States, 1999-2001. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51:11491152.
37. Chang, C.-T.,, C.-Y. Yuo,, H.-C. Shen,, A.-M. Li,, C.-Y. Chen,, J.-L. Chou,, and S.-P. Huang. 1999. Recovery of Salmonella by using selenite brilliant green sulfa enrichment broth. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:41204123.
38. Chiu, C. H.,, and J. T. Ou. 1996. Rapid identification of Salmonella serovars in feces by specific detection of virulence genes, invA and spvC, by an enrichment broth culture-multiplex PCR combination assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:26192622.
39. Chiu, C.-H.,, and J. T. Ou. 1999. Persistence of Salmonella species in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis following ceftriaxone therapy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 28:11741175.
40. Chiu, C.-H.,, T.-L. Wu,, L.-H. Su,, C. Chu,, J.-H. Chia,, A.-J. Kuo,, M.-S. Chien,, and T.-Y. Lin. 2002. The emergence in Taiwan of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis. N. Engl. J. Med. 346:413419.
41. Chomel, B. B. 1992. Zoonoses of house pets other than dogs, cats and bird. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 11:479487.
42. Christensen, H.,, S. Nordentoft,, and J. E. Olsen. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships of Salmonella based on rRNA sequences. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 48:605610.
43. Clark, C.,, J. Cunningham,, R. Ahmed,, D. Woodward,, K. Fonseca,, S. Isaacs,, A. Ellis,, C. Anand,, K. Ziebell,, A. Muckle,, P. Sockett,, and F. Rodgers. 2001. Characterization of Salmonella associated with pig ear dog treats in Canada. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:39623968.
44. Collazos, J.,, J. Mayo,, E. Martinez,, and M.-S. Blanco. 1998. Muscle infections caused by Salmonella species: case report and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:673676.
45. Collinson, S. K.,, L. Emödy,, K. H. Müller,, T. J. Trust,, and W. W. Kay. 1991. Purification and characterization of thin, aggregative fimbriae from Salmonella enteritidis. J. Bacteriol. 173:17731791.
46. Cooke, V. M.,, R. J. Miles,, R. G. Price,, and A. C. Richardson. 1999. A novel chromogenic ester agar medium for detection of salmonellae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:807812.
47. Coughlin, L. B.,, J. McGuigan,, N. G. Haddad,, and P. Mannion. 2003. Salmonella sepsis and miscarriage. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 9:866868.
48. Coyle, E. F.,, C. D. Ribiero,, A. J. Howard,, S. R. Palmer,, H. I. Jones,, and L. Ward. 1988. Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 infection: association with hen’s eggs. Lancet ii:12951297.
49. Crosa, H. H.,, D. J. Brenner,, E. H. Ewing,, and S. Falkow. 1973. Molecular relationship among the Salmonelleae. J. Bacteriol. 115:307315.
50. Cruickshank, J. G.,, and T. J. Humphrey. 1987. The carrier food-handler and non-typhoid salmonellosis. Epidemiol. Infect. 98:223230.
51. Darwin, K. H.,, and V. L. Miller. 1999. Molecular basis of the interaction of Salmonella with the intestinal mucosa. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12:405428.
52. Daum, L. T.,, W. J. Barnes,, J. C. McAvin,, M. S. Neidert,, L. A. Cooper,, W. B. Huff,, L. Gaul,, W. S. Riggins,, S. Morris,, A. Salmen,, and K. L. Lohman. 2002. Real-time PCR detection of Salmonella in suspect foods from a gastroenteritis outbreak in Kerr County, Texas. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:30503052.
53. Delaloye, J.,, G. Merlani,, C. Petignat,, A. Wenger,, K. Zaman,, C. Monnerat,, O. Matzinger,, M. B. Popovic,, P. Vuichard,, N. Ketterer,, and P. E. Tarr. 2004. Nosocomial nontyphoidal salmonellosis after antineoplastic chemotherapy: reactivation of asymptomatic colonization? Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 23:751758.
54. Douce, G. R.,, A. Amin,, and J. Stephen. 1991. Invasion of HEp-2 cells by strains of Salmonella typhimurium of different virulence in relation to gastroenteritis. J. Med. Microbiol. 35: 349357.
55. DuPont, H. L.,, and L. K. Pickering. 1980. Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Microbiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Features. Plenum Medical Book Company, New York, N.Y.
56. Dusch, H.,, and M. Altwegg. 1995. Evaluation of five new plating media for isolation of Salmonella species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:802804.
57. Dworkin, M. S.,, P. C. Shoemaker,, M. J. Goldoft,, and J. M. Kobayashi. 2001. Reactive arthritis and Reiter’s syndrome following an outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella enteritidis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33:10101014.
58. Edwards, R. A.,, G. J. Olsen,, and S. R. Maloy. 2002. Comparative genomics of closely related salmonellae. Trends Microbiol. 10:9499.
59. Esteban, E.,, K. Snipes,, D. Hird,, R. Kasten,, and H. Kinde. 1993. Use of ribotyping for characterization of Salmonella serotypes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:233237.
60. Euzeby, J. P. 1999. Revised Salmonella nomenclature: designation of Salmonella enterica (ex Kauffmann and Edwards 1952) Le Minor and Popoff 1987 sp. nov., nom. rev. as the neotype species of the genus Salmonella Lignieres 1900 (Approved Lists 1980), rejection of the name Salmonella choleraesuis (Smith 1894) Weldin 1927 (Approved Lists 1980), and conservation of the name Salmonella typhi (Schroeter 1886) Warren and Scott 1930 (Approved Lists 1980). Request for an opinion. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49:927930.
61. Ewing, E. H. 1963. An outline of nomenclature for the family Enterobacteriaceae. Int. Bull. Bacteriol. Nomencl. Taxon. 13:95110.
62. Ewing, E. H.,, and P. R. Edwards. 1972. Identification of the Enterobacteriaceae, 3rd ed. Burgess Publishing Co., Minneapolis, Minn.
63. Fang, G.,, V. Araujo,, and R. L. Guerrant. 1991. Enteric infections associated with exposure to animals or animal products. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 5:681701.
64. Farthing, M.,, R. Feldman,, R. Finch,, R. Fox,, C. Leen,, B. Mandal,, P. Moss,, D. Nathwani,, F. Nye,, A. Percival,, R. Read,, L. Ritchie,, W. T. A. Todd,, and M. Wood. 1996. The management of infective gastroenteritis in adults: a consensus statement by an expert panel convened by the British Society for the Study of Infection. J. Infect. 33:143152.
65. Fierer, J.,, and D. G. Guiney. 2001. Diverse virulence traits underlying different clinical outcomes of Salmonella infection. J. Clin. Investig. 107:775780.
66. Fierer, J.,, M. Krause,, R. Tauxe,, and D. Guiney. 1992. Salmonella typhimurium bacteremia: association with the virulence plasmid. J. Infect. Dis. 166:639642.
67. Finlay, B. B.,, K. Y. Leung,, I. Rosenshine,, and F. Garcia-del Portillo. 1992. Salmonella interactions with epithelial cells. ASM News 58:486489.
68. Forward, K. R.,, and B. J. Rainnie. 1997. Use of selenite enrichment broth for the detection of Salmonella from stool: a report of one year experience at a provincial public health laboratory. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 29:215217.
69. Foster, J. W.,, and H. K. Hall. 1990. Adaptive acidification tolerance response of Salmonella typhimurium. J. Bacteriol. 172:771778.
70. Foster, J. W.,, and H. K. Hall. 1991. Inducible pH homeostasis and the acid tolerance response of Salmonella typhimurium. J. Bacteriol. 173:51295135.
71. Freydiere, A. M.,, and Y. Gille. 1991. Detection of salmonellae by using Rambach agar and by a C8 esterase spot test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:23572359.
72. Funke, G.,, D. Monnet,, C. deBernardis,, A. von Graevenitz,, and J. Freney. 1998. Evaluation of the VITEK 2 system for rapid identification of medically relevant gram-negative rods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:19481952.
73. Gahring, L. C.,, F. Heffron,, B. B. Finlay,, and S. Falkow. 1990. Invasion and replication of Salmonella typhimurium in animal cells. Infect. Immun. 58:443448.
74. Gaillot, O.,, C. Clement,, M. Simonet,, and A. Philippon. 1997. Novel transferable β-lactam resistance with cephalosporinase characteristics in Salmonella enteritidis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 39:8587.
75. Gaillot, O.,, P. Di Camillo,, P. Berche,, R. Courcol,, and C. Savage. 1999. Comparison of CHROMagar Salmonella medium and Hektoen Enteric agar for isolation of salmonellae from stool samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:762765.
76. Garcia-Aguayo, J. M.,, P. Ubeda,, and M. Gobernado. 1999. Evaluation of xylose-galactosidase medium, a new plate for the isolation of Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia and Aeromonas species. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18:7778.
77. Garcia-Corbeira, P.,, J. M. Ramos,, J. M. Aguado,, and F. Soriano. 1996. Six cases in which mesenteric lymphadenitis due to non-typhi Salmonella caused an appendicitis-like syndrome. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21:232234.
78. Giammanco, G. M.,, S. Pignato,, C. Mammina,, F. Grimont,, P. A. D. Grimont,, A. Nastasi,, and G. Giammanco. 2002. Persistent endemicity of Salmonella bongori 48:z35:- in Southern Italy: molecular characterization of human, animal, and environmental isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:35023505.
79. Glynn, M. K.,, C. Bopp,, W. Dewitt,, P. Dabney,, M. Mokhtar,, and F. J. Angulo. 1998. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104 infections in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med. 338:13331338.
80. Goldberg, M. B.,, and R. H. Rubin,. 1988. The spectrum of Salmonella infection. p. 571599. In R. C. Moellering, and S. L. Gorbach (ed.), Infectious Diarrhea. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
81. Gomez, H. F.,, and T. G. Cleary. 1996. Drug-resistant Salmonella, Shigella, and diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 7:212222.
82. Groisman, E. A.,, P. I. Fields,, and F. Heffron,. 1990. Molecular biology of Salmonella pathogenesis, p. 251272. In B. H. Iglewski, and V. L. Clark (ed.), Molecular Basis of Bacterial Pathogenesis. Academic Press, San Diego, Calif.
83. Guard-Petter, J. 2001. The chicken, the egg and Salmonella enteritidis. Environ. Microbiol. 3:421430.
84. Guiney, D. G.,, F. C. Fang,, M. Krause,, and S. Libby. 1994. Plasmid-mediated virulence genes in non-typhoid Salmonella serovars. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 124:110.
85. Guiney, D. G.,, F. C. Fang,. M. Krause,, S. Libby,, N. A. Buchmeier,, and J. Fierer. 1995. Biology and clinical significance of virulence plasmids in Salmonella serovars. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21(Suppl.):S146S151.
86. Gulig, P. A. 1990. Virulence plasmids of Salmonella typhimurium and other salmonellae. Microb. Pathog. 8:311.
87. Gulig, P. A.,, H. Danbara,, D. G. Guiney,, A. J. Lax,, F. Norel,, and M. Rhen. 1993. Molecular analysis of spv virulence genes of the salmonella virulence plasmid. Mol. Microbiol. 7:825830.
88. Guthrie, R. K. 1992. Salmonella. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
89. Hardy, A. 2004. Salmonella: a continuing problem. Postgrad. Med. J. 80:541545.
90. Hefferman, E. J.,, J. Harwood,, J. Fierer,, and D. Guiney. 1992. The Salmonella typimurium virulence plasmid complement resistance gene rck is homologous to a family of virulence-related outer membrane protein genes, including pagC and ail. Infect. Immun. 174:8491.
91. Hernandez, J.,, J. Bonnedahl,, J. Waldenstrom,, H. Palmgren,, and B. Olsen. 2003. Salmonella in birds migrating through Sweden. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:753755.
92. Heyd, J.,, R. Meallem,, Y. Schlesinger,, B. Rudensky,, I. Hadas- Halpern,, A. M. Yinnon,, and D. Raveh. 2003. Clinical characteristics of patients with psoas abscess due to non-Typhi Salmonella. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 22:770773.
93. Hickman-Brenner, F. W.,, A. D. Stubbs,, and J. J. Farmer III. 1991. Phage typing of Salmonella enteritidis in the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:28172823.
94. Holmes, B.,, M. Costas,, M. Ganner,, S. L. W. On,, and M. Stevens. 1994. Evaluation of Biolog System for identification of some gram-negative bacteria of clinical importance. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:19701975.
95. Hoorfar, J.,, P. Ahrens,, and P. Radstrom. 2000. Automated 5'nuclease PCR assay for identification of Salmonella enterica. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:34293435.
96. Huang, L.-T. 1996. Salmonella meningitis complicated by brain infarctions. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22:194195.
97. Inoue, K.,, K. Miki,, K. Tamura,, and R. Sakazaki. 1996. Evaluation of l-pyrrolidonyl peptidase paper strip test for differentiation of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, particularly Salmonella spp. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:18111812.
98. Jossart, M.-F.,, and R. J. Courcol. 1999. Evaluation of an automated system for identification of Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenting bacilli. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18:902907.
99.Judicial Committee of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. 2005. The type species of the genus Salmonella Lignieres 1900 is Salmonella enterica (ex Kauffmann and Edwards 1952) Le Minor and Popoff 1987, with the type strain LT2T, and conservation of the epithet enterica in Salmonella enterica over all other epithets that may be applied to this species. Opinion 80. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55:521524.
100. Kamarulzaman, A.,, R. J. S. Briggs,, G. Fabinyi,, and M. J. Richards. 1996. Skull osteomyelitis due to Salmonella species: two case reports and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22:638641.
101. Kelly, S.,, M. Cormican,, L. Parke,, G. Corbett-Feeney,, and J. Flynn. 1999. Cost-effective methods for isolation of Salmonella enterica in the clinical laboratory. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:3369.
102. Kennedy, M.,, R. Villar,, D. J. Vugia,, T. Rabatsky-Ehr,, M. M. Farley,, M. Pass,, K. Smith,, P. Smith,, P. R. Cieslak,, B. Imhoff, and P. M. Griffin for the Emerging Infections Program Food- Net Working Group. 2004. Hospitalizations and deaths due to Salmonella infections, FoodNet, 1996-1999. Clin. Infect. Dis.38(Suppl. 3):S142S148.
103. Kingsley, R. A.,, K. Van Amersterdam,, N. Kramer,, and A. J. Baumler. 2000. The shdA gene is restricted to serotypes of Salmonella enterica subspecies I and contributes to efficient and prolonged fecal shedding. Infect. Immun. 68:27202727.
104. Kirk, M. D.,, C. L. Little,, M. Lem,, M. Fyfe,, D. Genobile,, A. Tan,, J. Threlfall,, A. Paccagnella,, D. Lightfoot,, H. Lyi,, L. McIntyre,, L. Ward,, D. J. Brown,, S. Surnam,, and I. S. T. Fisher. 2004. An outbreak due to peanuts in their shell caused by Salmonella enterica serotypes Stanley and Newport— sharing molecular information to solve international outbreaks. Epidemiol. Infect. 132:571577.
105. Kita, E.,, N. Kamibaidou,, A. Nakano,, and S. Kashiba. 1993. Isolation of a cytotoxin from L-form Salmonella typhimurium. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 109:179184.
106. Kitch, T. T.,, M. R. Jacobs,, and P. C. Appelbaum. 1994. Evaluation of RapID onE System for identification of 379 strains in the family Enterobacteriaceae and oxidase-negative gram-negative nonfermenters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:931934.
107. Knee, T. S.,, and C. A. Ohl. 1997. Salmonella parotitis with abscess formation in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24:10091010.
108. Kocka, F. E.,, F. D. Dorigan,, Q. T. Abbasi,, A. L. Swiatlo,, and M. Hubbard-Shepard. 1992. Clinical evaluation of the Wellcolex Colour Shigella and Salmonella tests. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15:14.
109. Kohl, K. S.,, K. Rietberg,, S. Wilson,, and T. A. Farley. 2002. Relationship between home food-handling practices and sporadic salmonellosis in adults in Louisiana, United States. Epidemiol. Infect. 129:267276.
110. Kumari, P.,, and V. L. Kan. 2000. Salmonella typhimurium brain abscess: postoperative complication. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30:621622.
111. LeMinor, L., 1981. The genus Salmonella, p. 27602774. In M. P. Starr,, H. Stolp,, H. G. Truper,, and H. G. Schlegel (ed.), The Prokaryotes: a Handbook on Habitats, Isolation, and Identification of Bacteria. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
112. LeMinor, L., 1982. Genus III. Salmonella Lignières 1900, 389AL, p. 427458. In N. R. Krieg, and J. G. Holt (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md.
113. LeMinor, L.,, and M. Y. Popoff. 1987. Request for an opinion: designation of Salmonella enterica sp. nov., nom. rev., as the type and only species in the genus Salmonella. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37:465468.
114. Libby, S. J.,, L. G. Adams,, T. A. Ficht,, C. Allen,, H. A. Whitford,, N. A. Buchmeier,, S. Bossie,, and D. G. Guiney. 1997. The spv genes on the Salmonella dublin virulence plasmid are required for severe enteritis and systemic infection in the natural host. Infect. Immun. 65:17861792.
115. Liebisch, B.,, and S. Schwarz. 1996. Evaluation and comparison of molecular techniques for epidemiological typing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar dublin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:641646.
116. Ling, T. K. W.,, P. C. Tam,, Z. K. Liu,, and A. F. B. Cheng. 2001. Evaluation of VITEK 2 rapid identification and susceptibility testing system against gram-negative clinical isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:29642966.
117. Lingren, S. W.,, I. Stoljilkovic,, and F. Heffron. 1996. Macrophage killing is an essential virulence mechanism of Salmonella typhimurium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 41974201.
118. Lockman, H. A.,, and R. Curtiss III. 1992. Virulence of nontype 1 fimbriated and nonfibriated nonflagellated Salmonella typhimurium mutants in murine typhoid fever. Infect. Immun. 60:491496.
119. McCarron, B.,, and W. C. Love. 1997. Acalculous nontyphoidal salmonella cholecystitis requiring surgical intervention despite ciprofloxacin therapy: report of three cases. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24:707709.
120. McConkey, S. J.,, N. D. McCarthy,, and C. T. Keane. 1999. Primary peritonitis due to nonenteric salmonellae. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:211212.
121. McKendrick, M. W. 1996. Post salmonella irritable bowel syndrome—5 year review. J. Infect. 32:170171.
122. McKendrick, M. W.,, and N. W. Read. 1994. Irritable-bowel syndrome—post salmonella infection. J. Infect. 29:13.
123. Mecsas, J.,, and E. J. Strauss. 1996. Molecular mechanisms of bacterial virulence: type III secretion and pathogenicity islands. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2:271288.
124. Mermin, J.,, B. Hoar,, and F. J. Angulo. 1997. Iguanas and Salmonella Marina infection in children: a reflection of the increasing incidence of reptile-associated salmonellosis in the United States. Pediatrics 99:399402.
125. Mermin, J.,, L Hutwagner,, D. Vugia,, S. Shallow,, P. Dailey,, J. Bender,, J. Koehler,, R. Marcus,, and F. J. Angulo, for the Emerging Infections Program FoodNet Working Group. 2004. Reptiles, amphibians and human Salmonella infection: a population-based, case-control study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38(Suppl. 3):S253S261.
126. Millemann, Y.,, M. C. Lesage,, E. Chaslus-Dancla,, and J. P. LaFont. 1995. Value of plasmid profililng, ribotyping, and detection of IS200 for tracing avian isolates of Salmonella typhimurium and S. enteritidis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:173179.
127. Mills, D. M.,, V. Bajaj,, and C. A. Lee. 1995. A 40 kb chromosomal fragment encoding Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes is absent from the corresponding region of the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome. Mol. Microbiol. 15: 749759.
128. Mintz, E. D.,, M. L. Cartter,, J. L. Hadler,, J. T. Wassell,, J. A. Zingeser,, and R. V. Tauxe. 1994. Dose-response effects in an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis. Epidemiol. Infect. 112: 1323.
129. Monack, D. M.,, B. Raupach,, A. E. Hromockyj,, and S. Falkow. 1996. Salmonella typhimurium invasion induces apoptosis in infected macrophages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:98339838.
130. Müller, K. H.,, S. K. Collinson,, T. J. Trust,, and W. W. Kay. 1991. Type 1 fimbriae of Salmonella enteritidis. J. Bacteriol. 173:47654772.
131. Nair, D.,, S. Kabra,, N. Gupta,, S. K. Prakash,, S. K. Jain,, and M. D. Mathur. 1999. Pleuro pulmonary infection with salmonella group E. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 34:321323.
132. Neau, D.,, Y. Delmas,, P. Merville,, H. Dutronc,, M. El Kadiri,, L. Potaux,, and J. M. Ragnaud. 2000. Rhabdomyolysis and Salmonella enteritidis infection. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 19:973975.
133. Núnez, M. L.,, J. Díaz,, M. A. Sempere,, J. Gómez,, and J. Ruiz. 1996. Novobiocin-Salmonella-Shigella agar for isolation of Salmonella species. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15:9697.
134. Oana, S., Aizawa, F. Kagawa, and Y. Kohno. 2000. A case of salmonella enterocolitis with paradoxical hypertension. Acta. Paediatr. 89:615616.
135. Odumeru, J. A.,, M. Steele,, L. Fruhner,, C. Larkin,, J. Jiang,, E. Mann,, and W. B. McNab.1999. Evaluation of accuracy and repeatability of identification of food-borne pathogens by automated bacterial identification systems. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:944949.
136. O’Hara, C. M.,, and J. M. Miller. 2000. Evaluation of the MicroScan Rapid Neg ID3 Panel for identification of Enterobacteriaceae and some common gram-negative nonfermenters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:35773580.
137. O’Hara, C. M.,, and J. M. Miller. 2003. Evaluation of the Vitek 2 ID-GNB Assay for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other nonenteric gram-negative bacilli and comparison with the Vitek GNI+ Card. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:20962101.
138. O’Hara, C. M.,, G. L. Westbrook,, and J. M. Miller. 1997. Evaluation of Vitek GNI + and Becton Dickinson Microbiology Systems Crystal E/NF Identification Systems for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other gram-negative, glucose-fermenting and non-glucosefermenting bacilli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:32693273.
139. Ohl, M. E.,, and S. Miller. 2001. Salmonella: a model for bacterial pathogenesis. Annu. Rev. Med. 52:259274.
140. Old, D. C. 1992. Nomenclature in Salmonella. J. Med. Microbiol. 37:361363.
141. Olsen, J. E.,, D. J. Brown,, D. L. Baggesen,, and M. Bisgaard. 1992. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar berta, and comparison of methods for typing. Epidemiol. Infect. 108:243260.
142. Olsen, S. J.,, R. Bishop,, F. W. Brenner,, T. H. Roels,, N. Bean,, R. V. Tauxe,, and L. Slutsker. 2001. The changing epidemiology of Salmonella: trends in serotypes isolated from humans in the United States, 1987-1997. J. Infect. Dis. 183:753761.
143. Olsson M,, A. Syk,, and R. Wollin. 1991. Identification of salmonellae with the 4-methylumbelliferyl caprilate fluorescence test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:26312632.
144. Painter, J. A.,, K. Molbak,, J. Sonne-Hansen,, T. Barrett,, J. G. Wells,, and R. V. Tauxe. 2004. Salmonella-based rodenticides and public health. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:985987.
145. Paterson, D. L.,, M. W. Harrison,, and J. M. B. Robson. 1997. Clinical spectrum of urinary tract infections due to nontyphoidal Salmonella species. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25:754.
146. Peele, D.,, J. Bradfield,, W. Pryor,, and S. Vore. 1997. Comparison of identifications of human and animal source gramnegative bacteria by API 20E and Crystal E/NF systems. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:213216.
147. Pegues, D. A.,, E. L. Hohmann,, and S. I. Miller,. 1995. Salmonella including S. Typhi, p. 785809. In M. J. Blaser,, P. D. Smith,, J. I. Ravdin,, H. B. Greenberg,, and R. L. Guerrant (ed.), Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Raven Press, New York, N.Y.
148. Perez, J. M.,, P. Cavalli,, C. Roure,, R. Renac,, Y. Gille,, and A. M. Freydiere. 2003. Comparison of four chromogenic media and Hektoen agar for detection and presumptive identification of Salmonella strains in human stools. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:11301134.
149. Perry, J. D.,, M. Ford,, J. Taylor,, A. L. Jones,, R. Freeman,, and F. K. Gould. 1999. ABC medium, a new chromogenic agar for selective isolation of Salmonella spp. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:766768.
150. Pickering, L. K. 2004. Antimicrobial resistance among enteric pathogens. Sem. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 15:7177.
151. Prager, R.,, A. Fruth,, and H. Tschape. 1995. Salmonella enterotoxin (stn) gene is prevalent among strains of Salmonella enterica, but not among Salmonella bongori and other Enterobacteriaceae. FEMS Immunol. Microbiol. 12:4750.
152. Rambach, A. 1990. New plate medium for facilitated differentiation of Salmonella spp. from Proteus spp. and other enteric bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:301303.
153. Ramos, J. M.,, J. M. Aguado,, P. Garcia-Corbeira,, P. Ales,, and F. Sorian. 1996. Clinical spectrum of urinary tract infections due to nontyphoidal Salmonella species. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23:388390.
154. Recio, J.,, J. Alegre,, and T. Fernandez de Sevilla. 1999. Myocardial abscess with salmonella infection. Ann. Intern. Med. 131:477478.
155. Reeves, M. W.,, G. M. Evins,, A. A. Heiba,, B. D. Plikaytis,, and J. J. Farmer III. 1989. Clonal nature of Salmonella typhi and its genetic relatedness to other salmonellae as shown by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and proposal of Salmonella bongori comb. nov. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:313320.
156. Ribot, E. M.,, R. K. Wierzba,, F. J. Angulo,, and T. J. Barrett. 2002. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104 isolated from humans, United States, 1985, 1990, and 1995. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:387391.
157. Rohner, P.,, S. Dharan,, and R. Auckenthaler. 1992. Evaluation of the Wellcolex Colour Salmonella test for detection of Salmonella spp. in enrichment broths. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:32743276.
158. Rotger, R.,, and J. Casadesus. 1999. The virulence plasmids of Salmonella. Int. Microbiol. 2:177184.
159. Rubino, J. R. 1997. The economic impact of human Salmonella infection. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 19:2529.
160. Ruiz, J. R.,, M. L. Núnez,, J. Díaz,, M. A. Sempere,, J. Gomez,, and M. A. Usera. 1996. Note: comparison of media for the isolation of lactose-positive Salmonella. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 81:571574.
161. Ruiz, J.,, M. L. Nunez,, I. Lorente,, J. Perez,, and J. Gomez. 1996. Performance of six culture media for isolation of Salmonella species from stool samples. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15:922926.
162. Salama, N. R.,, and S. Falkow. 1999. Genomic clues for defining bacterial pathogenicity. Microbes Infect. 1:615619.
163. Santos, E. M.,, and F. L. Sapico. 1998. Vertebral osteomyelitis due to salmonellae: report of two cases and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:287295.
164. Sarwari, A. R.,, L. S. Magder,, P. Levine,, A. M. McNamara,, S. Knower,, G. L. Armstrong,, R. Etzel,, J. Hollingsworth,, and J. G. Morris, Jr. 2001. Serotype distribution of Salmonella isolates from food animals after slaughter differs from that of isolates found in humans. J. Infect. Dis. 183:12951299.
165. Schutze, G. E.,, R. S. Kirby,, E. L. Flick,, R. Stefanova,, K. D. Eisenach,, and M. D. Cave. 1998. Epidemiology and molecular identification of Salmonella infections in children. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 152:659664.
166. Scott, F.,, J. Threlfall,, and C. Arnold. 2002. Genetic structure of Salmonella revealed by fragment analysis. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52:17011713.
167. Shea, J.,, M. Hensel,, C. Gleeson,, and D. W. Holden. 1996. Identification of a virulence locus encoding a second type III secretion system for Salmonella typhimurium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:25932597.
167a.. Shelobolina, E. S.,, S. A. Sullivan,, K. R. O’Neill,, K. P. Nevin,, and D. R. Lovley. 2004. Isolation, characterization, and U(VI)-reducing potential of a facultatively anaerobic, acidresistant bacterium from low-pH, nitrate- and U(VI)- contaminated subsurface sediment and description of Salmonella subterranea sp. nov. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:29592965.
168. Shimoni, Z.,, S. Pitlik,, L. Leibovici,, Z. Samra,, H. Konigsberger,, M. Drucker,, V. Agmon,, S. Ashkenazi,, and M. Weinberger. 1998. Nontyphoidal salmonella bacteremia: age-related differences in clinical presentation, bacteriology, and outcome. Clin. Infect. Dis. 28:822827.
169. Simonet, M. L. 1999. Enterobacteria in reactive arthritis: Yersinia, Shigella, and Salmonella. Rev. Rhum.66(Suppl. 1):14S19S.
170. Sirinavin, S.,, P. Jayanetra,, and A. Thakkinstian. 1999. Clinical and prognostic categorization of extraintestinal nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in infants and children. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:11511156.
171. Soravia-Dunand, V. A.,, V. G. Loo,, and I. E. Salit. 1999. Aortitis due to Salmonella: report of 10 cases and comprehensive review of the literature. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:862868.
172. Sperber, S. J.,, and C. J. Schleupner. 1987. Salmonellosis during infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Rev. Infect. Dis. 9:925934.
173. Stone, G. G.,, R. D. Oberst,, M. P. Hays,, S. McVey,, and M. M. Chengappa. 1994. Detection of Salmonella serovars from clinical samples by enrichment broth cultivation-PCR procedure. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:17421749.
174. Su, F.-H.,, P.-T. Chen,, Y.-C. Chiu,, and J.-W. Chen. 2003. Salmonella retropharyngeal abscess in a child: case report and literature review. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 22:833836.
175. Su, L.-H.,, C.-H. Chiu,, C. Chu,, and J. T. Ou. 2004. Antimicrobial resistance in nontyphoid Salmonella sertoypes: a global challenge. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:546551.
176. Tauxe, R. V.,, L. F. Hassan,, K. O. Findeisen,, R. G. Sharrar,, and P. Blake. 1988. Salmonellosis in nurses: lack of transmission to patients. J. Infect. Dis. 157:37373.
177. Thornton, S. M.,, S. Nolan,, and F. M. D. Gulland. 1998. Bacterial isolates from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) admitted to a rehabilitation center along the central California coast, 1994-1995. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 29:171176.
178. Threlfall, E. J.,, I. S. Fisher,, C. Berghold,, P. Gerner-Smidt,, H. Tschape,, M. Cormican,, I. Luzzi,, F. Schnieder,, W. Wannet,, J. Machado,, and G. Edwards. 2003. Antimicrobial drug resistance in isolates of Salmonella enterica from cases of salmonellosis in humans in Europe in 2000: results of international multi-centre surveillance. Euro Surveill. 8:4145.
179. Tinsdall, B. J.,, P. A. D. Grimont,, G. M. Garrity,, and J. P. Euzeby. 2005. Nomenclature and taxonomy of the genus Salmonella. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55:517518.
180. Trevejo, R. T.,, J. G. Courtney,, M. Starr,, and D. J. Vugia. 2003. Epidemiology of salmonellosis in California, 1990-1999: morbidity, mortality, and hospitalization costs. Am. J. Epidemiol. 157:4857.
181. Urban, J. E.,, and A. Broce. 1998. Flies and their bacterial loads in greyhound dog kennels in Kansas. Curr. Microbiol. 36:164170.
182. Usera, M. A.,, T. Popovic,, C. A. Bopp,, and N. A. Strockbine. 1994. Molecular subtyping of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 8 strains from the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:194198.
183. Uzzau, S.,, D. J. Brown,, T. Wallis,, S. Rubino,, G. Leori,, S. Bernard,, J. Casadesus,, D. J. Platt,, and J. E. Olsen. 2000. Host adapted serotypes of Salmonella enterica. Epidemiol. Infect. 125:229255.
184. Vandenbosch, J. L.,, D. K. Rabert,, D. R. Kurlandsky,, and G. W. Jones. 1989. Sequence analysis of rsk, a portion of the 95-kilobase plasmid of Salmonella typhimurium associated with resistance to the bactericidal activity of serum. Infect. Immun. 57:850857.
185. Verjans, G. M.,, J. H. Rilngrose,, L. van Alphen,, and T. E. W. Feltkamp,, J. G. Kusters. 1994. Entrance and survival of Salmonella typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica within human B- and T-cell lines. Infect. Immun. 62: 22292235.
186. Voetsch, T.,, J. Van Gilder,, F. J. Angulo,, M. M. Farley,, S. Shallow,, R. Marcus,, P. R. Cieslak,, V. C. Deneen,, and R. V. Tauxe, for the Emerging Infections Program FoodNet Working Group. 2004. FoodNet estimate of the burden of illness caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38(Suppl. 3):S127134.
187. Vugia, D. J.,, M. Samuel,, M. M. Farley,, R. Marcus,, B. Shiferaw,, S. Shallow,, K. Smith,, F. J. Angulo, for the Emerging Infections Program FoodNet Working Group. 2004. Invasive Salmonella infections in the United States, FoodNet, 1996-1999: incidence, serotype distribution, and outcome. Clin. Microbiol. Dis. 38(Suppl. 3):S149S156.
188. Walker, R. A.,, N. Saunders,, A. J. Lawson,, E. A. Lindsay,, M. Dassama,, L. R. Ward,, M. J. Woodward,, R. H. Davies,, E. Liebana,, and E. J. Threlfall. 2001. Use of a LightCycler gyrA mutation assay for rapid identification of mutations conferring decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in multiresistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:14431448.
189. Wall, P. G.,, E. J. Threlfall,, L. R. Ward,, and B. Rowe. 1996. Multiresistant Salmonella typhimurium DT104 in cats: a public health risk. Lancet 348:471.
190. Waltner-Toews, D. 1991. Food, sex and salmonella: the risks of environmental intimacy. Can. J. Public Health 82:219220.
191. Ward, L. R.,, J. D. H. deSa,, and B. Rowe. 1987. A phagetyping scheme for Salmonella enteritidis. Epidemiol. Infect. 99:291294.
192. Wauters, G.,, A. Boel,, G. P. Voorn,, J. Verhaegen,, F. Meunier,, M. Janssens,, and L. Verbist. 1995. Evaluation of a new identification system, Crystal Enteric/Non-Fermenter, for gram-negative bacilli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:845849.
193. Wayne, L. G. 1994. Actions of the Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology on requests for opinions published between January 1985 and July 1993. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44:177178.
194. Wells, E. V.,, M. Boulton,, W. Hall,, and S. A. Bidol. 2004. Reptile-associated salmonellosis in preschool-aged children in Michigan, January 2001-June 2003. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:687691.
195. Westblom, T. U.,, and S. Gudipati. 1997. Salmonella neck abscesses. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25:12561257.
196. Wilkins, E. D. L.,, and C. Roberts. 1988. Extraintestinal salmonellosis. Epidemiol. Infect. 100:361368.
197. Wong, K.-K.,, M. McClelland,, L. C. Stillwell,, E. C. Sisk,, S. J. Thurston,, and J. D. Saffer. 1998. Identification and sequence analysis of a 27-kilobase chromosomal fragment containing a Salmonella pathogenicity island located at 92 minutes on the chromosome map of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium LT2. Infect. Immun. 66:33653371.
198. Wright, J.,, P. Thomas,, and G. R. Serjeant. 1997. Septicemia caused by salmonella infection: an overlooked complication of sickle cell disease. J. Pediatr. 130:394399.
199. Yildirmak, T.,, A. Yazgan,, and G. Ozcengiz. 1998. Multiple drug resistance patterns and plasmid profiles of non-typhi salmonellae in Turkey. Epidemiol. Infect. 121:303307.
200. Yu, Y. S.,, S. W. Hwang,, and H. J. Lee. 2002. Salmonella london endogenous endophthalmitis in a healthy infant. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 21:578.


Generic image for table
Table 1

Species and subspecies of the genus

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. Nontyphoidal Salmonellae, p 81-103. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 2

Specific agars used to isolate

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. Nontyphoidal Salmonellae, p 81-103. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 3

Separation of from other common fecal flora by screening media

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. Nontyphoidal Salmonellae, p 81-103. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 4

Selected virulence factors associated with pathogenicity.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. Nontyphoidal Salmonellae, p 81-103. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 5

Pathogenicity islands of salmonellae

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. Nontyphoidal Salmonellae, p 81-103. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 6

serotypes containing virulence plasmids

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. Nontyphoidal Salmonellae, p 81-103. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch7

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error