1887

Chapter 22 : Rosetting

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Rosetting, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817558/9781555813307_Chap22-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817558/9781555813307_Chap22-2.gif

Abstract:

The discovery that -infected erythrocytes can bind to uninfected erythrocytes to form rosette-like clumps of cells was first made in the late 1980s. Some of the parasite ligands and host uninfected erythrocyte receptors that mediate rosette formation have been identified, and work has begun to determine the potential for a rosette-inhibiting antidisease vaccine. Despite this progress, the function of rosetting remains unknown, and the exact role of rosetting in the pathogenesis of severe malaria remains controversial. In falciparum malaria it may be the combination of rosetting and cytoadherence, together with high parasite burdens, that is particularly obstructive to microvascular blood flow and could lead to hypoxia, tissue damage, and severe malaria. Skeptics of rosetting claim that there is no evidence that rosettes form in vivo. A number of different red blood cell rosetting receptors have been described, including CR1, heparan sulfate-like molecules, ABO blood group sugars, and CD36. The CD36 glycoprotein, which is an important endothelial receptor for cytoadherence, is expressed at low levels on red blood cells but only rarely acts as a rosetting receptor in field isolates. The development of rosette-inhibiting immune responses in natural malaria infections has received relatively little attention. There is lack of proof that rosetting causes severe malaria. However, evidence does support a direct role for rosetting in the pathogenesis of some cases of life-threatening malaria.

Citation: Rowe J. 2005. Rosetting, p 416-426. In Sherman I (ed), Molecular Approaches to Malaria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch22

Key Concept Ranking

Relapsing Fever
0.65787166
Plasmodium falciparum
0.5301724
Plasmodium malariae
0.5258621
0.65787166
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

rosettes viewed by microscopy. The parasite-infected erythrocytes can be identified by the dark spot of pigment within the cell.

Citation: Rowe J. 2005. Rosetting, p 416-426. In Sherman I (ed), Molecular Approaches to Malaria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Rosetting and malaria severity in Kenya. Each point on the graph represents the rosette frequency (percentage of mature-infected erythrocytes in rosettes) of a single isolate. (Reproduced from the [ ] with permission from the publisher.)

Citation: Rowe J. 2005. Rosetting, p 416-426. In Sherman I (ed), Molecular Approaches to Malaria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Rosetting and cytoadherence together cause greater obstruction to microvascular blood flow than cytoadherence alone.

Citation: Rowe J. 2005. Rosetting, p 416-426. In Sherman I (ed), Molecular Approaches to Malaria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Summary of the molecular mechanisms of rosetting.

Citation: Rowe J. 2005. Rosetting, p 416-426. In Sherman I (ed), Molecular Approaches to Malaria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817558.chap22
1. al-Yaman, F.,, B. Genton,, D. Mokela,, A. Raiko,, S. Kati,, S. Rogerson,, J. Reeder,, and M. Alpers. 1995. Human cerebral malaria: lack of significant association between erythrocyte rosetting and disease severity. Trans. R. Soc.Trop. Med. Hyg. 89:5558.
2. Angkasekwinai, P.,, S. Looareesuwan,, and S. C. Chaiyaroj. 1998 Lack of significant association between rosette formation and parasitized erythrocyte adherence to purified CD36. Southeast Asian J.Trop. Med. Public Health 29:4145.
3. Angus, B. J.,, K. Thanikkul,, K. Silamut,, N. J. White,, and R. Udomsangpetch. 1996. Short report: rosette formation in Plasmodium ovale infection. Am. J.Trop. Med. Hyg. 55:560561.
4. Ayi, K.,, F. Turrini,, A. Piga,, and P. Arese. 2004. Enhanced phagocytosis of ring-parasitized mutant erythrocytes: a common mechanism that may explain protection against falciparum malaria in sickle trait and beta-thalassemia trait. Blood 104:33643371.
5. Barragan, A.,, P. G. Kremsner,, M. Wahlgren,, and J. Carlson. 2000. Blood group A antigen is a coreceptor in Plasmodium falciparum rosetting. Infect.Immun. 68:29712975.
6. Barragan, A.,, P. G. Kremsner,, W. Weiss,, M. Wahlgren,, and J. Carlson. 1998. Age-related buildup of humoral immunity against epitopes for rosette formation and agglutination in African areas of malaria endemicity. Infect. Immun. 66:47834787.
7. Breman, J. G. 2001.The ears of the hippopotamus: manifestations, determinants, and estimates of the malaria burden. Am. J.Trop. Med. Hyg. 64:111.
8. Burman, N.,, A. Shamaei-Tousi,, and S. Bergstrom. 1998.The spirochete Borrelia crocidurae causes erythrocyte rosetting during relapsing fever. Infect. Immun. 66:815819.
9. Carlson, J.,, H. Helmby,, A. V. Hill,, D. Brewster,, B. M. Greenwood,, and M. Wahlgren. 1990. Human cerebral malaria: association with erythrocyte rosetting and lack of anti-rosetting antibodies. Lancet 336:14571460.
10. Carlson, J.,, G. B. Nash,, V. Gabutti,, F. al-Yaman,, and M. Wahlgren. 1994. Natural protection against severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria due to impaired rosette formation. Blood 84:39093914.
11. Carlson, J.,, and M. Wahlgren. 1992. Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte rosetting is mediated by promiscuous lectin-like interactions. J.Exp.Med.176:13111317.
12. Chen, Q.,, A. Barragan,, V. Fernandez,, A. Sundstrom,, M. Schlichtherle,, A. Sahlen,, J. Carlson,, S. Datta,, and M. Wahlgren. 1998. Identification of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) as the rosetting ligand of the malaria parasite P. falciparum. J. Exp. Med. 187:1523.
13. Chen, Q.,, A. Heddini,, A. Barragan,, V. Fernandez,, S. F. Pearce,, and M. Wahlgren. 2000.The semi-conserved head structure of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 mediates binding to multiple independent host receptors. J. Exp.Med. 192:110.
14. Chen, Q.,, F. Pettersson,, A. M. Vogt,, B. Schmidt,, S. Ahuja,, P. Liljestrom,, and M. Wahlgren. 2004. Immunization with PfEMP1-DBL1 generates antibodies that disrupt rosettes and protect against the sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Vaccine 22:27012712.
15. Chotivanich, K.,, J. Sritabal,, R. Udomsangpetch,, P. Newton,, K. A. Stepniewska,, R. Ruangveerayuth,, S. Looareesuwan,, D. J. Roberts,, and N. J. White. 2004. Platelet-induced autoagglutination of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells and disease severity in Thailand. J. Infect. Dis. 189:10521055.
16. Chotivanich, K.T.,, A. M. Dondorp,, N. J. White,, K. Peters,, J. Vreeken,, P. A. Kager,, and R. Udomsangpetch. 2000. The resistance to physiological shear stresses of the erythrocytic rosettes formed by cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Ann.Trop. Med. Parasitol. 94:219226.
17. Chotivanich, K.T.,, R. Udomsangpetch,, B. Pipitaporn,, B. Angus,, Y. Suputtamongkol,, S. Pukrittayakamee,, and N. J. White. 1998.Rosetting characteristics of uninfected erythrocytes from healthy individuals and malaria patients. Ann.Trop. Med. Parasitol. 92:4556.
18. Chu, Y.,, Haigh, T., and G. B. Nash. 1997. Rheological analysis of the formation of rosettes by red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum. Br. J. Haematol. 99:777783.
19. Clough, B.,, F. A. Atilola,, J. Black,, and G. Pasvol. 1998a. Plasmodium falciparum:the importance of IgM in the rosetting of parasite-infected erythrocytes. Exp. Parasitol. 89:129132.
20. Clough, B.,, F. A. Atilola,, and G. Pasvol.1998b.The role of rosetting in the multiplication of Plasmodium falciparum:rosette formation neither enhances nor targets parasite invasion into uninfected red cells. Br. J. Haematol. 100:99104.
21. Cockburn, I. A.,, M. J. Mackinnon,, A., O’Donnell,, S. J. Allen,, J. M. Moulds,, M. Baisor,, M. Bockarie,, J. C. Reeder,, and J. A. Rowe. 2004. A human complement receptor 1 polymorphism that reduces Plasmodium falciparum rosetting confers protection against severe malaria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:272277.
22. David, P. H.,, S. M. Handunnetti,, J. H. Leech,, P. Gamage,, and K. N. Mendi. 1988. Rosetting: a new cytoadherence property of malaria-infected erythrocytes. Am. J.Trop. Med. Hyg. 38:289297.
23. Handunnetti, S. M.,, M. R. van Schravendijk,, T. Hasler,, J. W. Barnwell,, D. E. Greenwalt,, and R. J. Howard. 1992. Involvement of CD36 on erythrocytes as a rosetting receptor for Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Blood 80:20972104.
24. Heddini, A.,, F. Pettersson,, O. Kai,, J. Shafi,, J. Obiero,, Q. Chen,, A. Barragan,, M. Wahlgren,, and K. Marsh. 2001. Fresh isolates from children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria bind to multiple receptors. Infect. Immun. 69:58495856.
25. Helmby, H.,, L. Cavelier,, U. Pettersson,, and M. Wahlgren. 1993. Rosetting Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes express unique strain-specific antigens on their surface. Infect.Immun. 61:284288.
26. Ho, M.,, T. M. Davis,, K. Silamut,, D. Bunnag,, and N. J. White. 1991.Rosette formation of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes from patients with acute malaria. Infect. Immun. 59:21352139.
27. Iqbal, J.,, P. Perlmann,, and K. Berzins. 1993. Serological diversity of antigens expressed on the surface of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Trans. R. Soc.Trop. Med. Hyg. 87:583588.
28. Kaul, D. K.,, E. F. J. Roth,, R. L. Nagel,, R. J. Howard,, and S. M. Handunnetti. 1991. Rosetting of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells with uninfected red blood cells enhances microvascular obstruction under flow conditions. Blood 78:812819.
29. Kun, J. F.,, R. J. Schmidt-Ott,, L. G. Lehman,, B. Lell,, D. Luckner,, B. Greve,, P. Matousek,, and P. G. Kremsner. 1998. Merozoite surface antigen 1 and 2 genotypes and rosetting of Plasmodium falciparum in severe and mild malaria in Lambarene, Gabon. Trans. R. Soc.Trop. Med. Hyg. 92:110114.
30. Kyes, S. A.,, J. A. Rowe,, N. Kriek,,and C.I. Newbold. 1999.Rifins:a second family of clonally variant proteins expressed on the surface of red cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum.Proc. Natl.Acad.Sci. USA 96:93339338.
31. Lowe, B. S.,, M. Mosobo,, and P. C. Bull. 1998. All four species of human malaria parasites form rosettes. Trans. R. Soc.Trop. Med. Hyg. 92:526.
32. Mackinnon, M.J.,, P. R. Walker,, and J.A. Rowe. 2002. Plasmodium chabaudi: rosetting in a rodent malaria model. Exp. Parasitol. 101:121128.
33. MacPherson, G. G.,, M. J. Warrell,, N. J. White,, S. Looareesuwan,, and D. A. Warrell. 1985. Human cerebral malaria. A quantitative ultrastructural analysis of parasitized erythrocyte sequestration. Am. J. Pathol. 119:385401.
34. Mayor, A.,, N. Bir,, R. Sawhney,, S. Singh,, P. Pattnaik,, S. K. Singh,, A. Sharma,, and C. E. Chitnis. 2004. Receptor-binding residues lie in central regions of Duffy-binding-like domains involved in red cell invasion and cytoadherence by malaria parasites. Blood 105:22572263.
35. Moulds, J. M.,, L. Kassambara,, J. J. Middleton,, M. Baby,, I. Sagara,, A. Guindo,, S. Coulibaly,, D. Yalcouye,, D. A. Diallo,, L. Miller,, and O. Doumbo. 2000. Identification of complement receptor one (CR1) polymorphisms in west Africa. Genes Immun. 1:325329.
36. Moulds, J. M.,, P.A. Zimmerman,, O. K. Doumbo,, L. Kassambara,, I. Sagara,, D. A. Diallo,, J. P. Atkinson,, M. Krych-Goldberg,, R. E. Hauhart,, D. E. Hourcade,, D.T. McNamara,, D. J. Birmingham,, J. A. Rowe,, J. J. Moulds,, and L. H. Miller. 2001. Molecular identification of Knops blood group polymorphisms found in long homologous region D of complement receptor 1. Blood 97:28792885.
37. Nagayasu, E.,, M. Ito,, M. Akaki,, Y. Nakano,, M. Kimura,, S. Looareesuwan,, and M. Aikawa. 2001. CR 1 density polymorphism on erythrocytes of falciparum malaria patients in Thailand. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 64:15.
38. Nash, G. B.,, B. M. Cooke,, J. Carlson,, and M. Wahlgren. 1992. Rheological properties of rosettes formed by red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum. Br. J. Haematol. 82:757763.
39. Newbold, C.,, P. Warn,, G. Black,, A. Berendt,, A. Craig,, B. Snow,, M. Msobo,, N. Peshu,, and K. Marsh. 1997. Receptor-specific adhesion and clinical disease in Plasmodium falciparum.Am.J.Trop.Med. Hyg. 57:389398.
40. Pain, A.,, D. J. Ferguson,, O. Kai,, B. C. Urban,, B. Lowe,, K. Marsh,, and D. J. Roberts. 2001. Platelet-mediated clumping of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes is a common adhesive phenotype and is associated with severe malaria. Proc. Natl.Acad. Sci. USA 98:18051810.
41. Pattanapanyasat, K.,, K. Yongvanitchit,, P. Tongtawe,, K. Tachavanich,, W. Wanachiwanawin,, S. Fucharoen,, and D. S. Walsh. 1999. Impairment of Plasmodium falciparum growth in thalassemic red blood cells: further evidence by using biotin labeling and flow cytometry. Blood 93:31163119.
42. Pongponratn, E.,, M. Riganti,, B. Punpoowong,, and M. Aikawa. 1991. Microvascular sequestration of parasitised erythrocytes in human falciparum malaria: a pathological study. Am. J.Trop. Med. Hyg. 44:168175.
43. Pongponratn, E.,, G. D. Turner,, N. P. Day,, N. H. Phu,, J.A. Simpson,, K. Stepniewska,, N. T. Mai,, P. Viriyavejakul,, S. Looareesuwan,, T. T. Hien,, D. J. Ferguson,, and N. J. White. 2003.An ultrastructural study of the brain in fatal Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Am. J.Trop. Med. Hyg. 69:345359.
44. Riganti, M.,, E. Pongponratn,, T. Tegoshi,, S. Looareesuwan,, B. Punpoowong,, and M. Aikawa. 1990.Human cerebral malaria in Thailand:a clinicopathological correlation. Immunol.Lett. 25:199206.
45. Ringwald, P.,, F. Peyron,, J. P. Lepers,, P. Rabarison,, C. Rakotomalala,, M. Razanamparany,, M. Rabodonirina,, J. Roux,, and J. Le Bras. 1993. Parasite virulence factors during falciparum malaria: rosetting, cytoadherence, and modulation of cytoadherence by cytokines. Infect. Immun. 61:51985204.
46. Rogerson, S. J.,, R. Tembenu,, C. Dobano,, S. Plitt,, T. E. Taylor,, and M. E. Molyneux. 1999. Cytoadherence characteristics of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes from Malawian children with severe and uncomplicated malaria. Am. J.Trop. Med. Hyg. 61:467472.
47. Rowe, A.,, J. Obeiro,, C. I. Newbold,, and K. Marsh. 1995. Plasmodium falciparum rosetting is associated with malaria severity in Kenya. Infect. Immun. 63: 23232326.
48. Rowe, J. A. 1994. Rosetting of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes. Ph.D.thesis. University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
49. Rowe, J. A.,, J. M. Moulds,, C. I. Newbold,, and L. H. Miller. 1997. P. falciparum rosetting mediated by a parasite-variant erythrocyte membrane protein and complement-receptor 1. Nature 388:292295.
50. Rowe, J. A.,, J. Obiero,, K. Marsh,, and A. Raza. 2002. Positive correlation between rosetting and parasitemia in Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates. Am. J.Trop. Med. Hyg. 66:458460.
51. Rowe, J.A.,, S. J. Rogerson,, A. Raza,, J. M. Moulds,, M. D. Kazatchkine,, K. Marsh,, C. I. Newbold,, J. P. Atkinson,, and L. H. Miller. 2000. Mapping of the region of complement receptor (CR) 1 required for Plasmodium falciparum rosetting and demonstration of the importance of CR1 in rosetting in field isolates. J. Immunol. 165:63416346.
52. Rowe, J. A.,, J. Shafi,, O. K. Kai,, K. Marsh,, and A. Raza. 2002b. Nonimmune IgM, but not IgG binds to the surface of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes and correlates with rosetting and severe malaria. Am.J.Trop.Med.Hyg. 66:692699.
53. Schechner, V.,, I. Shapira,, S. Berliner,, D. Comaneshter,, T. Hershcovici,, J. Orlin,, D. Zeltser,, M. Rozenblat,, K. Lachmi,, M. Hirsch,, and Y. Beigel. 2003. Significant dominance of fibrinogen over immunoglobulins, C-reactive protein, cholesterol and triglycerides in maintaining increased red blood cell adhesiveness/aggregation in the peripheral venous blood: a model in hypercholesterolaemic patients. Eur. J. Clin. Investig. 33:955961.
54. Scholander, C.,, C. J. Treutiger,, K. Hultenby,, and M. Wahlgren. 1996. Novel fibrillar structure confers adhesive property to malaria-infected erythrocytes. Nat. Med. 2:204208.
55. Somner, E.A.,, J. Black,, and G. Pasvol. 2000. Multiple human serum components act as bridging molecules in rosette formation by Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Blood 95:674682.
56. Stoute, J. A.,, A. O. Odindo,, B. O. Owuor,, E. K. Mibei,, M. O. Opollo,, and J. N. Waitumbi. 2003. Loss of red blood cell-complement regulatory proteins and increased levels of circulating immune complexes are associated with severe malarial anemia. J. Infect. Dis. 187:522525.
57. Thomas, B. N.,, B. Donvito,, I. Cockburn,, T. Fandeur,, J. A. Rowe,, J. H. Cohen,, and J. M. Moulds. 2005.A complement receptor-1 polymorphism with high frequency in malaria endemic regions of Asia but not Africa. Genes Immun. 6:3136.
58. Treutiger, C. J.,, I. Hedlund,, H. Helmby,, J. Carlson,, A. Jepson,, P. Twumasi,, D. Kwiatkowski,, B. M. Greenwood,, and M. Wahlgren. 1992. Rosette formation in Plasmodium falciparum isolates and anti-rosette activity of sera from Gambians with cerebral or uncomplicated malaria. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 46:503510.
59. Treutiger, C. J.,, C. Scholander,, J. Carlson,, K. P. McAdam,, J. G. Raynes,, L. Falksveden,, and M. Wahlgren. 1999. Rouleaux-forming serum proteins are involved in the rosetting of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Exp. Parasitol. 93:215224.
60. Udomsangpetch, R.,, A. E. Brown,, C. D. Smith,, and H. K. Webster. 1991. Rosette formation by Plasmodium coatneyi-infected red blood cells. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 44:399401.
61. Udomsangpetch, R.,, T. Sueblinvong,, K. Pattanapanyasat,, A. Dharmkrong-at,, A. Kittikalayawong,, and H. K. Webster. 1993a. Alteration in cytoadherence and rosetting of Plasmodium falciparum-infected thalassemic red blood cells. Blood 82:37523759.
62. Udomsangpetch, R.,, B. J. Taylor,, S. Looareesuwan,, N. J. White,, J. F. Elliott,, and M. Ho. 1996. Receptor specificity of clinical Plasmodium falciparum isolates:nonadherence to cell-bound E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Blood 88:27542760.
63. Udomsangpetch, R.,, J. Todd,, J. Carlson,, and B. M. Greenwood. 1993b. The effects of hemoglobin genotype and ABO blood group on the formation of rosettes by Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells. Am. J.Trop. Med. Hyg. 48:149153.
64. Udomsangpetch, R.,, B. Wahlin,, J. Carlson,, K. Berzins,, M. Torii,, M. Aikawa,, P. Perlmann,, and M. Wahlgren. 1989. Plasmodium falciparuminfected erythrocytes form spontaneous erythrocyte rosettes. J. Exp. Med. 169:18351840.
65. Udomsanpetch, R.,, K. Thanikkul,, S. Pukrittayakamee,, and N. J. White. 1995. Rosette formation by Plasmodium vivax. Trans. R. Soc.Trop. Med. Hyg. 89:635637.
66. van Schravendijk, M. R.,, S. M. Handunnetti,, J. W. Barnwell,, and R. J. Howard. 1992. Normal human erythrocytes express CD36, an adhesion molecule of monocytes, platelets, and endothelial cells. Blood 80:21052114.
67. Vogt, A. M.,, A. Barragan,, Q. Chen,, F. Kironde,, D. Spillmann,, and M. Wahlgren. 2003.Heparan sulfate on endothelial cells mediates the binding of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes via the DBL1 domain of PfEMP1.Blood 101:24052411.
68. Vogt, A.M.,, G. Winter,, M. Wahlgren,, and D. Spillmann. 2004. Heparan sulphate identified on human erythrocytes: a Plasmodium falciparum receptor. Biochem. J. 381:593597.
69. Wahlgren, M. 1986.Antigens and antibodies involved in humoral immunity to Plasmodium falciparum. Ph.D. thesis. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
70. Wahlgren, M.,, J. Carlson,, W. Ruangjirachuporn,, D. Conway,, H. Helmby,, A. Martinez,, M. E. Patarroyo,, and E. Riley. 1990. Geographical distribution of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte rosetting and frequency of rosetting antibodies in human sera. Am. J.Trop. Med. Hyg. 43:333338.
71. Waitumbi, J. N.,, B. Donvito,, A. Kisserli,, J. H. Cohen,, and J. A. Stoute. 2004. Age-related changes in red blood cell complement regulatory proteins and susceptibility to severe malaria. J. Infect. Dis. 190: 11831191.
72. Waitumbi, J. N.,, M. O. Opollo,, R. O. Muga,, A. O. Misore,, and J. A. Stoute. 2000. Red cell surface changes and erythrophagocytosis in children with severe Plasmodium falciparum anemia. Blood 95:14811486.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Rosetting and severe malaria in Africa

Citation: Rowe J. 2005. Rosetting, p 416-426. In Sherman I (ed), Molecular Approaches to Malaria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch22
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Rosetting and severe malaria in Thailand

Citation: Rowe J. 2005. Rosetting, p 416-426. In Sherman I (ed), Molecular Approaches to Malaria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch22

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error