Chapter 27 : The Transcriptome of Human Malaria Vectors

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

The Transcriptome of Human Malaria Vectors, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817558/9781555813307_Chap27-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817558/9781555813307_Chap27-2.gif


This chapter traces the development of gene expression studies in mosquitoes from a historical perspective. In addition, it reviews the relevant technologies that made the advances possible. While the principal focus is on the anopheline vectors of malaria, in particular, the authors intend to cite relevant advances in other insects, most notably the yellow fever mosquito, . The rapid development of molecular techniques and their applications in model organisms such as the vinegar fly, , fostered the reemergence of interest in whether genetics bolstered by molecular biology could provide useful tools in combating malaria transmission. Extensive expressed sequence tag (EST) studies designed to dissect the molecular components of innate immunity in mosquitoes have generated large amounts of information on the mosquito transcriptome. Extensive cDNA sequencing also has been used to identify genes differentially expressed in insecticide-resistant and -susceptible mosquitoes. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is based on the sequential analysis in large quantities of short cDNA sequence tags. Genes activated by both bacterial and malaria infection include those encoding a peptidoglycan recognition protein LB receptor, the gram-negative bacteria-binding protein opsonin, an fibrinogen- like lectin, a thioester-containing putative opsonin, the 14-D serine protease, the CED-6-like phagocytic adaptor,and the leucinerich repeat putative receptor. Monitoring genome-wide changes in gene expression patterns in whole specimens is now feasible, and it is expected that this will be possible with other vectors in the near future.

Citation: Marinotti O, James A. 2005. The Transcriptome of Human Malaria Vectors, p 516-530. In Sherman I (ed), Molecular Approaches to Malaria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch27

Key Concept Ranking

Gene Expression and Regulation
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Adelman, Z. N.,, C. D. Blair,, J. O. Carlson,, B. J. Beaty,, and K. E. Olson. 2001. Sindbis virus-induced silencing of dengue viruses in mosquitoes. Insect Mol. Biol. 10:265273.
2. Arca, B.,, F. Lombardo,, M. de Lara Capurro,, A. della Torre,, G. Dimopoulos,, A. A. James,, and M. Coluzzi. 1999. Trapping cDNAs encoding secreted proteins from the salivary glands of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:15161521.
3. Bartholomay, L. C.,, W. L. Cho,, T. A. Rocheleau,, J. P. Boyle,, E.T. Beck,, J. F. Fuchs,, P. Liss,, M. Rusch,, K. M. Butler,, R. C. Wu,, S. P. Lin,, H.Y. Kuo,, I. Y. Tsao,, C. Y. Huang,, T. T. Liu,, K. J. Hsiao,, S. F. Tsai,, U. C. Yang,, A. J. Nappi,, N.T. Perna,, C. C. Chen,, and B. M. Christensen. 2004. Description of the transcriptomes of immune response-activated hemocytes from the mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Armigeres subalbatus. Infect. Immun. 72:41144126.
4. Beaudoing, E.,, and D. Gautheret. 2001. Identification of alternate polyadenylation sites and analysis of their tissue distribution using EST data. Genome Res. 11:15201526.
5. Besansky, N. J.,, J. A. Bedell,, M. Q. Benedict,, O. Mukabayire,, D. Hilfiker,, and F. H. Collins. 1995. Cloning and characterization of the white gene from An. gambiae. Insect Mol. Biol. 4:217231.
6. Biessmann, H.,, M. F. Walter,, S. Dimitratos,, and D. Woods. 2004. Isolation of cDNA clones encoding putative odourant binding proteins from the antennae of the malaria-transmitting mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Insect Mol. Biol. 11:123132.
7. Blandin, S.,, L. F. Moita,, T. Kocher,, M. Wilm,, F. C. Kafatos,, and E.A. Levashina. 2002. Reverse genetics in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae: targeted disruption of the Defensin gene. EMBO Rep. 3:852856.
8. Blandin, S.,, S. H. Shiao,, L. F. Moita,, C. J. Janse,, A. P. Waters,, F.C. Kafatos,, and E.A. Levashina. 2004. Complement-like protein TEP1 is a determinant of vectorial capacity in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Cell 116:661670.
9. Boue, S.,, I. Letunic,, and P. Bork. 2003. Alternative splicing and evolution. Bioessays 25:10311034.
10. Brett, D.,, H. Pospisil,, J. Valcartel,, J. Reich,, and P. Bork. 2002. Alternative splicing and genome complexity. Nat. Genet. 30:2930.
11. Brown, A. E.,, L. Bugeon,, A. Crisanti,, and F. Catteruccia. 2003. Stable and heritable gene silencing in the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Nucleic Acids Res. 31:e85.
12. Calvo, E.,, A. G. deBianchi,, A. A. James,, and O. Marinotti. 2002. The major acid soluble proteins of adult female Anopheles darlingi salivary glands include a member of the D7-related family of proteins. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 32:14191427.
13. Calvo, E.,, J. Andersen,, I.M. Francischetti,, M. de L. Capurro, A.G. de Bianchi,A.A. James, J. M.C. Ribeiro, and O. Marinotti. 2004. The transcriptome of adult female Anopheles darlingi salivary glands. Insect Mol. Biol. 13:7388.
14. Champagne, D. E.,, C.T. Smartt,, J. M. Ribeiro,, and A. A. James. 1995. The salivary gland-specific apyrase of the mosquito Aedes aegypti is a member of the 5′-nucleotidase family. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 92:694698.
15. Coates, C. J.,, T. L. Schaub,, N. J. Besansky,, F. H. Collins,, and A. A. James. 1997. The white gene from the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Insect Mol. Biol. 6:291299.
16. Coleman, P. G.,, and L. Alphey. 2004. Genetic control of vector populations: an imminent prospect. Trop. Med. Int. Health 9:433437.
17. Cui, L.,, S. Luckhart,, and R. Rosenberg. 2002. Molecular characterization of a prophenoloxidase cDNA from the malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Insect Mol. Biol. 9:127137.
18. Das, M.,, I. Harvey,, L. L. Chu,, M. Sinha,, and J. Pelletier. 2001. Full-length cDNAs: more than just reaching the ends. Physiol. Genomics 6:5780.
19. Diatchenko, L.,, Y. C., A. P. Lau, A. Campbell, F. Chenchik, G. Moqadam, B. Huang, S. Lukyanov, K. Lukyanov, N. Gurskaya, E. D. Sverdlov, and P. D. Siebert. 1996. Suppression subtractive hybridization: a method for generating differentially regulated or tissue-specific cDNA probes and libraries. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 60256030.
20. Dimopoulos, G.,, G.K. Christophides,, S. Meister,, J. Schultz,, K. P. White,, C. Barillas-Mury,, and F. C. Kafatos. 2002. Genome expression analysis of Anopheles gambiae: responses to injury, bacterial challenge, and malaria infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:88148819.
21. Dimopolous, G.,, A., Richman,, A. dellaTorre,, F.C. Kafatos,, and C. Louis. 1996. Identification and characterization of differentially-expressed cDNAs of the vector mosquito, An. gambiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:1306613071.
22. Dimopoulos, G.,, A. Richman,, H. M. Muller,, and F. C. Kafatos. 1997. Molecular immune responses of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae to bacteria and malaria parasites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 94:1150811513.
23. Dimopoulos, G.,, T. L. Casavant,, S. Chang,, T. Scheetz,, C. Roberts,, M. Donohue,, J. Schultz,, V. Benes,, P. Bork,, W. Ansorge,, M.B. Soares,, and F. C. Kafatos. 2000. An. gambiae pilot gene discovery project: identification of mosquito innate immunity genes from expressed sequence tags generated from immune-competent cell lines. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:66196624.
24. Dimopoulos, G.,, D. Seeley,, A. Wolf,, and F. C. Kafatos. 1998. Malaria infection of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae activates immune-responsive genes during critical transition stages of the parasite life cycle. EMBO J. 17:61156123.
25. Ding, Y.,, F. Ortelli,, L. C. Rossiter,, J. Hemingway,, and H. Ranson. 2003. The Anopheles gambiae glutathione transferase supergene family: annotation, phylogeny and expression profiles. BMC Genomics 4:35.
26. Fox, A. N.,, R. J. Pitts,, H. M. Robertson,, J. R. Carlson,, and L. J. Zwiebel. 2001. Candidate odorant receptors from the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae and evidence of down-regulation in response to blood feeding. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:1469314697.
27. Francischetti, I. M.,, J. G. Valenzuela,, V. M. Pham,, M. K. Garfield,, and J. M. C. Ribeiro. 2002. Toward a catalog for the transcripts and proteins (sialome) from the salivary gland of the malaria vector An. gambiae. J. Exp. Biol. 205:24292451.
28. Gaunt, M.W.,, and M.A. Miles. 2002. An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the insects and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks. Mol. Biol. Evol. 19:748761.
29. Geley, S.,, and C. Muller. 2004. RNAi: ancient mechanism with a promising future. Exp. Gerontol. 39: 985998.
30. Grossman, G. L.,, and A. A. James. 1993. The salivary glands of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, express a novel member of the amylase gene family. Insect Mol. Biol. 1:223232.
31. Guo, S.,, and K. J. Kemphues. 1995. Par-1, a gene required for establishing polarity in C. elegans embryos, encodes a putative Ser/Thr kinase that is asymmetrically distributed. Cell 81:611620.
32. Hallem, E. A.,, F. A. Nicole,, L. J. Zwiebel,, and J. R. Carlson. 2004. Olfaction: mosquito receptor for human-sweat odorant. Nature 427:212213.
33. Han, Y. S.,, C. E. Salazar,, S. R. Reese-Stardy,, A. Cornel,, M. J. Gorman,, F. H. Collins,, and S. M. Paskewitz. 1997. Cloning and characterization of a serine protease from the human malaria vector, An. gambiae. Insect Mol. Biol. 6:385395.
34. Hemingway, J.,, and H. Ranson. 2000. Insecticide resistance in insect vectors of human disease. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 45:371391.
35. Holt, R.A.,, G. M. Subramanian,, A. Halpern,, G.G. Sutton,, R. Charlab,, D. R. Nusskern,, P. Wincker,, A. G. Clark,, J. M. Ribeiro,, R. Wides,, S. L. Salzberg,, B. Loftus,, M. Yandell,, W. H. Majoros,, D. B. Rusch,, Z. Lai,, C. L. Kraft,, J. F. Abril,, V. Anthouard,, P. Arensburger,, P.W. Atkinson,, H. de Baden,, V. Berardinis,, D. Baldwin,, V. Benes,, J. Biedler,, C. Blass,, R. Bolanos,, D. Boscus,, M. Barnstead,, S. Cai,, A. Center,, K. Chaturverdi,, G. K. Christophides,, M.A. Chrysta,, M. Clamp,, A. Cravchik,, V. Curwen,, A. Dana,, A. Delcher,, I. Dew,, C. A. Evans,, M. Flanigan,, A. Grundschober- Freimoser,, L. Friedli,, Z. Gu,, P. Guan,, R. Guigo,, M. E. Hillenmeyer,, S. L. Hladun,, J. R. Hogan,, Y. S. Hong,, J.O. Jaillon,, Z. Ke,, C. Kodira,, E. Kokoza,, A. Koutsos,, I. Letunic,, A. Levitsky,, Y. Liang,, J. J. Lin,, N. F. Lobo,, J. R. Lopez,, J.A. Malek,, T. C. McIntosh,, S. Meister,, J. Miller,, C. Mobarry,, E. Mongin S. D., D. A. O’ Brochta, C. Pfannkoch, R. Qi, M. A. Regier, K. Remington, H. Shao, M. V. Sharakhova, C. D. Sitter, J. Shetty,T. J. Smith, R. Strong, J. Sun, D. Thomasova, L. Q. Ton, P. Topalis, Z. Tu, M. F. Unger, B.Walenz, A.Wang, J.Wang, M.Wang, X.Wang, K. J.Woodford, J. R. Wortman, M.Wu, A.Yao, E.M. Zdobnov, H. Zhang, Q. Zhao, S. Zhao, S. C. Zhu, I. Zhimulev, M. Coluzzi, A. della Torre, C.W. Roth, C. Louis, F. Kalush, R. J. Mural, E. W. Myers, M. D. Adams, H.O. Smith, S. Broder, M. J. Gardner, C. M. Fraser, E. Birney, P. Bork, P.T. Brey, J.C. Venter, J. Weissenbach, F. C. Kafatos, F. H. Collins, and S. L. Hoffman. 2002.The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Science 298:129149.
36. Isawa, H.,, M. Yuda,, Y. Orito,, and Y. Chinzei. 2002. A mosquito salivary protein inhibits activation of the plasma contact system by binding to factor XII and high molecular weight kininogen. J. Biol. Chem. 277:2765127658.
37. James, A. A.,, K. Blackmer,, and J. V. Racioppi. 1989. A salivary gland-specific, maltase-like gene of the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. Gene 75:7383.
38. James, A. A.,, K. Blackmer,, O. Marinotti,, C. R. Ghosn,, and J.V. Racioppi. 1991. Isolation and characterization of the gene expressing the major salivary gland protein of the female mosquito Aedes aegypti. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 44: 245253.
39. James, A. A.,, B.T. Beerntsen,, M. de L. Capurro, C. J. Coates, J. Coleman,N. Jasinskiene, and A. U. Krettli. 1999. Controlling malaria transmission with genetically-engineered, Plasmodium-resistant mosquitoes: milestones in a model system. Parassitologia 41:461471.
40. Jiang, H.,, Y. Wang,, S. E. Korochkina,, H. Benes,, and M. R. Kanost. 1997. Molecular cloning of cDNAs for two pro-phenol oxidase subunits from the malaria vector, An. gambiae. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 27:693699.
41. Johnson, B.W.,, K. E. Olson,, T. Allen-Miura,, J. O. Carlson,, C. J. Coates,, N. Jasinskiene,, A. A. James,, B. J. Beaty,, and S. Higgs. 1999. Inhibition of luciferase expression in transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by Sindbis virus expression of antisense luciferase RNA. Proc. Natl.Acad. Sci.USA 96:1339913403.
42. Justice, R.W.,, S. Dimitratos,, M. F. Walter,, D. F. Woods,, and H. Biessmann. 2003. Sexual dimorphic expression of putative antennal carrier protein genes in the malaria vector An. gambiae. Insect Mol. Biol. 12:581594.
43. Kennerdell, J. R.,, and R.W. Carthrew. 2000. Heritable gene silencing in Drosophila using double-stranded RNA. Nat. Biotechnol. 17:896898.
44. Korochkina, S. E.,, A.V. Gordadze,, J. L. York,, and H. Benes. 1997. Mosquito hexamerins: characterization during larval development. Insect Mol. Biol. 6:1121.
45. Kumar, S.,, G. K. Christophides,, R. Cantera,, B. Charles,, Y. S. Han,, S. Meister,, G. Dimopoulos,, F. C. Kafatos,, and C. Barillas-Mury. 2003. The role of reactive oxygen species on Plasmodium melanotic encapsulation in Anopheles gambiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:1413914144.
46. Levashina, E.A.,, L. F. Moita,, S. Blandin,, G. Vriend,, M. Lagueux,, and F.C. Kafatos. 2001. Conserved role of a complement-like protein in phagocytosis revealed by dsRNA knockout in cultured cells of the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Cell 104:709718.
47. Liang, P.,, and A. B. Pardee. 1992. Differential display of eukaryotic messenger RNA by means of the polymerase chain reaction. Science 257:967971.
48. Liang, P.,, and A. B. Pardee. 1998. Differential display. A general protocol. Mol. Biotechnol. 10:261267.
49. Marinotti, O.,, Q.K. Nguyen,, E. Calvo,, A.A. James,, and J. M.C. Ribeiro. Microarray analysis of genes showing variable expression following a blood meal in Anopheles gambiae. Insect. Mol. Biol., in press.
50. Martinez-Torres, D.,, F. Chandre,, M. S. Williamson,, F. Darriet,, J. B. Berge,, A. L. Devonshire,, P. Guillet,, N. Pasteur,, and D. Pauron. 1998. Molecular characterization of pyrethroid knockdown resistance (kdr) in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s. s. Insect Mol. Biol. 7:179184.
51. Meredith, S. E.O.,, and A.A. James. 1990. Biotechnology as applied to vectors and vector control. Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp. 65:113118.
52. Misra, S. M.,, A. Crosby,, C. J. Mungall,, B. B. Matthews,, K. S. Campbell,, P. Hradecky,, Y. Huang,, J. S. Kaminker,, G. H. Millburn,, S. E. Prochnik,, C.D. Smith,, J. L. Tupy,, E. J. Whitfied,, L. Bayraktaroglu,, B. P. Berman,, B. R. Bettencourt,, S. E. Celniker,, A. D. Grey,, R. A. Drysdale,, N. L. Harris,, J. Richter,, S. Russo,, A. J. Schroeder,, S.Q. Shu,, M. Stapleton,, C. Yamada,, M. Ashburner,, W. M. Gelbart,, G. M. Rubin,, and S. E. Lewis. 2002. Annotation of the Drosophila melanogaster euchromatic genome: a systematic review. Genome Biol. 3: RESEARCH0083.
53. Mongin, E.,, C. Louis,, R. A. Holt,, E. Birney,, and F. H. Collins. 2004.The Anopheles gambiae genome: an update. Trends Parasitol. 20:4952.
54. Montero-Solis, C.,, L. Gonzalez-Ceron,, M. H. Rodriguez,, B. E. Cirerol,, F. Zamudio,, L. C. Possanni,, A. A. James,, and F. de la Cruz Hernandez-Hernandez. 2004. Identification and characterization of gp65, a salivary-gland-specific molecule expressed in the malaria vector Anopheles albimanus. Insect Mol. Biol. 13:155164.
55. Moreira-Ferro, C. K.,, S. Daffre,, A. A. James,, and O. Marinotti. 1998. A lysozyme in the salivary glands of the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi. Insect Mol. Biol. 7:257264.
56. Noriega, F. G.,, and M. S. Wells. 1999. A molecular view of trypsin synthesis in the midgut of Aedes aegypti. J. Insect Physiol. 45:613620.
57. Oduol, F.,, J. Xu,, O. Niare,, R. Natarajan,, and K.D. Vernick. 2000. Genes identified by an expression screen of the vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae display differential molecular immune response to malaria parasites and bacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:1139711402.
58. Osta, M. A.,, G. K. Christophides,, D. Vlachou,, and F. C. Kafatos. 2004a. Innate immunity in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae: comparative and functional genomics. J.Exp. Biol. 207:25512563.
Osta, M. A.,, G. K. Christophides,, and K. C. Kafatos. 2004b.. Effects of mosquito genes on Plasmodium development. Science 303:20302032.
60. Ribeiro, J. M.,, and I. M. Francischetti. 2003. Role of arthropod saliva in blood feeding: sialome and post-sialome perspectives. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 48:7388.
61. Ribeiro, J. M.,, R. Charlab,, V. M. Pham,, M. Garfield,, and J. G. Valenzuela. 2004. An insight into the salivary transcriptome and proteome of the adult female mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 34:543563.
62. Ribeiro, J. M. 2003.A catalogue of Anopheles gambiae transcripts significantly more or less expressed following a blood meal. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 33:865882.
63. Rogojina, A.T.,, W. E. Orr,, B. K. Song,, and E. E. Geisert, Jr. 2003.Comparing the use of Affymetrix to spotted oligonucleotide microarrays using two retinal pigment epithelium cell lines. Mol. Vis. 9:482496.
64. Salazar, C. E.,, D. M. Hamm,, D. M. Wesson,, C. B. Beard,, V. Kumar,, and F. H. Collins. 1994. A cytoskeletal actin gene in the mosquito An. gambiae. Insect Mol. Biol. 3:113.
65. Sanders, H. R.,, A. M. Evans,, L. S. Ross,, and S. S. Gill. 2003. Blood meal induces global changes in midgut gene expression in the disease vector, Aedes aegypti. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 33:11051122.
66. Schaefer, B. C. 1995.Revolutions in rapid amplification of cDNA ends: new strategies for polymerase chain reaction cloning of full-length cDNA ends. Anal. Biochem. 227:255273.
67. Shen, Z.,, and M. Jacobs-Lorena. 1997. Characterization of a novel gut-specific chitinase gene from the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. J. Biol. Chem. 272:28895288909.
68. Shen, Z.,, and M. Jacobs-Lorena. 1998. A type I peritrophic matrix protein from the malaria vector An. gambiae binds to chitin. Cloning, expression, and characterization. J. Biol. Chem. 273:1766517670.
69. Shen, Z.,, G. Dimopoulos,, and F.C. Kafatos. 1999. A cell surface mucin specifically expressed in the midgut of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 96:56105615.
70. Shen, Z.,, M. J. Edwards,, and M. Jacobs-Lorena. 2000. A gut-specific serine protease from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is down-regulated after blood ingestion. Insect Mol. Biol. 9:223229.
71. Shiao, H.,, S. Higgs,, Z. Adelman,, B. M. Christensen,, S. H. Liu,, and C. C. Chen. 2001. Effect of prophenoloxidase expression knockout on the melanization of microfilariae in the mosquito Armigeres subalbatus. Insect Mol. Biol. 10:315321.
72. Shin, S.W.,, V.A. Kokoza,, and A.A. Raikhel. 2003. Transgenesis and reverse genetics of mosquito innate immunity. J. Exp. Biol. 206:38353843.
73. Siden-Kiamos, I.,, G. Skavdis,, J. Rubio,, G. Papaginnakis,, and C. Louis. 1996. Isolation and characterization of three serine protease genes in the mosquito An. gambiae. Insect Mol. Biol. 5:6171.
74. Stark, K. R.,, and A. A. James,. 1996. The salivary glands of disease vectors, p. 333348. In W. C. Marquardt, and B. Beaty (ed.), The Biology of Disease Vectors. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, Colo.
75. St. John, T. P.,, and R.W. Davis. 1979. Differential screening of cDNA clones. Cell 16:443452.
76. Tashiro, K.,, H. Tada,, R. Heilker,, M. Shirozu,, T. Nakanol,, and T. Honjo. 1993. Signal sequence trap: a cloning strategy for secreted proteins and type I membrane proteins. Science 261:600603.
77. Thompson, M.,, R. Shotkoski,, and R. ffrench- Constant. 1993. Cloning and sequencing of the cyclodiene insecticide resistance gene from the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Conservation of the gene and resistance associated mutation with Drosophila. FEBS Lett. 325:187190.
78. Travanty, E.A.,, Z.N. Adelman,, A.W. Franz,, K. M. Keene,, B. J. Beaty,, C.D. Blair,, A.A. James,, and K. E. Olson. 2004. Using RNA interference to develop dengue virus resistance in genetically-modified Aedes aegypti. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 34:607613.
79. Tuteja, R.,, and N. Tuteja. 2004. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE): unraveling the bioinformatics tools. Bioessays 26:916922.
80. Ullu, E.,, C. Tschudi,, and T. Chakraborty. 2004. RNA interference in protozoan parasites. Cell Microbiol. 6:509519.
81. Valenzuela, J. G. 2002. High-throughput approaches to study salivary proteins and genes from vectors of disease. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 32:11991209.
82. Valenzuela, J.G.,, I.M. Francischetti,, V. M. Pham,, M. K. Garfield,, and J. M. Ribeiro. 2003. Exploring the salivary gland transcriptome and proteome of the Anopheles stephensi mosquito. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 33:717732.
83. Valenzuela, J. G.,, I. M. Francischetti,, and J. M. Ribeiro. 1999. Purification, cloning, and synthesis of a novel salivary anti-thrombin from the mosquito Anopheles albimanus. Biochemistry 38:1120911215.
84. Valenzuela, J.G.,, V.M. Pham,, M. K. Garfield,, I. M. Francischetti,, and J. M. Ribeiro. 2002. Toward a description of the sialome of the adult female mosquito Aedes aegypti. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 32:11011122.
85. Vizioli, J.,, F. Catteruccia,, A. della Torre,, I. Reckmann,, and H. M. Muller. 2001. Blood digestion in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae: molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of two inducible chymotrypsins. Eur. J. Biochem. 268: 40274035.
86. Vlachou, D.,, G. Lycett,, I. Siden-Kiamos,, C. Blass,, R. E. Sinden,, and C. Louis. 2001. Anopheles gambiae laminin interacts with the P25 surface protein of Plasmodium berghei ookinetes. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 112:229237.
87. Vogt, R. G.,, M. E. Rogers,, M. D. Franco,, and M. Sun. 2002.A comparative study of odorant binding protein genes: differential expression of the PBP1- GOBP2 gene cluster in Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera) and the organization of OBP genes in Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera). J. Exp. Biol. 205:719744.
88. World Health Organization. 1991. Prospects for malaria control by genetic manipulation of its vectors (TDR/BCV/MAL-ENT/91.3).World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
89. Wu, H.-W.,, H.-S. Tian,, G.-L. Wu,, G. Langdon,, J. Kurtis,, B. Shen,, L. Ma,, X.-K. Li,, Y. Gu,, X.-B. Hu,, and C.-L. Zhu. 2004. Culex pipiens pallens: identification of genes differentially expressed in deltamethrin-resistant and -susceptible strains. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 79:7583.
90. Ying, S.-Y. 2004. Complementary DNA libraries: an overview. Mol. Biotechnol. 27:245252.
91. Zdobnov, E. M.,, C. von Mering,, I. Letunic,, D. Torrents,, M. Suyama,, R. R. Copley,, G. K. Christophides,, D. Thomasova,, R.A. Holt,, G. M. Subramanian,, H. M. Mueller,, G. Dimopoulos,, J. H. Law,, M. A. Wells,, E. Birney,, R. Charlab,, A. L. Halpern,, R. Kokoza,, C. L. Kraft,, Z. Lai,, S. Lewis,, C. Louis,, C. Barillas-Mury,, D. Nussker,, G. M. Rubin,, S. L. Salzberg,, G. G. Sutton,, P. Topalis,, R. Wides,, P. Wincker,, M. Yandell,, F. H. Collins,, J. Ribeiro,, W. M. Gelbart,, F.C. Kafatos,, and P. Bork. 2002. Comparative genome and proteome analysis of Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster. Science 298:149159.
92. Zhang, D.,, G. Dimopoulos,, A. Wolf,, B. Minana,, F. C. Kafatos,, and J. J. Winzerling. 2002. Cloning and molecular characterization of two mosquito iron regulatory proteins. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 32:579589.
93. Zheng, L.,, L. H. Whang,, V. Kumarm,, and F. C. Kafatos. 1995. Two genes encoding midgut-specific maltase-like polypeptides from An. gambiae.Exp.Parasitol. 81:272283.
94. Zurita, M.,, E. Reynaud,, and F. C. Kafatos. 1997. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs preferentially expressed in the ovary of the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Insect Mol. Biol. 6:5562.


Generic image for table

Number of NCBI entries for RNAs indexed by the keyword

Citation: Marinotti O, James A. 2005. The Transcriptome of Human Malaria Vectors, p 516-530. In Sherman I (ed), Molecular Approaches to Malaria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch27

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error