Chapter 2 : Tetracycline Resistance Due to Ribosomal Protection Proteins

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Tetracycline Resistance Due to Ribosomal Protection Proteins, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817572/9781555813291_Chap02-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817572/9781555813291_Chap02-2.gif


There have been 11 ribosomal protection genes identified which code for cytoplasmic proteins that protect the ribosomes from the action of tetracycline in vitro and in vivo and confer resistance to tetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline to the host. The ribosomal protection proteins are thought to interact with the base of h34 protein, within the ribosome, causing an allosteric disruption of the primary tetracycline binding site(s). This releases the tetracycline molecules from the ribosome and allows the ribosome to return to its normal posttranslocational conformational state, which was altered by the binding of tetracycline. Glycylcyclines compete with tetracycline for ribosomal binding sites because they have either identical or overlapping sites on the ribosome and have the same mode of action as tetracycline. The differences in host range may be partially due to the type of element that each gene is associated with. This may be relevant because conjugative transposons, in general, have less host specificity than do plasmids and are able to be transferred to unrelated species and genera. The ribosomal protection genes are associated with plasmids, transposons, and conjugative transposons. Conjugative transfer appears to be influenced by the flanking sequences which correlate with the location of the Tn-Tn family inserted into the chromosome.

Citation: Roberts M. 2005. Tetracycline Resistance Due to Ribosomal Protection Proteins, p 19-28. In White D, Alekshun M, McDermott P (ed), Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817572.ch2

Key Concept Ranking

Horizontal Gene Transfer
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Agerso, Y.,, L. B. Jensen,, M. Givskov,, and M. C. Roberts. 2002. The identification of a tetracycline resistance gene tet(M), on a Tn916-like transposon, in the Bacillus cereus group. FEMS Micobiol. Lett. 214:251256.
2. Aminov, R. I.,, N. Garrigues-Jeanjean,, and R. I. Mackie. 2001. Molecular ecology of tetracycline resistance: development and validation of primers of primers for detection of tetracycline resistance genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:2232.
3. Andres, M. T.,, W. O. Chung,, M. C. Roberts,, and J. F. Fierro. 1998. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens isolated in Spain. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:30223023.
4. Atkinson, B. A.,, A. Abu-Al-Jaibat,, and D. J. LeBlanc. 1997. Antibiotic resistance among enterococci isolated from clinical specimens between 1953 and 1954. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:15981600.
5. Barbosa, T. M.,, K. P. Scott,, and H. J. Flint. 1999. Evidence for recent intergeneric transfer of a new tetracycline resistance gene, tet(W), isolated from Butyrivibrio fibrisolens, and the occurrence of tet(O) in ruminal bacteria. Environ. Microbiol. 1:5364.
6. Bauer, G.,, C. Berens,, S. J. Projan,, and W. Hillen. 2004. Comparison of tetracycline and tigecycline binding to ribosomes mapped by dimethylsulphate and drug-directed Fe2+ cleavage of 16S rRNA. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 53:592599.
7. Bertram, J.,, M. Stratz,, and P. Durre. 1991. Natural transfer of conjugative transposon Tn916 between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 173:443448.
8. Billington, S. J.,, J. G. Songer,, and B. H. Jost. 2002. Widespread distribution of a Tet W determinant among tetracycline-resitant isolates of the animal pathogen Arcanobacterium pyogenes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:12811287.
8a.. Brenciani, A.,, K. K. Ojo,, A. Monachetti,, S. Menzo,, M. C. Roberts,, P. E. Varaldo,, and E. Giovanetti. 2004. Distribution and molecular analysis of mef(A)-containing elements in tetracycline- susceptible and -resistant Streptococcus pyogenes clinical isolates with efflux-mediated erythromycin resistance. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 54:991998.
9. Brodersen, D. E.,, W. M. Clemons,, A. P. Carter,, R. J. Morgan- Warren,, B. T. Wimberly,, and V. T. Ramakrishnan. 2000. The structural basis for the action of the antibiotic tetracycline, pactamycin, and hygromycin B on the 30S ribosomal subunit. Cell 103:11431154.
10. Brown, B. A.,, R. J. Wallace,, and G. Onyi. 1996. Activities of the glycylcyclines N, N-dimethylglycylamido-minocycline and N, N-dimethylglycylamido-6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracycline against Nocardia spp. and tetracycline-resistant isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:874878.
11. Brown, J. T.,, and M. C. Roberts. 1987. Cloning and characterization of tetM from a Ureaplasma urealyticum strain. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:18521854.
12. Burdett, V. 1991. Purification and characterization of Tet(M), a protein that renders ribosomes resistant to tetracycline. J. Biol. Chem. 266:28722877.
13. Burdett, V. 1993. tRNA modification activity is necessary for Tet(M)-mediated tetracycline resistance. J. Bacteriol. 175:72097215.
14. Burdett, V. 1996. Tet(M)-promoted release of tetracycline from ribosomes is GTP dependent. J. Bacteriol. 178:32463251.
15. Charpentier, E.,, G. Gerbaud,, and P. Courvalin. 1994. Presence of the Listeria tetracycline resistance gene tet(S) in Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:23302335.
16. Charpentier, E.,, and P. Courvalin. 1994. Presence of the Listeria tetracycline resistance gene tet(S) in Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:23302335.
17. Charpentier, E.,, and P. Courvalin. 1999. Antibiotic resistance in Listeria spp. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:21032108.
18. Chaslus-Dancla, E.,, M.-C. Lesage-Descauses,, S. Leroy-Setrin,, J.-L. Marel,, and J.-P. Lafont. 1995. Tetracycline resistance determinants, Tet B and Tet M detected in Pasteurella haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida from bovine herds. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 36:815819.
19. Chopra, I.,, and M. C. Roberts. 2001. Tetracycline antibiotics: Mode of action, applications, molecular biology and epidemiology of bacterial resistance. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 65:232260.
20. Chung, W. O.,, K. Young,, Z. Leng,, and M. C. Roberts. 1999. Mobile elements carrying ermF and tetQ genes in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 44:329335.
21. Chung, W. O.,, J. Gabany,, G. R. Persson,, and M. C. Roberts. 2002. Distribution of erm(F) and tet(Q) genes in four oral bacterial species and genotypic variation between resistant and susceptible isolates. J. Clin. Periodontol. 29:152158.
22. Clermont, D.,, O. Chesneau,, G. De Cespedes,, and T. Horaud. 1997. New tetracycline resistance determinants coding for ribosomal protection in streptococci and nucleotide sequence of tet(T) isolated from Streptococcus pyogens A498. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:112116.
23. Clewell, D. B.,, S. E. Flannagan,, and D. Jaworski. 1995. Unconstrained bacterial promiscuity: the Tn916-Tn1545 family of conjugative transposons. Trends Microbiol. 3:229236.
24. Connell, S. R.,, D. M. Tracz,, K. H. Nierhaus,, and D. E. Taylor. 2003. Ribosomal protection proteins and their mechanism of tetracycline resistance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 36753681.
25. Connell, S. R.,, C. A. Trieber,, E. Einfeldt,, D. M. Tracz,, D. E. Taylor,, and K. Nierhaus. 2003. Mechanism of Tet(O), perturbs the conformation of the ribosomal decoding center. Mol. Microbiol. 45:14631472.
26. de Barbeyrac, B.,, B. Dutilh,, C. Quentin,, H. Renaudin,, and C. Bebear. 1991. Susceptibility of Bacteroides ureolyticus to antimicrobial agents and identification of a tetracycline resistance determinant related to tetM. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 27:721731.
27. DePaola, A.,, and M. C. Roberts. 1995. Class D and E tetracycline resistance determinants in gram-negative catfish pond bacteria. Mol. Cell. Probes 9:311313.
28. Dittrich, W.,, and H. Schrempf. 1992. The unstable tetracycline resistance gene of Streptomyces lividans 1326 encodes a putative protein with similarities to translational elongation factors and Tet (M) and Tet (O) proteins. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:11191124.
29. Facinelli, B.,, M. C. Roberts,, E. Giovanetti,, C. Casolari,, U. Fabio,, and P. E. Varaldo. 1993. Genetic basis of tetracycline resistance in food borne isolates of Listeria innocua. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:614616.
30. Fitzgerald, G. F.,, and D. B. Clewell. 1985. A conjugative transposon (Tn919) in Streptococcus sanguis. Infect. Immun. 47: 415420.
31. Flannagan, S. E.,, L. A. Zitzow,, Y. A. Su,, and D. B. Clewell. 1994. Nucleotide sequence of the 18-kb conjugative transposon Tn916 from Enterococcus faecalis. Plasmid 32:350354.
32. Fletcher, H. M.,, and F. L. Macrina. 1991. Molecular survey of clindamycin and tetracycline resistance determinants in Bacteroides species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:24152418.
33. Francois, B.,, M. Charles,, and P. Courvalin. 1997. Conjugative transfer of tet(S) between strains of Enterococcus faecalis is associated with the exchange of large fragments of chromosomal DNA. Microbiology 143:21452154.
34. Giovanetti, E.,, A. Brenciani,, R. Lupidi,, M. C. Roberts,, and P. E. Varaldo. 2003. The presence of the tet(O) gene in erythromycin and tetracycline-resistant strains of Streptococcus pyogenes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:28442849.
35. Hartley, D. L.,, K. R. Hones,, J. A. Tobian,, D. J. LeBlanc,, and F. L. Macrina. 1984. Disseminated tetracycline resistance in oral streptococci: Implication of a conjugative transposon. Infect. Immun. 45:1317.
36. Huang, R.,, D. M. Gascoyne-Binzi,, P. M. Hawkey,, M. Yu,, J. Heritage,, and A. Eley. 1997. Molecular evolution of the tet(M) gene in Gardnerella vaginalis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 40: 561565.
37. Inamine, J. M.,, and V. Burdett. 1985. Structural organization of a 67-kilobase streptococcal conjugative element mediating multiple antibiotic resistance. J. Bacteriol. 161:620626.
38. Johanesen, P. A.,, D. Lyras,, T. L. Bannam,, and J. I. Rood. 2001. Transcriptional analysis of the tet(P) operon from Clostridium perfringens. J. Bacteriol. 183:71107119.
39. Kauc, L.,, and S. H. Goodgal. 1989. Introduction of transposon Tn916 DNA into Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. J. Bacteriol. 171:66256628.
40. Knapp, J. S.,, S. R. Johnson,, J. M. Zenilman,, M. C. Roberts,, and S. A. Morse. 1988. High-level tetracycline resistance resulting from TetM in strains of Neisseria species, Kingella denitrificans, and Eikenella corrodens. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:765767.
41. Lacroix, J.-M.,, and C. B. Walker. 1993. Detection and incidence of the tetracycline resistance determinant tet(M) in the microflora associated with adult periodontitis. J. Periodontol. 66:102108.
41a.. Lancaster, H.,, A. P. Roberts,, R. Bedi,, M. Wilson,, and P. Mullany. 2004. Characterization of Tn916S, a Tn916-like element containing the tetracycline resistance determinant tet(S). J. Bacteriol. 186:43954398.
42. Leipe, D.,, Y. I. Wolf,, E. V. Koonin,, and L. Aravind. 2002. Classification of and evolution of P-loop GTPases and related ATPases. J. Mol. Biol. 317:4172.
43. Leng, Z.,, D. E. Riley,, R. E. Berger,, J. N. Krieger,, and M. C. Roberts. 1997. Distribution and mobility of the tetracycline resistant determinant Tet Q. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 40:551559.
44. Levy, S. B.,, L. M. McMurry,, T. M. Barbosa,, V. Burdett,, P. Courvalin,, W. Hillen,, M. C. Roberts,, J. I. Rood,, and D. E. Taylor. 1999. Nomenclature for new tetracycline resistance determinants. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:15231524.
45. Li, L.-Y.,, N. B. Shoemaker,, and A. A. Salyers. 1995. Location and characteristics of the transfer region of Bacteriodes conjugative transposon and regulation of transfer genes. J. Bacteriol. 177:49924999.
46. Luna, V. A.,, and M. C. Roberts. 1998. The presence of the tetO gene in a variety of tetracycline resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes from Washington State. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 42:613619.
47. Luna, V. A.,, P. Coates,, E. A. Eady,, J. Cove,, T. T. H. Nguyen,, and M. C. Roberts. 1999. A variety of Gram-positive bacteria carry mobile mef genes. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 44:1925.
48. Lyras, D.,, and J. I. Rood. 1996. Genetic organization and distribution of tetracycline resistance determinants in Clostridium perfringes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:25002504.
49. Lyras, D.,, and J. I. Rood. 2000. Transposition of Tn4451 and Tn4453 involves a circular intermediate that forms a promoter for the large resolvase, TnpX. Mol. Microbiol. 38:588601.
50. Manavathu, E. K.,, C. L. Fernandez,, B. S. Cooperman,, and D. E. Taylor. 1990. Molecular studies on the mechanism of tetracycline resistance mediated by Tet(O). Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:7177.
51. Manganelli, R.,, L. Romano,, S. Ricci,, M. Zazzi,, and G. Pozzi. 1995. Dosage of Tn916 circular intermediates in Enterococcus faecalis. Plasmid 34:4857.
52. Melville, C. M.,, K. P. Scott,, D. K. Mercer,, and H. J. Fling. 2001. Novel tetracycline resistance gene, tet(32), in the Clostridium- related human colonic anaerobe K10 and its transmission in vitro to the rumen anaerobe Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:32463249.
53. Morse, S. A.,, S. J. Johnson,, J. W. Biddle,, and M. C. Roberts. 1986. High-level tetracycline resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae due to the acquisition of the tetM determinant. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 30:664670.
54. Naglich, J. G.,, and R. E. Andrews, Jr. 1988. Tn916-dependent conjugal transfer of pC194 and pUB110 from Bacillus subtillis into Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Plasmid 20:113126.
55. Olsvik, B.,, I. Olsen,, and F. C. Tenover. 1994. The tet(Q) gene in bacteria isolated from patients with refractory periodontal disease. Oral Microbiol. Immun. 9:251255.
56. Olsvik, B.,, I. Olsen,, and F. C. Tenover. 1995. Detection of tet(M) and tet(O) using the polymerase chain reaction in bacteria isolated from patients with periodontal disease. Oral Microbiol. Immun. 10:8792.
57. Pang, Y.,, B. A. Brown,, V. A. Steingrube,, R. J. Wallace Jr., and M. C. Roberts. 1994 Tetracycline resistance determinants in Mycobacterium and Streptomyces species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:14081412.
58. Pioletti, M.,, F. Schlunzen,, J. Harms,, R. Zarivach,, M. Gluhmann,, H. Avila,, A. Bashan,, H. Bartels,, T. Auerbach,, C. Jacobi,, T. Hartsch,, A. Yonath,, and F. Franceschi. 2001. Crystal structures of complexes of the small ribosomal subunit with tetracycline, edeine and IF3. EMBO J. 20:18291839.
59. Poyart, C.,, J. Celli,, and P. Trieu-Cuot. 1995. Conjugative transposition of Tn916-related elements from Enterococcus faecalis to Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:500506.
60. Recchia, G. D.,, and R. M. Hall. 1995. Gene cassettes: a new class of mobile element. Microbiology 141:301527.
61. Ribera, A.,, J. Ruiz,, and J. Vila. 2003. Presence of the Tet M determinant in a clinical isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:23102312.
62. Riley, D. E.,, M. C. Roberts,, T. Takayama,, and J. N. Krieger. 1992. Development of polymerase chain reaction-based (PCR) diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis using cloned, genomic sequences. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:465472.
63. Roberts, M. C., 1989. Gene transfer in the urogenital and respiratory tract, p. 347375. In S. B. Levy, and R. V. Miller (ed.), Gene Transfer in the Environment. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., New York, N.Y.
64. Roberts, M. C. 1996. Tetracycline resistant determinants: mechanisms of action, regulation of expression, genetic mobility and distribution. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 19:124.
65. Roberts, M. C. 1998. Antibiotic resistance in oral/respiratory bacteria. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 9:522540.
66. Roberts, M. C. 1989. Plasmid-mediated Tet M in Haemophilus ducreyi. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:16111613.
67. Roberts, M. C. 1991. Tetracycline resistance in Peptostreptococcus species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:16821684.
67a.. Roberts, M. C. 2005. Minireview: update on acquired tetracycline resistance genes. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245:195203.
68. Roberts, M. C.,, and J. S. Knapp. 1988. Host range of the conjugative 25.2 Mdal tetracycline resistance plasmid from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:488491.
69. Roberts, M. C.,, and J. S. Knapp. 1988. Transfer of β-lactamase plasmids from Neisseria gonorrhoeae to Neisseria meningitidis and commensal Neisseria species by the 25.2-megadalton conjugative plasmid. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:14301432.
70. Roberts, M. C.,, and J. S. Knapp. 1989. Transfer frequency of various 25.2 Mdal TetM-containing plasmids in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sex. Trans. Dis. 16:9194.
71. Roberts, M. C.,, and J. Lansciardi. 1990. Transferable Tet M in Fusobacterium nucleatum. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:18361838.
72. Roberts, M. C.,, and B. J. Moncla. 1988. Tetracycline resistance and TetM in oral anaerobic bacteria and Neisseria perflava- N. sicca. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:12711273.
73. Salyers, A. A.,, N. B. Shoemaker,, A. M. Stevens,, and L.-Y. Li. 1995. Conjugative transposons: an unusual and diverse set of integrated gene transfer elements. Microbiol. Rev. 59:579590.
74. Salyers, A. A.,, and N. B. Shoemaker. 1992. Chromosomal gene transfer elements of the Bacteroides group. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 11:10321038.
75. Sanchez-Pescador, R.,, J. T. Brown,, M. Roberts,, and M. S. Urdea. 1988. The nucleotide sequence of the tetracycline resistance determinant tetM from Ureaplasma urealyticum. Nucleic Acids Res. 16:12161217.
76. Sanchez-Pescador, R.,, J. T. Brown,, M. Roberts,, and M. S. Urdea. 1988. Homology of the TetM with translational elongation factors: implications for potential modes of tetM conferred tetracycline resistance. Nucleic Acids Res. 16:1218.
77. Spahn, C. M. T.,, G. Blaha,, R. K. Agrawal,, P. Penczek,, R. A. Grassucci,, C. A. Trieber,, S. R. Connell,, D. E. Taylor,, K. H. Nierhaus,, and J. Frank. 2001. Localization of the ribosomal protection protein Tet(O) on the ribosome and the mechanism of tetracycline resistance. Mol. Cell 7:10371045.
78. Sarafian, S. K.,, C. A. Genco,, M. C. Roberts,, and J. S. Knapp. 1990. Acquisition of β-lactamase and Tet M-containing conjugative plasmids by phenotypically different strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sex. Trans. Dis. 17:6771.
79. Schwarz, S.,, M. C. Roberts,, C. Werckenthin,, Y. Pang,, and C. Lange. 1998. Tetracycline resistance in Staphylococcus spp. from domestic and pet animals. Vet. Microbiol. 63:217228.
80. Scott, K. P.,, T. M. Barbosa,, K. J. Forbes,, and H. J. Flint. 1997. High-frequency transfer of a naturally occurring chromosomal tetracycline resistance element in the ruminal anaerobe Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:34053411.
81. Scott, K. P.,, C. M. Melville,, T. M. Barbosa,, and H. J. Flint. 2000. Occurrence of the new tetracycline resistance gene tet(W) in bacteria from the human gut. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:775777.
82. Shoemaker, N. B.,, H. Vlamakis,, K. Hayes,, and A. A. Salyers. 2001. Evidence for extensive resistance gene transfer among Bacteroides spp. and among Bacteroides and other genera in the human colon. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:561568.
83. Showsh, S. A.,, and R. E. Andrews. 1992. Tetracycline enhances Tn916-mendiated conjugal transfer. Plasmid 28:213224.
84. Sloan, J.,, L. M. McMurry,, D. Lyras,, S. B. Levy,, and J. I. Rood. 1994. The Clostridium perfringens Tet P determinant comprises two overlapping genes: tetA(P), which mediates active tetracycline efflux, and tetB(P), which is related to the ribosomal protection family of tetracycline-resistant determinants. Mol. Microbiol. 11:403415.
85. Stanton, T. B.,, and S. B. Humphrey. 2003. Isolation of tetracycline- resistant Megasphaera elsdenii strains with novel mosaic gene combinations of tet(O) and tet(W) from swine. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:38743882.
86. Stevens, A. M.,, N. B. Shoemaker,, L.-Y. Li,, and A. A. Salyers. 1993. Tetracycline regulation of genes on Bacteroides conjugative transposons. J. Bacteriol. 175:61346141.
87. Su, Y. A.,, P. He,, and D. B. Clewell. 1992. Characterization of the tet(M) determinant of Tn916: evidence for regulation by transcription attenuation. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36: 769778.
88. Taylor, D. E. 1986. Plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance in Campylobacter jejuni: Expression in Escherichia coli and identification of homology with streptococcal class M determinant. J. Bacteriol. 165:10371039.
89. Taylor, D. E.,, and A. Chau. 1996. Tetracycline resistance mediated by ribosomal protection. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:15.
90. Trieber, C. A.,, N. Burkhardt,, K. H. Nierhaus,, and D. E. Taylor. 1998. Ribosomal protection from tetracycline mediated by Tet(O): Tet(O) interaction with ribosomes is GTP-dependent. Biol. Chem. 379:847855.
91. Villedieu, A.,, M. L. Diaz-Torres,, N. Hunt,, R. McNab,, D. A. Spratt,, M. Wilson,, and P. Mullany. 2003. Prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes in oral bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:878882.
92. Wang, Y.,, and D. E. Taylor. 1991. A DNA sequence upstream of the tet(O) gene is required for full expression of tetracycline resistance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:20202025.
93. Weaver, K. E.,, L. B. Rice,, and G. Churchward,. 2002. Plasmids and transposons, p. 219263. In M. S. Gilmore (ed.), The Enterococci: Pathogenesis, Molecular Biology, and Antibiotic Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
94. Whittle, G.,, T. R. Whitehead,, N. Hamburger,, N. B. Shoemaker,, M. A. Cotta,, and A. A. Salyers. 2003. Identification of a new ribosomal protection type of tetracycline resistance gene, tet(36), from swine manure pits. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:41514158.
95. Widdowson, C. A.,, K. P. Klugman,, and D. Hanslo. 1996. Identification of the tetracycline resitance gene, tetO, in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:28912893.


Generic image for table
Table 1

G+C content of ribosomal protection genes

Percentages are rounded off to the next whole number.

Citation: Roberts M. 2005. Tetracycline Resistance Due to Ribosomal Protection Proteins, p 19-28. In White D, Alekshun M, McDermott P (ed), Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817572.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 2

Distribution of ribosomal protection genes

Data from references .

Citation: Roberts M. 2005. Tetracycline Resistance Due to Ribosomal Protection Proteins, p 19-28. In White D, Alekshun M, McDermott P (ed), Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817572.ch2

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error