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Chapter 31 : Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacterial Agents of Bioterrorism: Strategies and Considerations

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Abstract:

, species, , , , and are bacterial species that can produce deadly infections; collectively they have caused epic plagues and human misery for centuries . This chapter explores the progress made over the last three years to establish both standardized susceptibility testing methods and interpretive criteria for ,, , , , and species. Although a standardized testing method has been published by CLSI for , two issues remain controversial. The first is whether a 0.5 McFarland inoculum contains an adequate number of cells for testing, since colony counts performed from a standardized inoculum are often below 5 × 105CFU/ml, which is the standard inoculum size for broth microdiution assays. The second issue focuses on the role of the chromosomally encoded β-lactamases produced by in mediating penicillin resistance, and whether the β-lactamases are constitutively produced or inducible in most anthrax strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods established by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) for MIC testing of follow those used for other ; however, in studies conducted by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), adequate growth of some isolates was not achieved in Mueller-Hinton broth in 24 hrs. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods used for studies vary widely in the literature. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial agents of bioterrorism provides critical data for guiding prophylaxis or treatment of patients exposed to or infected with pathogens.

Citation: Tenover F. 2005. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacterial Agents of Bioterrorism: Strategies and Considerations, p 414-422. In White D, Alekshun M, McDermott P (ed), Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817572.ch31

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Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
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Disk Diffusion Test
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Gram-Negative Bacilli
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Francisella tularensis
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Tables

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Table 1

Testing methods and antimicrobial agents to test and report for bioterrorism agents defined by CLSI/NCCLS

Reprinted from reference 10 with permission.

Citation: Tenover F. 2005. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacterial Agents of Bioterrorism: Strategies and Considerations, p 414-422. In White D, Alekshun M, McDermott P (ed), Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817572.ch31

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