Chapter 9 : Phenicol Resistance

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Chloramphenicol (CML) resistance among bacteria is frequently due to the presence of the antibiotic inactivating enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), which catalyzes the acetyl-S-CoA-dependent acetylation of chloramphenicol at the 3-hydroxyl group. The genes are widespread among most genera of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and represent the best-understood mechanism of microbial resistance to chloramphenicol. There are two defined types of CATs which differ distinctly in their structure: the classical CATs, referred to in this chapter as type A CATs and the novel CATs, also known as xenobiotic CATs, but referred to in the chapter as type B CATs. A number of closely related or identical genes have been identified from several gram-negative bacteria including , , , and and have been assigned to group E-1. The CML protein does not share significant homology to other characterized chloramphenicol resistance proteins and only consists of 302 amino acids and five transmembrane segments. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests on transconjugant strains demonstrated that resistance to sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and kanamycin frequently transferred along with chloramphenicol resistance.

Citation: Schwarz S, White D. 2005. Phenicol Resistance, p 124-147. In White D, Alekshun M, McDermott P (ed), Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817572.ch9

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Figure 1

Phenicol chemical structures.

Citation: Schwarz S, White D. 2005. Phenicol Resistance, p 124-147. In White D, Alekshun M, McDermott P (ed), Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817572.ch9
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Figure 2

70S bacterial ribosome

Citation: Schwarz S, White D. 2005. Phenicol Resistance, p 124-147. In White D, Alekshun M, McDermott P (ed), Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817572.ch9
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