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Chapter 1 : Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production

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Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter introduces the world of petroleum. This is done as follows: first, a description of the reservoir object, which could be compared to the setting for a play; second, a presentation of fluids in the reservoir, which is like a presentation of the characters of this play; third, a description of production mechanisms, which could be compared to the history of the play; and fourth, a quick look at drilling, completion, and surface facilities, which are like methods of technical assistance for the smooth running of the play. Three classical steps are distinguished in oil recovery. Primary recovery corresponds to natural drive. It is obtained simply by reduction of the pressure in the reservoir. Secondary recovery consists of the injection of another fluid, water or gas, to maintain the reservoir pressure and to produce more oil. Tertiary recovery includes different and more sophisticated techniques aimed at increasing microscopic efficiency or sweep efficiency.

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Van Krevelen diagram. (Modified from www.usask.ca/geology/classes/ geol463/46303.pdf.)

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Different types of traps. Courtesy of Total.

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Explanation of wettability. is the interfacial tension between oil and water, oil and surface, or water and surface. The Young-Dupré equation gives the value of , which is <90° when the surface is said to be water wet and >90° when the surface is said to be oil wet. Courtesy of Total.

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Permeability curve and capillary pressure versus water saturation. Courtesy of Total.

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1
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FIGURE 5

Influence of wettability on the relative permeability curve. Courtesy of Total.

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Definition of overburden pressure, which is the sum of FP and grain pressure. Courtesy of Total.

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Normal pressure distribution from the surface through the reservoir structure. Courtesy of Total.

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Pressure-temperature diagram of different types of oil and gas. Courtesy of Total.

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

Fluid displacement towards producing wells. WOC, water-oil contact; GOC, gas-oil contact. Courtesy of Total.

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

Water injection and gas injection into aquifer and gas cap. Courtesy of Total.

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1
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FIGURE 11

Explanation of effect of polymer injection or thermal method on viscosity. Courtesy of Total.

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 12
FIGURE 12

Explanation of other mechanisms of EOR and effect on relative permeability curves. Courtesy of Total.

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 13
FIGURE 13

Two types of wells: horizontal (A) and vertical (B).

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 14
FIGURE 14

An example of completion of a simple well. SCSSV is a surface safety valve; MGL is a tool which allows gas lift operations; packers isolate some parts, for example, an annulus and tubing; perforated tubing perforates the reservoir to improve well productivity. In some cases, a gas lift can be replaced by a pump. Courtesy of Total.

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 15
FIGURE 15

Three stages of separation from high to low pressure. Gas and water are recovered and treated. Courtesy of Total.

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 16
FIGURE 16

Cutaway view of a three-phase separator.

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1
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Image of FIGURE 17
FIGURE 17

Three simple types of water treatment before reinjection in the reservoir. These treatments are often combined because the source of water is mixed. Courtesy of Total.

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817589.chap1
1. Cossé, R.1988. Le gisement. Institut Français du Pétrole and Technip Editions, Paris, France.
2. Gravier, J. F. 1986. Propriétés des fluides de gisements. Cours de production, vol. 2. Technip Editions, Paris, France.
3. Klins, M. A.,, and C. P. Bardon,. 1991. Carbon dioxide flooding, p. 215239. In M. Bavière (ed.), Basic Concepts in Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes. Elsevier Applied Science,London, United Kingdom.
4. Marle, C. M., 1991. Oil entrapment and mobilization, p. 339. In M. Bavière (ed.), Basic Concepts in Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes. Elsevier Applied Science, London, United Kingdom.
5. Morel, D., 1991. Miscible gas flooding, p. 185214. In M. Bavière (ed.), Basic Concepts in Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes. Elsevier Applied Science, London, United Kingdom.
6. Tabert, J. J.,, D. Martin,, and R. S. Seright. 1996. EORscreening criteria revisited. SPE/DOE 35385. In Proceedings of the SPE/DOE Tenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery. Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, Tex.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Kerogen classification

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Composition of five typical gases (G1 to G5) and five typical oils (O1 to O5)

Citation: Planckaert M. 2005. Oil Reservoirs and Oil Production, p 3-19. In Ollivier B, Magot M (ed), Petroleum Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817589.ch1

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