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Chapter 4 : Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater

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Abstract:

The purpose of this chapter is to show how in situ processes making use of bioremediation processes can be dealt within a single comprehensive yet realistic framework. The chapter provides an introduction and overview of the mathematical/ mechanistic descriptions of the important processes governing bioremediation, considering the critical factors of microbial processes (growth and decay of bacteria) and physical processes (advection and dispersion) as they relate to the applicability of bioremediation to the removal of organic pollutants from contaminated groundwater. In general, modeling provides the best means to incorporate observed data into a systematic site investigation or, where data are lacking, to investigate quickly a suite of scenarios that assist in gaining a better understanding of factors dominating the duration and effectiveness of site cleanup. The chapter focuses initially on the quantitative description of biochemical processes (as a function of time) in batch-type systems. The discussion of batch-type modeling uses simple examples to discuss some of the common concepts needed to model microbially mediated biodegradation reactions. This discussion of biotic processes is succeeded by an introduction to some of the fundamentals of modeling physical transport before moving on to biogeochemical transport, in which these biotic and physical processes are combined.

Citation: Prommer H, Barry D. 2005. Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater, p 108-138. In Atlas R, Philip J (ed), Bioremediation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817596.ch4

Key Concept Ranking

Hydrogen Sulfide
0.6698113
Toluene Degradation
0.5875196
Carbon Dioxide
0.57267565
Chemicals
0.5461863
0.6698113
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 4.1
FIGURE 4.1

Simulation of toluene mineralization by SRB in a closed batch system.

Citation: Prommer H, Barry D. 2005. Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater, p 108-138. In Atlas R, Philip J (ed), Bioremediation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817596.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.2
FIGURE 4.2

Simulation of BTEX mineralization by SRB in a closed batch system (after the work of Barry et al. [ ]).

Citation: Prommer H, Barry D. 2005. Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater, p 108-138. In Atlas R, Philip J (ed), Bioremediation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817596.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.3
FIGURE 4.3

Simulation of toluene mineralization by sequential use of oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate in a closed batch system (after the work of Barry et al. [ ]).

Citation: Prommer H, Barry D. 2005. Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater, p 108-138. In Atlas R, Philip J (ed), Bioremediation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817596.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.4
FIGURE 4.4

Simulation of toluene mineralization by sulfate with and without growth inhibition.

Citation: Prommer H, Barry D. 2005. Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater, p 108-138. In Atlas R, Philip J (ed), Bioremediation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817596.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.5
FIGURE 4.5

Simulation of toluene mineralization under sequential aerobic, denitrifying, and iron-reducing conditions in a closed batch system. TIC, total inorganic carbon.

Citation: Prommer H, Barry D. 2005. Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater, p 108-138. In Atlas R, Philip J (ed), Bioremediation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817596.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.6
FIGURE 4.6

Simulation of BTEX compound dissolution, transport, and mineralization under sulfate-reducing conditions in a one-dimensional domain. The NAPL source zone is located between 5 and 9 m from the influent end (left). TIC, total inorganic carbon.

Citation: Prommer H, Barry D. 2005. Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater, p 108-138. In Atlas R, Philip J (ed), Bioremediation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817596.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.7
FIGURE 4.7

Simulation of BTEX compound dissolution, transport, and mineralization under sulfate-reducing conditions in a two-dimensional domain. The NAPL source zone is located between 5 and 9 m from the influent end (left) and has a width of 6 m. Dist., distance.

Citation: Prommer H, Barry D. 2005. Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater, p 108-138. In Atlas R, Philip J (ed), Bioremediation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817596.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.8
FIGURE 4.8

First-moment, vertically integrated mass and second moment for advective, nonreactive transport (a), advective, dispersive, nonreactive transport (b), and advective, dispersive transport with linear equilibrium sorption (retardation factors of 1.45 and 1.88, respectively) (c and d). The solution for steady-state flow (thick lines) and solutions from the transient simulations (thin lines) are indicated. Reprinted from reference 50 with permission from Elsevier.

Citation: Prommer H, Barry D. 2005. Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater, p 108-138. In Atlas R, Philip J (ed), Bioremediation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817596.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.9
FIGURE 4.9

Contour plots for toluene, sulfate, and SRB for a snapshot from the transient simulations (concentrations are given in moles per liter) (after the work of Prommer et al. [ ]).

Citation: Prommer H, Barry D. 2005. Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater, p 108-138. In Atlas R, Philip J (ed), Bioremediation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817596.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.10
FIGURE 4.10

Simulated total mass (concentrations integrated over the model domain) of toluene during the transient (trans) simulations. Reprinted from reference 50 with permission from Elsevier.

Citation: Prommer H, Barry D. 2005. Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater, p 108-138. In Atlas R, Philip J (ed), Bioremediation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817596.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.11
FIGURE 4.11

Simulation of enhanced remediation of toluene by injection of oxygenated water, showing oxygen concentration distribution when primary reactions only (above) and primary and secondary oxygen-consuming reactions (middle) are considered.

Citation: Prommer H, Barry D. 2005. Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater, p 108-138. In Atlas R, Philip J (ed), Bioremediation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817596.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.12
FIGURE 4.12

Simulation of enhanced remediation of toluene by injection of oxygenated water, showing toluene concentration distribution when only primary reactions (top) and both primary and secondary reactions (middle) are considered.

Citation: Prommer H, Barry D. 2005. Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater, p 108-138. In Atlas R, Philip J (ed), Bioremediation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817596.ch4
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 4.1

Electron-accepting processes

Citation: Prommer H, Barry D. 2005. Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater, p 108-138. In Atlas R, Philip J (ed), Bioremediation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817596.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 4.2

Initial concentrations of aqueous components and minerals in the batch-type biodegradation simulations

Citation: Prommer H, Barry D. 2005. Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater, p 108-138. In Atlas R, Philip J (ed), Bioremediation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817596.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 4.3

Parameters used in the batch-type biodegradation modeling (cases 1 to 5)

Citation: Prommer H, Barry D. 2005. Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater, p 108-138. In Atlas R, Philip J (ed), Bioremediation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817596.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 4.4

Initial concentrations of NAPLs, aqueous components, and microbes in the uncontaminated aquifer (cases 6 and 7)

Citation: Prommer H, Barry D. 2005. Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater, p 108-138. In Atlas R, Philip J (ed), Bioremediation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817596.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 4.5

Initial concentrations of aqueous components, minerals, and microbes in the uncontaminated aquifer used in the field-scale natural attenuation simulation (case 8)

Citation: Prommer H, Barry D. 2005. Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater, p 108-138. In Atlas R, Philip J (ed), Bioremediation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817596.ch4
Generic image for table
TABLE 4.6

Initial concentrations of aqueous components, minerals, and bacteria of the initially contaminated aquifer and of the oxygenated water that is injected to enhance remediation

Citation: Prommer H, Barry D. 2005. Modeling Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater, p 108-138. In Atlas R, Philip J (ed), Bioremediation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817596.ch4

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