1887

Chapter 11 : Regulation in Response to Environmental Conditions

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Regulation in Response to Environmental Conditions, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817619/9781555813239_Chap11-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817619/9781555813239_Chap11-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter discusses what is currently known regarding how and why a few of the most important human respiratory pathogens control gene expression in response to environmental conditions. Even less well characterized is the ability of to control gene expression in response to environmental conditions. Like and , expresses a polysaccharide capsule that plays a major role in pathogenesis. Understanding how these regulators coordinate to mediate precise control of capsule and other virulence factors in response to specific environmental conditions awaits further study. Comparative analyses between and should facilitate understanding the structure and function of the Mga/MgrA regulons of these two streptococcal species. Roles for the other two, or for the C-terminal domain of the protein, remain to be determined, but there is presently no evidence that Mga protein activity is controlled in response to environmental conditions. does not cause severe invasive or systemic disease, although serious complications, including pneumonia, seizures, encephalopathy, and even death, sometimes occur. Natural-host animal models were recently developed to allow the study of the entire infectious cycle in the laboratory. Comparison of mutants altered in signal transduction and/or in Bvg-mediated control of specific factors in these models is expected to allow one to gain a better understanding of the importance of precise control of gene expression in the establishment, maintenance, and transmission of infection.

Citation: Cotter P. 2005. Regulation in Response to Environmental Conditions, p 141-159. In Nataro J, Cohen P, Mobley H, Weiser J (ed), Colonization of Mucosal Surfaces. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817619.ch11
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817619.chap11
1. Akerley, B. J.,, P. A. Cotter,, and J. F. Miller. 1995. Ectopic expression of the flagellar regulon alters development of the Bordetella-host interaction. Cell 80:611620.
2. Ashbaugh, C. D.,, S. Alberti,, and M. R. Wessels. 1998. Molecular analysis of the capsule gene region of group A Streptococcus: the hasAB genes are sufficient for capsule expression. J. Bacteriol. 180:49554959.
3. Ashbaugh, C. D.,, T. J. Moser,, M. H. Shearer,, G. L. White,, R. C. Kennedy,, and M. R. Wessels. 2000. Bacterial determinants of persistent throat colonization and the associated immune response in a primate model of human group A streptococcal pharyngeal infection. Cell. Microbiol. 2:283292.
4. Beckert, S.,, B. Kreikemeyer,, and A. Podbielski. 2001. Group A streptococcal rofA gene is involved in the control of several virulence genes and eukaryotic cell attachment and internalization. Infect. Immun. 69:534547.
5. Beres, S. B.,, G. L. Sylva,, K. D. Barbian,, B. Lei,, J. S. Hoff,, N. D. Mammarella,, M. Y. Liu,, J. C. Smoot,, S. F. Porcella,, L. D. Parkins,, D. S. Campbell,, T. M. Smith,, J. K. Mc- Cormick,, D. Y. Leung,, P. M. Schlievert,, and J. M. Musser. 2002. Genome sequence of a serotype M3 strain of group A Streptococcus: phage-encoded toxins, the high-virulence phenotype, and clone emergence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:1007810083.
6. Berggard, K.,, E. Johnsson,, E. Morfeldt,, J. Persson,, M. Stalhammar- Carlemalm,, and G. Lindahl. 2001. Binding of human C4BP to the hypervariable region of M protein: a molecular mechanism of phagocytosis resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes. Mol. Microbiol. 42:539551.
7. Bernish, B.,, and I. van de Rijn. 1999. Characterization of a two-component system in Streptococcus pyogenes which is involved in regulation of hyaluronic acid production. J. Biol. Chem. 274:47864793.
8. Berry, A. M.,, R. A. Lock,, and J. C. Paton. 1996. Cloning and characterization of nanB, a second Streptococcus pneumoniae neuraminidase gene, and purification of the NanB enzyme from recombinant Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 178:48544860.
9. Berry, A. M.,, R. A. Lock,, S. M. Thomas,, D. P. Rajan,, D. Hansman,, and J. C. Paton. 1994. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronidase gene and purification of the enzyme from recombinant Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 62:11011108.
10. Berry, A. M.,, and J. C. Paton. 1996. Sequence heterogeneity of PsaA, a 37-kilodalton putative adhesin essential for virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 64:52555262.
11. Bisno, A. L.,, M. O. Brito,, and C. M. Collins. 2003. Molecular basis of group A streptococcal virulence. Lancet Infect. Dis. 3:191200.
12. Biswas, I.,, and J. R. Scott. 2003. Identification of rocA, a positive regulator of covR expression in the group A Streptococcus. J. Bacteriol. 185:30813090.
13. Black, S.,, H. Shinefield,, B. Fireman,, E. Lewis,, P. Ray,, J. R. Hansen,, L. Elvin,, K. M. Ensor,, J. Hackell,, G. Siber,, F. Malinoski,, D. Madore,, I. Chang,, R. Kohberger,, W. Watson,, R. Austrian,, K. Edwards, and the Northern California Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center Group. 2000. Efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 19:187195.
14. Black, S. B.,, H. R. Shinefield,, S. Ling,, J. Hansen,, B. Fireman,, D. Spring,, J. Noves,, E. Lewis,, P. Ray,, J. Lee,, and J. Hackell. 2002. Effectiveness of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children younger than five years of age for prevention of pneumonia. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 21:810815.
15. Bohach, G. A.,, D. J. Fast,, R. D. Nelson,, and P. M. Schlievert. 1990. Staphylococcal and streptococcal pyrogenic toxins involved in toxic shock syndrome and related illnesses. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 17:251272.
16. Boucher, P. E.,, A. E. Maris,, M. S. Yang,, and S. Stibitz. 2003. The response regulator BvgA and RNA polymerase alpha subunit C-terminal domain bind simultaneously to different faces of the same segment of promoter DNA. Mol. Cell 11:163173.
17. Boucher, P. E.,, K. Murakami,, A. Ishihama,, and S. Stibitz. 1997. Nature of DNA binding and RNA polymerase interaction of the Bordetella pertussis BvgA transcriptional activator at the fha promoter. J. Bacteriol. 179:17551763.
18. Boucher, P. E.,, and S. Stibitz. 1995. Synergistic binding of RNA polymerase and BvgA phosphate to the pertussis toxin promoter of Bordetella pertussis. J. Bacteriol. 177:64866491.
19. Camara, M.,, G. J. Boulnois,, P. W. Andrew,, and T. J. Mitchell. 1994. A neuraminidase from Streptococcus pneumoniae has the features of a surface protein. Infect. Immun. 62:36883695.
20. Caparon, M. G.,, R. T. Geist,, J. Perez-Casal,, and J. R. Scott. 1992. Environmental regulation of virulence in group A streptococci: transcription of the gene encoding M protein is stimulated by carbon dioxide. J. Bacteriol. 174:56935701.
21. Caparon, M. G.,, and J. R. Scott. 1987. Identification of a gene that regulates expression of M protein, the major virulence determinant of group A streptococci. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:86778681.
22. Caparon, M. G.,, D. S. Stephens,, A. Olsen,, and J. R. Scott. 1991. Role of M protein in adherence of group A streptococci. Infect. Immun. 59:18111817.
23. Chapuy-Regaud, S.,, A. D. Ogunniyi,, N. Diallo,, Y. Huet,, J. F. Desnottes,, J. C. Paton,, S. Escaich,, and M. C. Trombe. 2003. RegR, a global LacI/GalR family regulator, modulates virulence and competence in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 71:26152625.
24. Chaussee, M. S.,, D. Ajdic,, and J. J. Ferretti. 1999. The rgg gene of Streptococcus pyogenes NZ131 positively influences extracellular SPE B production. Infect. Immun. 67:17151722.
25. Chaussee, M. S.,, J. Liu,, D. L. Stevens,, and J. J. Ferretti. 1997. Effects of environmental factors on streptococcal erythrogenic toxin A (SPE A) production by Streptococcus pyogenes. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 418:551554.
26. Chaussee, M. S.,, G. L. Sylva,, D. E. Sturdevant,, L. M. Smoot,, M. R. Graham,, R. O. Watson,, and J. M. Musser. 2002. Rgg influences the expression of multiple regulatory loci to coregulate virulence factor expression in Streptococcus pyogenes. Infect. Immun. 70:762770.
27. Cherry, J. D.,, and U. Heininger,. 1999. Pertussis, p. 14231440. In R. D. Feigin, and J. D. Cherry (ed.), Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 4th. ed. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa..
28. Cotter, P. A.,, and V. J. DiRita. 2000. Bacterial virulence gene regulation: an evolutionary perspective. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 54:519565.
29. Cotter, P. A.,, and A. M. Jones. 2003. Phosphorelay control of virulence gene expression in Bordetella. Trends Microbiol. 11:367373.
30. Cotter, P. A.,, and J. F. Miller. 2001.Bordetella, p. 619674. In E. A. Groisman (ed.), Principles of Bacterial Pathogenesis. Academic Press, Inc. San Diego, Calif..
31. Cotter, P. A.,, and J. F. Miller. 1994. BvgAS-mediated signal transduction: analysis of phase-locked regulatory mutants of Bordetella bronchiseptica in a rabbit model. Infect. Immun. 62:33813390.
32. Cotter, P. A.,, and J. F. Miller. 1997. A mutation in the Bordetella bronchiseptica bvgS gene results in reduced virulence and increased resistance to starvation, and identifies a new class of Bvg-regulated antigens. Mol. Microbiol. 24:671685.
33. Cotter, P. A.,, M. H. Yuk,, S. Mattoo,, B. J. Akerley,, J. Boschwitz,, D. A. Relman,, and J. F. Miller. 1998. The filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) of Bordetella bronchiseptica is required for efficient establishment of tracheal colonization. Infect. Immun. 66:59215929.
34. Courtney, H. S.,, M. S. Bronze,, J. B. Dale,, and D. L. Hasty. 1994. Analysis of the role of M24 protein in group A streptococcal adhesion and colonization by use of omega-interposon mutagenesis. Infect. Immun. 62:48684873.
35. Courtney, H. S.,, D. L. Hasty,, and J. B. Dale. 2002. Molecular mechanisms of adhesion, colonization, and invasion of group A streptococci. Ann. Med. 34:7787.
36. Courtney, H. S.,, S. Liu,, J. B. Dale,, and D. L. Hasty. 1997. Conversion of M serotype 24 of Streptococcus pyogenes to M serotypes 5 and 18: effect on resistance to phagocytosis and adhesion to host cells. Infect. Immun. 65:24722474.
37. Craig, J. E.,, A. Nobbs,, and N. J. High. 2002. The extracytoplasmic sigma factor, final sigma(E), is required for intracellular survival of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in J774 macrophages. Infect. Immun. 70:708715.
38. Cross, A. S. 1990. The biologic significance of bacterial encapsulation. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 150:8795.
39. Cue, D.,, P. E. Dombek,, H. Lam,, and P. P. Cleary. 1998. Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M1 encodes multiple pathways for entry into human epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 66:45934601.
40. Cundell, D. R.,, N. P. Gerard,, C. Gerard,, I. Idanpaan- Heikkila,, and E. I. Tuomanen. 1995. Streptococcus pneumoniae anchor to activated human cells by the receptor for platelet-activating factor. Nature 377:435438.
41. Cundell, D. R.,, J. N. Weiser,, J. Shen,, A. Young,, and E. I. Tuomanen. 1995. Relationship between colonial morphology and adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 63:757761.
42. Cunningham, M. W. 2000. Pathogenesis of group A streptococcal infections. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13:470511.
43. Cywes, C.,, I. Stamenkovic,, and M. R. Wessels. 2000. CD44 as a receptor for colonization of the pharynx by group A Streptococcus. J. Clin. Investig. 106:9951002.
44. Cywes, C.,, and M. R. Wessels. 2001. Group A Streptococcus tissue invasion by CD44-mediated cell signalling. Nature 414:648652.
45. Dale, J. B.,, R. G. Washburn,, M. B. Marques,, and M. R. Wessels. 1996. Hyaluronate capsule and surface M protein in resistance to opsonization of group A streptococci. Infect. Immun. 64:14951501.
46. Dawid, S.,, S. J. Barenkamp,, and J. W. St. Geme III. 1999. Variation in expression of the Haemophilus influenzae HMW adhesins: a prokaryotic system reminiscent of eukaryotes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:10771082.
47. Dawid, S.,, S. Grass,, and J. W. St. Geme III. 2001. Mapping of binding domains of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 and HMW2 adhesins. Infect. Immun. 69:307314.
48. Deghmane, A. E.,, D. Giorgini,, M. Larribe,, J. M. Alonso,, and M. K. Taha. 2002. Down-regulation of pili and capsule of Neisseria meningitidis upon contact with epithelial cells is mediated by CrgA regulatory protein. Mol. Microbiol. 43:15551564.
49. Deghmane, A. E.,, S. Petit,, A. Topilko,, Y. Pereira,, D. Giorgini,, M. Larribe,, and M. K. Taha. 2000. Intimate adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis to human epithelial cells is under the control of the crgA gene, a novel LysR-type transcriptional regulator. EMBO J. 19:10681078.
50. Deora, R.,, H. J. Bootsma,, J. F. Miller,, and P. A. Cotter. 2001. Diversity in the Bordetella virulence regulon: transcriptional control of a Bvg-intermediate phase gene. Mol. Microbiol. 40:669683.
51. De Souza-Hart, J. A.,, W. Blackstock,, V. Di Modugno,, I. B. Holland,, and M. Kok. 2003. Two-component systems in Haemophilus influenzae: a regulatory role for ArcA in serum resistance. Infect. Immun. 71:163172.
52. Dintilhac, A.,, G. Alloing,, C. Granadel,, and J. P. Claverys. 1997. Competence and virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae: Adc and PsaA mutants exhibit a requirement for Zn and Mn resulting from inactivation of putative ABC metal permeases. Mol. Microbiol. 25:727739.
53. Doern, G. V.,, A. B. Brueggemann,, H. Huynh,, and E. Wingert. 1999. Antimicrobial resistance with Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States, 1997-98. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:757765.
54. Dombek, P. E.,, D. Cue,, J. Sedgewick,, H. Lam,, S. Ruschkowski,, B. B. Finlay,, and P. P. Cleary. 1999. High-frequency intracellular invasion of epithelial cells by serotype M1 group A streptococci: M1 protein-mediated invasion and cytoskeletal rearrangements. Mol. Microbiol. 31:859870.
55. Echenique, J. R.,, and M. C. Trombe. 2001. Competence repression under oxygen limitation through the two-component MicAB signal-transducing system in Streptococcus pneumoniae and involvement of the PAS domain of MicB. J. Bacteriol. 183:45994608.
56. Engleberg, N. C.,, A. Heath,, A. Miller,, C. Rivera,, and V. J. DiRita. 2001. Spontaneous mutations in the CsrRS twocomponent regulatory system of Streptococcus pyogenes result in enhanced virulence in a murine model of skin and soft tissue infection. J. Infect. Dis. 183:10431054.
57. Farley, M. M.,, D. S. Stephens,, S. L. Kaplan,, and E. O. Mason, Jr. 1990. Pilus- and non-pilus-mediated interactions of Haemophilus influenzae type b with human erythrocytes and human nasopharyngeal mucosa. J. Infect. Dis. 161:274280.
58. Federle, M. J.,, K. S. McIver,, and J. R. Scott. 1999. A response regulator that represses transcription of several virulence operons in the group A Streptococcus. J. Bacteriol. 181:36493657.
59. Fernandez, R. C.,, and A. A. Weiss. 1994. Cloning and sequencing of a Bordetella pertussis serum resistance locus. Infect. Immun. 62:47274738.
60. Ferretti, J. J.,, W. M. McShan,, D. Ajdic,, D. J. Savic,, G. Savic,, K. Lyon,, C. Primeaux,, S. Sezate,, A. N. Suvorov,, S. Kenton,, H. S. Lai,, S. P. Lin,, Y. Qian,, H. G. Jia,, F. Z. Najar,, Q. Ren,, H. Zhu,, L. Song,, J. White,, X. Yuan,, S. W. Clifton,, B. A. Roe,, and R. McLaughlin. 2001. Complete genome sequence of an M1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:46584663.
61. Finn, T. M.,, and L. A. Stevens. 1995. Tracheal colonization factor: a Bordetella pertussis secreted virulence determinant. Mol. Microbiol. 16:625634.
62. Fireman, B.,, S. B. Black,, H. R. Shinefield,, J. Lee,, E. Lewis,, and P. Ray. 2003. Impact of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on otitis media. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 22:1016.
63. Fleischmann, R. D.,, M. D. Adams,, O. White,, R. A. Clayton,, E. Kirkness,, A. R. Kerlavage,, C. J. Bult,, J. F. Tomb,, B. A. Dougherty,, J. M. Merrick,, A. Glodek,, J. L. Scott,, S. M. Geoghagen,, J. F. Weidman,, J. L. Fuhrmann,, D. Nguyen,, T. R. Utterback,, J. M. Kelley,, J. D. Peterson,, P. W. Sadow,, M. C. Hanna,, M. D. Cotton,, K. M. Roberts,, M. A. Hurst,, B. P. Kaine,, M. Borodovsky,, H.-P. Klenk,, C. M. Fraser,, H. O. Smith,, C. R. Woese,, and J. C. Venter. 1995. Whole-genome random sequencing and assembly of Haemophilus influenzae Rd. Science 269:496512.
64. Fluckiger, U.,, K. F. Jones,, and V. A. Fischetti. 1998. Immunoglobulins to group A streptococcal surface molecules decrease adherence to and invasion of human pharyngeal cells. Infect. Immun. 66:974979.
65. Fogg, G. C.,, and M. G. Caparon. 1997. Constitutive expression of fibronectin binding in Streptococcus pyogenes as a result of anaerobic activation of rofA. J. Bacteriol. 179:61726180.
66. Fogg, G. C.,, C. M. Gibson,, and M. G. Caparon. 1994. The identification of rofA, a positive-acting regulatory component of prtF expression: use of an m gamma delta-based shuttle mutagenesis strategy in Streptococcus pyogenes. Mol. Microbiol. 11:671684.
67. Friedman, R. L. 1987. Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase: isolation and purification by calmodulin-sepharose 4B chromatography. Infect. Immun. 55:129134.
68. Fuchslocher, B.,, L. L. Millar,, and P. A. Cotter. 2003. Comparison of bipA alleles within and across Bordetella species. Infect. Immun. 71:30433052.
69. Georgellis, D.,, O. Kwon,, E. C. Lin,, S. M. Wong,, and B. J. Akerley. 2001. Redox signal transduction by the ArcB sensor kinase of Haemophilus influenzae lacking the PAS domain. J. Bacteriol. 183:72067212.
70. Gerlach, G.,, F. von Wintzingerode,, B. Middendorf,, and R. Gross. 2001. Evolutionary trends in the genus Bordetella. Microbes Infect. 3:6172.
71. Geuijen, C. A.,, R. J. Willems,, M. Bongaerts,, J. Top,, H. Gielen,, and F. R. Mooi. 1997. Role of the Bordetella pertussis minor fimbrial subunit, FimD, in colonization of the mouse respiratory tract. Infect. Immun. 65:42224228.
72. Giammarinaro, P.,, and J. C. Paton. 2002. Role of RegM, a homologue of the catabolite repressor protein CcpA, in the virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 70:54545461.
73. Gold, R.,, I. Goldschneider,, M. L. Lepow,, T. F. Draper,, and M. Randolph. 1978. Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica in infants and children. J. Infect. Dis. 137:112121.
74. Graham, M. R.,, L. M. Smoot,, C. A. Migliaccio,, K. Virtaneva,, D. E. Sturdevant,, S. F. Porcella,, M. J. Federle,, G. J. Adams,, J. R. Scott,, and J. M. Musser. 2002. Virulence control in group A Streptococcus by a two-component gene regulatory system: global expression profiling and in vivo infection modeling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:1385513860.
75. Greco, R.,, L. De Martino,, G. Donnarumma,, M. P. Conte,, L. Seganti,, and P. Valenti. 1995. Invasion of cultured human cells by Streptococcus pyogenes. Res. Microbiol. 146:551560.
76. Gryllos, I.,, J. C. Levin,, and M. R. Wessels. 2003. The CsrR/ CsrS two-component system of group A Streptococcus responds to environmental Mg2+. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:42274232.
77. Hagman, M. M.,, J. B. Dale,, and D. L. Stevens. 1999. Comparison of adherence to and penetration of a human laryngeal epithelial cell line by group A streptococci of various M protein types. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 23:195204.
78. Hammerschmidt, S.,, A. Muller,, H. Sillmann,, M. Muhlenhoff,, R. Borrow,, A. Fox,, J. van Putten,, W. D. Zollinger,, R. Gerardy- Schahn,, and M. Frosch. 1996. Capsule phase variation in Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B by slipped-strand mispairing in the polysialyltransferase gene (siaD): correlation with bacterial invasion and the outbreak of meningococcal disease. Mol. Microbiol. 20:12111220.
79. Hammerschmidt, S.,, S. R. Talay,, P. Brandtzaeg,, and G. S. Chhatwal. 1997. SpsA, a novel pneumococcal surface protein with specific binding to secretory immunoglobulin A and secretory component. Mol. Microbiol. 25:11131124.
80. Hart, C. A.,, and L. E. Cuevas. 1997. Meningococcal disease in Africa. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 91:777785.
81. Harvill, E. T.,, P. A. Cotter,, and J. F. Miller. 1998. Probing the function of a bacterial virulence factor by manipulating host immunity. Infect. Immun. 67:14931500.
82. Hasty, D. L.,, I. Ofek,, H. S. Courtney,, and R. J. Doyle. 1992. Multiple adhesins of streptococci. Infect. Immun. 60:21472152.
83. Hauser, A. R.,, D. L. Stevens,, E. L. Kaplan,, and P. M. Schlievert. 1991. Molecular analysis of pyrogenic exotoxins from Streptococcus pyogenes isolates associated with toxic shocklike syndrome. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:15621567.
84. Hava, D. L.,, and A. Camilli. 2002. Large-scale identification of serotype 4 Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factors. Mol. Microbiol. 45:13891406.
85. Hava, D. L.,, C. J. Hemsley,, and A. Camilli. 2003. Transcriptional regulation in the Streptococcus pneumoniae rlrA pathogenicity islet by RlrA. J. Bacteriol. 185:413421.
86. Heath, A.,, V. J. DiRita,, N. L. Barg,, and N. C. Engleberg. 1999. A two-component regulatory system, CsrR-CsrS, represses expression of three Streptococcus pyogenes virulence factors, hyaluronic acid capsule, streptolysin S, and pyrogenic exotoxin B. Infect. Immun. 67:52985305.
87. Heininger, U.,, K. Stehr,, S. Schmitt-Grohe,, C. Lorenz,, R. Rost,, P. D. Christenson,, M. Uberall,, and J. D. Cherry. 1994. Clinical characteristics of illness caused by Bordetella parapertussis compared with illness caused by Bordetella pertussis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 13:306309.
88. Hemsley, C.,, E. Joyce,, D. L. Hava,, A. Kawale,, and A. Camilli. 2003. MgrA, an orthologue of Mga, acts as a transcriptional repressor of the genes within the rlrA pathogenicity islet in Streptococcus pneumoniae. J. Bacteriol. 185:66406647.
89. Henderson, I. R.,, R. Cappello,, and J. P. Nataro. 2000. Autotransporter proteins, evolution and redefining protein secretion. Trends Microbiol. 8:529532.
90. Hendrixson, D. R.,, and J. W. St. Geme III. 1998. The Haemophilus influenzae Hap serine protease promotes adherence and microcolony formation, potentiated by a soluble host protein. Mol. Cell 2:841850.
91. Hewlett, E. L.,, and N. J. Maloney,. 1994. Adenylyl cyclase toxim from Bordetella pertussis. In B. Iglewski,, J. Moss,, A. T. Tu,, and M. Vaughan (ed.), Handbook of Natural Toxins, vol. 8. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y..
92. Hidalgo-Grass, C.,, M. Ravins,, M. Dan-Goor,, J. Jaffe,, A. E. Moses,, and E. Hanski. 2002. A locus of group A Streptococcus involved in invasive disease and DNA transfer. Mol. Microbiol. 46:8799.
93. Hill, D. J.,, M. A. Toleman,, D. J. Evans,, S. Villullas,, L. Van Alphen,, and M. Virji. 2001. The variable P5 proteins of typeable and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae target human CEACAM1. Mol. Microbiol. 39:850862.
94. Hoch, J. A. 2000. Two-component and phosphorelay signal transduction. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 3:165170.
95. Hollingshead, S. K.,, J. W. Simecka,, and S. M. Michalek. 1993. Role of M protein in pharyngeal colonization by group A streptococci in rats. Infect. Immun. 61:22772283.
96. Hoskins, J.,, W. E. Alborn, Jr.,, Arnold, L. C. Blaszczak,, S. Burgett,, B. S. DeHoff,, S. T. Estrem,, L. Fritz,, D. J. Fu,, W. Fuller,, C. Geringer,, R. Gilmour,, J. S. Glass,, H. Khoja,, A. R. Kraft,, R. E. Lagace,, D. J. LeBlanc,, L. N. Lee,, E. J. Lefkowitz,, J. Lu,, P. Matsushima,, S. M. McAhren,, M. McHenney,, K. McLeaster,, C. W. Mundy,, T. I. Nicas,, F. H. Norris,, M. O’Gara,, R. B. Peery,, G. T. Robertson,, P. Rockey,, P. M. Sun,, M. E. Winkler,, Y. Yang,, M. Young-Bellido,, G. Zhao,, C. A. Zook,, R. H. Baltz,, S. R. Jaskunas,, P. R. Rosteck, Jr.,, P. L. Skatrud,, and J. I. Glass. 2001. Genome of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae strain R6. J. Bacteriol. 183:57095717.
97. Hultgren, S. J.,, S. Abraham,, M. Caparon,, P. Falk,, J. W. St. Geme III, and S. Normark. 1993. Pilus and nonpilus bacterial adhesins: assembly and function in cell recognition. Cell 73:887901.
98. Husmann, L. K.,, D. L. Yung,, S. K. Hollingshead,, and J. R. Scott. 1997. Role of putative virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes in mouse models of long-term throat colonization and pneumonia. Infect. Immun. 65:14221430.
99. Jadoun, J.,, V. Ozeri,, E. Burstein,, E. Skutelsky,, E. Hanski,, and S. Sela. 1998. Protein F1 is required for efficient entry of Streptococcus pyogenes into epithelial cells. J. Infect. Dis. 178:147158.
100. Jedrzejas, M. J.,, S. K. Hollingshead,, J. Lebowitz,, L. Chantalat,, D. E. Briles,, and E. Lamani. 2000. Production and characterization of the functional fragment of pneumococcal surface protein A. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 373:116125.
101. Johnson, D. R.,, D. L. Stevens,, and E. L. Kaplan. 1992. Epidemiologic analysis of group A streptococcal serotypes associated with severe systemic infections, rheumatic fever, or uncomplicated pharyngitis. J. Infect. Dis. 166:374382.
102. Johnsson, E.,, K. Berggard,, H. Kotarsky,, J. Hellwage,, P. F. Zipfel,, U. Sjobring,, and G. Lindahl. 1998. Role of the hypervariable region in streptococcal M proteins: binding of a human complement inhibitor. J. Immunol. 161:48944901.
103. Kadioglu, A.,, J. Echenique,, S. Manco,, M. C. Trombe,, and P. W. Andrew. 2003. The MicAB two-component signaling system is involved in virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 71:66766679.
104. Kallstrom, H.,, M. K. Liszewski,, J. P. Atkinson,, and A. B. Jonsson. 1997. Membrane cofactor protein (MCP or CD46) is a cellular pilus receptor for pathogenic Neisseria. Mol. Microbiol. 25:639647.
105. Kaslow, H. R.,, and D. L. Burns. 1992. Pertussis toxin and target eukaryotic cells: binding, entry, and activation. FASEB J. 6:26842690.
106. Katada, T.,, and M. Ui. 1982. Direct modification of the membrane adenylate cyclase system by islet-activating protein due to ADP-ribosylation of a membrane protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:31293133.
107. Kim, J. O.,, and J. N. Weiser. 1998. Association of intrastrain phase variation in quantity of capsular polysaccharide and teichoic acid with the virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. J. Infect. Dis. 177:368377.
108. Kinnear, S. M.,, R. R. Marques,, and N. H. Carbonetti. 2001. Differential regulation of Bvg-activated virulence factors plays a role in Bordetella pertussis pathogenicity. Infect. Immun. 69:19831993.
109. Knapp, S.,, and J. J. Mekalanos. 1998. Two trans-acting regulatory genes (vir and mod) control antigenic modulation in Bordetella pertussis. J. Bacteriol. 170:50595066.
110. Kreikemeyer, B.,, K. S. McIver,, and A. Podbielski. 2003. Virulence factor regulation and regulatory networks in Streptococcus pyogenes and their impact on pathogen-host interactions. Trends Microbiol. 11:224232.
111. Laarmann, S.,, D. Cutter,, T. Juehne,, S. J. Barenkamp,, and J. W. St. Geme. 2002. The Haemophilus influenzae Hia autotransporter harbours two adhesive pockets that reside in the passenger domain and recognize the same host cell receptor. Mol. Microbiol. 46:731743.
112. LaPenta, D.,, C. Rubens,, E. Chi,, and P. P. Cleary. 1994. Group A streptococci efficiently invade human respiratory epithelial cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:1211512119.
113. Lau, G. W.,, S. Haataja,, M. Lonetto,, S. E. Kensit,, A. Marra,, A. P. Bryant,, D. McDevitt,, D. A. Morrison,, and D. W. Holden. 2001. A functional genomic analysis of type 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence. Mol. Microbiol. 40:555571.
114. Lei, B.,, F. R. DeLeo,, N. P. Hoe,, M. R. Graham,, S. M. Mackie,, R. L. Cole,, M. Liu,, H. R. Hill,, D. E. Low,, M. J. Federle,, J. R. Scott,, and J. M. Musser. 2001. Evasion of human innate and acquired immunity by a bacterial homolog of CD11b that inhibits opsonophagocytosis. Nat. Med. 7:12981305.
115. Leininger, E.,, M. Roberts,, J. G. Kenimer,, I. G. Charles,, N. Fairweather,, P. Novotny,, and M. J. Brennan. 1991. Pertactin, an Arg-Gly-Asp-containing Bordetella pertussis surface protein that promotes adherence of mammalian cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:345349.
116. Levin, J. C.,, and M. R. Wessels. 1998. Identification of csrR/csrS, a genetic locus that regulates hyaluronic acid capsule synthesis in group A Streptococcus. Mol. Microbiol. 30:209219.
117. Lin, L.,, P. Ayala,, J. Larson,, M. Mulks,, M. Fukuda,, S. R. Carlsson,, C. Enns,, and M. So. 1997. The Neisseria type 2 IgA1 protease cleaves LAMP1 and promotes survival of bacteria within epithelial cells. Mol. Microbiol. 24:10831094.
118. Livey, I.,, and A. Wardlaw. 1984. Production and properties of Bordetella pertussis heat-labile toxin. J. Med. Microbiol. 17:91103.
119. Loeb, M. R.,, E. Connor,, and D. Penney. 1988. A comparison of the adherence of fimbriated and nonfimbriated Haemophilus influenzae type b to human adenoids in organ culture. Infect. Immun. 56:484489.
120. MacLeod, C. M.,, and M. R. Krauss. 1950. Relation of virulence of pneumococcal strains for mice to the quantity of capsular polysaccharide formed in vitro. J. Exp. Med. 92:19.
121. Marceau, M.,, J. L. Beretti,, and X. Nassif. 1995. High adhesiveness of encapsulated Neisseria meningitidis to epithelial cells is associated with the formation of bundles of pili. Mol. Microbiol. 17:855863.
122. Marceau, M.,, K. Forest,, J. L. Beretti,, J. Tainer,, and X. Nassif. 1998. Consequences of the loss of O-linked glycosylation of meningococcal type IV pilin on piliation and pilus-mediated adhesion. Mol. Microbiol. 27:705715.
123. Marrack, P.,, and J. Kappler. 1990. The staphylococcal enterotoxins and their relatives. Science 248:705711.
124. Martinez de Tejada, G.,, P. A. Cotter,, U. Heininger,, A. Camilli,, B. J. Akerley,, J. J. Mekalanos,, and J. F. Miller. 1998. Neither the Bvg- phase nor the vrg6 locus of Bordetella pertussis are required for respiratory infection in mice. Infect. Immun. 66:27622768.
125. Martinez de Tejada, G.,, J. F. Miller,, and P. A. Cotter. 1996. Comparative analysis of the virulence control systems of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica. Mol. Microbiol. 22:895908.
126. Mascher, T.,, D. Zahner,, M. Merai,, N. Balmelle,, A. B. de Saizieu,, and R. Hakenbeck. 2003. The Streptococcus pneumoniae cia regulon: CiaR target sites and transcription profile analysis. J. Bacteriol. 185:6070.
127. Mattoo, S.,, A. K. Foreman-Wykert,, P. A. Cotter,, and J. F. Miller. 2001. Mechanisms of Bordetella pathogenesis. Front. Biosci. 6:E168186. [Online] http://www.bioscience.org http://www.bioscience.org/2001/v6/e/mattoo/fulltext.htm">http://www.bioscience.org/2001/v6/e/mattoo/fulltext.htm.
128. Mattoo, S.,, J. F. Miller,, and P. A. Cotter. 2000. Role of Bordetella bronchiseptica fimbria in tracheal colonization and development of a humoral immune response. Infect. Immun. 68:20242033.
128.a. Mattoo, S.,, M. H. Yuk,, L. L. Huang,, and J. F. Miller. 2004. Regulation of type III secretion in Bordetella. Mol. Microbiol. 52:12011214.
129. McGee, Z. A.,, D. S. Stephens,, L. H. Hoffman,, W. F. Schlech III,, and R. G. Horn. 1983. Mechanisms of mucosal invasion by pathogenic Neisseria. Rev. Infect. Dis. 5(Suppl. 4):S708S714.V
130. McIver, K. S.,, A. S. Heath,, and J. R. Scott. 1995. Regulation of virulence by environmental signals in group A streptococci: influence of osmolarity, temperature, gas exchange, and iron limitation on emm transcription. Infect. Immun. 63:45404542.
131. McIver, K. S.,, and R. L. Myles. 2002. Two DNA-binding domains of Mga are required for virulence gene activation in the group A streptococcus. Mol. Microbiol. 43:15911601.
132. McIver, K. S.,, and J. R. Scott. 1997. Role of mga in growth phase regulation of virulence genes of the group A Streptococcus. J. Bacteriol. 179:51785187.
133. McIver, K. S.,, A. S. Thurman,, and J. R. Scott. 1999. Regulation of mga transcription in the group A Streptococcus: specific binding of mga within its own promoter and evidence for a negative regulator. J. Bacteriol. 181:53735383.
134. Merkel, T. J.,, C. Barros,, and S. Stibitz. 1998. Characterization of the bvgR locus of Bordetella pertussis. J. Bacteriol. 180:16821690.
135. Merkel, T. J.,, P. E. Boucher,, S. Stibitz,, and V. K. Grippe. 2003. Analysis of bvgR expression in Bordetella pertussis. J. Bacteriol. 185:69026912.
136. Merkel, T. J.,, S. Stibitz,, J. M. Keith,, M. Leef,, and R. Shahin. 1998. Contribution of regulation by the bvg locus to respiratory infection of mice by Bordetella pertussis. Infect. Immun. 66:43674373.
137. Miller, A. A.,, N. C. Engleberg,, and V. J. DiRita. 2001. Repression of virulence genes by phosphorylation-dependent oligomerization of CsrR at target promoters in S. pyogenes. Mol. Microbiol. 40:976990.
138. Mitchell, T. J.,, J. E. Alexander,, P. J. Morgan,, and P. W. Andrew. 1997. Molecular analysis of virulence factors of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Soc. Appl. Bacteriol. Symp. Ser. 26:62S71S.
139. Molinari, G.,, S. R. Talay,, P. Valentin-Weigand,, M. Rohde,, and G. S. Chhatwal. 1997. The fibronectin-binding protein of Streptococcus pyogenes, SfbI, is involved in the internalization of group A streptococci by epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 65:13571363.
140. Mooi, F. R.,, W. H. Jansen,, H. Brunings,, H. Gielen,, H. G. J. van der Heide,, H. C. Walvoort,, and P. A. M. Guinee. 1992. Construction and analysis of Bordetella pertussis mutants defective in the production of fimbriae. Microb. Pathog. 12:127135.
141. Morona, J. K.,, J. C. Paton,, D. C. Miller,, and R. Morona. 2000. Tyrosine phosphorylation of CpsD negatively regulates capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol. Microbiol. 35:14311442.
142. Moses, A. E.,, M. R. Wessels,, K. Zalcman,, S. Alberti,, S. Natanson-Yaron,, T. Menes,, and E. Hanski. 1997. Relative contributions of hyaluronic acid capsule and M protein to virulence in a mucoid strain of the group A Streptococcus. Infect. Immun. 65:6471.
143.. Moxon, E. R.,, and J. S. Kroll. 1990. The role of bacterial polysaccharide capsules as virulence factors. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 150:6585.
144. Moxon, E. R.,, and K. A. Vaughn. 1981. The type b capsular polysaccharide as a virulence determinant of Haemophilus influenzae: studies using clinical isolates and laboratory transformants. J. Infect. Dis. 143:517524.
145. Nassif, X. 1999. Interaction mechanisms of encapsulated meningococci with eucaryotic cells: what does this tell us about the crossing of the blood-brain barrier by Neisseria meningitidis? Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2:7177.
146. Nassif, X.,, J. Lowy,, P. Stenberg,, P. O’Gaora,, A. Ganji,, and M. So. 1993. Antigenic variation of pilin regulates adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis to human epithelial cells. Mol. Microbiol. 8:719725.
147.. O’Brien, K. L.,, B. Beall,, N. L. Barrett,, P. R. Cieslak,, A. Reingold,, M. M. Farley,, R. Danila,, E. R. Zell,, R. Facklam,, B. Schwartz,, and A. Schuchat. 2002. Epidemiology of invasive group a streptococcus disease in the United States, 1995- 1999. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35:268276.
148. Okada, N.,, M. K. Liszewski,, J. P. Atkinson,, and M. Caparon. 1995. Membrane cofactor protein (CD46) is a keratinocyte receptor for the M protein of the group A Streptococcus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:24892493.
149. Okada, N.,, A. P. Pentland,, P. Falk,, and M. G. Caparon. 1994. M protein and protein F act as important determinants of cell-specific tropism of Streptococcus pyogenes in skin tissue. J. Clin. Investig. 94:965977.
150. Otto, K.,, and T. J. Silhavy. 2002. Surface sensing and adhesion of Escherichia coli controlled by the Cpx-signaling pathway. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:22872292.
151. Parkhill, J.,, M. Achtman,, K. D. James,, S. D. Bentley,, C. Churcher,, S. R. Klee,, G. Morelli,, D. Basham,, D. Brown,, T. Chillingworth,, R. M. Davies,, P. Davis,, K. Devlin,, T. Feltwell,, N. Hamlin,, S. Holroyd,, K. Jagels,, S. Leather,, S. Moule,, K. Mungall,, M. A. Quail,, M. A. Rajandream,, K. M. Rutherford,, M. Simmonds,, J. Skelton,, S. Whitehead,, B. G. Spratt,, and B. G. Barrell. 2000. Complete DNA sequence of a serogroup A strain of Neisseria meningitidis Z2491. Nature 404:502506.
152. Parkhill, J.,, M. Sebaihia,, A. Preston,, L. D. Murphy,, N. Thomson,, D. E. Harris,, M. T. Holden,, C. M. Churcher,, S. D. Bentley,, K. L. Mungall,, A. M. Cerdeno-Tarraga,, L. Temple,, K. James,, B. Harris,, M. A. Quail,, M. Achtman,, R. Atkin,, S. Baker,, D. Basham,, N. Bason,, I. Cherevach,, T. Chillingworth,, M. Collins,, A. Cronin,, P. Davis,, J. Doggett,, T. Feltwell,, A. Goble,, N. Hamlin,, H. Hauser,, S. Holroyd,, K. Jagels,, S. Leather,, S. Moule,, H. Norberczak,, S. O’Neil,, D. Ormond,, C. Price,, E. Rabbinowitsch,, S. Rutter,, M. Sanders,, D. Saunders,, K. Seeger,, S. Sharp,, M. Simmonds,, J. Skelton,, R. Squares,, S. Squares,, K. Stevens,, L. Unwin,, S. Whitehead,, B. G. Barrell,, and D. J. Maskell. 2003. Comparative analysis of the genome sequences of Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica. Nat. Genet. 35:3240.
153. Parton, R. 1985. Effect of predisolone on the toxicity of Bordetella pertussis for mice. J. Med. Microbiol. 19:38143818.
154. Pearson, R. D.,, P. Symes,, M. Conboy,, A. A. Weiss,, and E. L. Hewlett. 1987. Inhibition of monocyte oxidative responses by Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin. J. Immunol. 139:27492754.
155. Perez-Caballero, D.,, S. Alberti,, F. Vivanco,, P. Sanchez-Corral,, and S. Rodriguez de Cordoba. 2000. Assessment of the interaction of human complement regulatory proteins with group A Streptococcus. Identification of a high-affinity group A Streptococcus binding site in FHL-1. Eur. J. Immunol. 30:12431253.
156. Pettersson, J.,, R. Nordfelth,, E. Dubinina,, T. Bergman,, M. Gustafsson,, K. E. Magnusson,, and H. Wolf-Watz. 1996. Modulation of virulence factor expression by pathogen target cell contact. Science 273:12311233.
157. Podbielski, A.,, J. A. Peterson,, and P. Cleary. 1992. Surface protein-CAT reporter fusions demonstrate differential gene expression in the vir regulon of Streptococcus pyogenes. Mol. Microbiol. 6:22532265.
158. Podbielski, A.,, M. Woischnik,, B. A. Leonard,, and K. H. Schmidt. 1999. Characterization of nra, a global negative regulator gene in group A streptococci. Mol. Microbiol. 31:10511064.
159. Polissi, A.,, A. Pontiggia,, G. Feger,, M. Altieri,, H. Mottl,, L. Ferrari,, and D. Simon. 1998. Large-scale identification of virulence genes from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 66:56205629.
160. Ponnuraj, K.,, and M. J. Jedrzejas. 2000. Mechanism of hyaluronan binding and degradation: structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronate lyase in complex with hyaluronic acid disaccharide at 1.7 A resolution. J. Mol. Biol. 299:885895.
161. Prasadarao, N. V.,, E. Lysenko,, C. A. Wass,, K. S. Kim,, and J. N. Weiser. 1999. Opacity-associated protein A contributes to the binding of Haemophilus influenzae to chang epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 67:41534160.
162. Pujol, C.,, E. Eugene,, L. de Saint Martin,, and X. Nassif. 1997. Interaction of Neisseria meningitidis with a polarized monolayer of epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 65:48364842.
163. Pujol, C.,, E. Eugene,, M. Marceau,, and X. Nassif. 1999. The meningococcal PilT protein is required for induction of intimate attachment to epithelial cells following pilus-mediated adhesion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:40174022.
164. Rayner, C. F.,, A. D. Jackson,, A. Rutman,, A. Dewar,, T. J. Mitchell,, P. W. Andrew,, P. J. Cole,, and R. Wilson. 1995. Interaction of pneumolysin-sufficient and -deficient isogenic variants of Streptococcus pneumoniae with human respiratory mucosa. Infect. Immun. 63:442447.
165. Read, R. C.,, A. A. Rutman,, P. K. Jeffery,, V. J. Lund,, A. P. Brain,, E. R. Moxon,, P. J. Cole,, and R. Wilson. 1992. Interaction of capsulate Haemophilus influenzae with human airway mucosa in vitro. Infect. Immun. 60:32443252.
166. Reddy, M. S.,, J. M. Bernstein,, T. F. Murphy,, and H. S. Faden. 1996. Binding between outer membrane proteins of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and human nasopharyngeal mucin. Infect. Immun. 64:14771479.
167. Relman, D.,, E. Tuomanen,, S. Falkow,, D. T. Golenbock,, K. Saukkonen,, and S. D. Wright. 1990. Recognition of a bacterial adhesion by an integrin: macrophage CR3 (αM β2, CD11b/CD18) binds filamentous hemagglutinin of Bordetella pertussis. Cell 61:13751382.
168. Relman, D. A.,, M. Domenighini,, E. T. Tuomanen,, R. Rappuoli,, and S. Falkow. 1989. Filamentous hemagglutinin of Bordetella pertussis: nucleotide sequence and crucial role in adherence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:26342641.
169. Ribardo, D. A.,, and K. McIver. 2003. amrA encodes a putative membrane protein necessary for maximal exponential phase expression of the Mga virulence regulon in Streptococcus pyogenes. Mol. Microbiol. 50:673685.
170. Robbins, J. C.,, J. G. Spanier,, S. J. Jones,, W. J. Simpson,, and P. P. Cleary. 1987. Streptococcus pyogenes type 12 M protein gene regulation by upstream sequences. J. Bacteriol. 169:56335640.
171. Rosenow, C.,, P. Ryan,, J. N. Weiser,, S. Johnson,, P. Fontan,, A. Ortqvist,, and H. R. Masure. 1997. Contribution of novel choline-binding proteins to adherence, colonization and immunogenicity of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol. Microbiol. 25:819829.
172. Rubins, J. B.,, and E. N. Janoff. 1998. Pneumolysin: a multifunctional pneumococcal virulence factor. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 131:2127.
173. Sarkari, J.,, N. Pandit,, E. R. Moxon,, and M. Achtman. 1994. Variable expression of the Opc outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis is caused by size variation of a promoter containing poly-cytidine. Mol. Microbiol. 13:207217.
174. Scarlato, V.,, and R. Rappuoli. 1991. Differential response of the bvg virulence regulon of Bordetella pertussis to MgSO4 modulation. J. Bacteriol. 173:74017404.
175. Schmidt, K. H.,, E. Gunther,, and H. S. Courtney. 1996. Expression of both M protein and hyaluronic acid capsule by group A streptococcal strains results in a high virulence for chicken embryos. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 184:169173.
176. Schrager, H. M.,, S. Alberti,, C. Cywes,, G. J. Dougherty,, and M. R. Wessels. 1998. Hyaluronic acid capsule modulates M protein-mediated adherence and acts as a ligand for attachment of group A Streptococcus to CD44 on human keratinocytes. J. Clin. Invest. 101:17081716.
177. Sebert, M. E.,, L. M. Palmer,, M. Rosenberg,, and J. N. Weiser. 2002. Microarray-based identification of htrA, a Streptococcus pneumoniae gene that is regulated by the CiaRH twocomponent system and contributes to nasopharyngeal colonization. Infect. Immun. 70:40594067.
178. Shakhnovich, E. A.,, S. J. King,, and J. N. Weiser. 2002. Neuraminidase expressed by Streptococcus pneumoniae desialylates the lipopolysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae: a paradigm for interbacterial competition among pathogens of the human respiratory tract. Infect. Immun. 70:71617164.
179. Smoot, J. C.,, K. D. Barbian,, J. J. Van Gompel,, L. M. Smoot,, M. S. Chaussee,, G. L. Sylva,, D. E. Sturdevant,, S. M. Ricklefs,, S. F. Porcella,, L. D. Parkins,, S. B. Beres,, D. S. Campbell,, T. M. Smith,, Q. Zhang,, V. Kapur,, J. A. Daly,, L. G. Veasy,, and J. M. Musser. 2002. Genome sequence and comparative microarray analysis of serotype M18 group A Streptococcus strains associated with acute rheumatic fever outbreaks. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:46684673.
180. Steffen, P.,, S. Goyard,, and A. Ullmann. 1996. Phosphorylated BvgA is sufficient for transcriptional activation of virulence- regulated genes in Bordetella pertussis. EMBO J. 15:102109.
181. Steinfort, C.,, R. Wilson,, T. Mitchell,, C. Feldman,, A. Rutman,, H. Todd,, D. Sykes,, J. Walker,, K. Saunders,, P. W. Andrew,, G. J. Boulnois,, and P. J. Cole. 1989. Effect of Streptococcus pneumoniae on human respiratory epithelium in vitro. Infect. Immun. 57:20062013.
182. Stephens, D. S.,, L. H. Hoffman,, and Z. A. McGee. 1983. Interaction of Neisseria meningitidis with human nasopharyngeal mucosa: attachment and entry into columnar epithelial cells. J. Infect. Dis. 148:369376.
183. Stephens, D. S.,, and Z. A. McGee. 1981. Attachment of Neisseria meningitidis to human mucosal surfaces: influence of pili and type of receptor cell. J. Infect. Dis. 143:525532.
184. Stern, A.,, M. Brown,, P. Nickel,, and T. F. Meyer. 1986. Opacity genes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: control of phase and antigenic variation. Cell 47:6171.
185. Stern, A.,, and T. F. Meyer. 1987. Common mechanism controlling phase and antigenic variation in pathogenic neisseriae. Mol. Microbiol. 1:512.
186. St Geme, J. W., III, D. Cutter, and S. J. Barenkamp. 1996. Characterization of the genetic locus encoding Haemophilus influenzae type b surface fibrils. J. Bacteriol. 178:62816287.
187. St Geme, J. W., III, M. L. de la Morena, and S. Falkow. 1994. A Haemophilus influenzae IgA protease-like protein promotes intimate interaction with human epithelial cells. Mol. Microbiol. 14:217233.
188. Stockbauer, K. E.,, A. K. Foreman-Wykert,, and J. F. Miller. 2003. Bordetella type III secretion induces caspase 1-independent necrosis. Cell Microbiol. 5:123132.
189. Stockbauer, K. E.,, B. Fuchslocher,, J. F. Miller,, and P. A. Cotter. 2001. Identification and characterization of BipA, a Bordetella Bvg-intermediate phase protein. Mol. Microbiol. 39:6578.
190. Swanson, J.,, R. J. Belland,, and S. A. Hill. 1992. Neisserial surface variation: how and why? Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 2:805811.
191. Swords, W. E.,, B. A. Buscher,, K. Ver Steeg Ii,, A. Preston,, W. A. Nichols,, J. N. Weiser,, B. W. Gibson,, and M. A. Apicella. 2000. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae adhere to and invade human bronchial epithelial cells via an interaction of lipooligosaccharide with the PAF receptor. Mol. Microbiol. 37:1327.
192. Taha, M. K.,, P. C. Morand,, Y. Pereira,, E. Eugene,, D. Giorgini,, M. Larribe,, and X. Nassif. 1998. Pilus-mediated adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis: the essential role of cell contact-dependent transcriptional upregulation of the PilC1 protein. Mol. Microbiol. 28:11531163.
193. Tettelin, H.,, V. Masignani,, M. J. Cieslewicz,, J. A. Eisen,, S. Peterson,, M. R. Wessels,, I. T. Paulsen,, K. E. Nelson,, I. Margarit,, T. D. Read,, L. C. Madoff,, A. M. Wolf,, M. J. Beanan,, L. M. Brinkac,, S. C. Daugherty,, R. T. DeBoy,, A. S. Durkin,, J. F. Kolonay,, R. Madupu,, M. R. Lewis,, D. Radune,, N. B. Fedorova,, D. Scanlan,, H. Khouri,, S. Mulligan,, H. A. Carty,, R. T. Cline,, S. E. Van Aken,, J. Gill,, M. Scarselli,, M. Mora,, E. T. Iacobini,, C. Brettoni,, G. Galli,, M. Mariani,, F. Vegni,, D. Maione,, D. Rinaudo,, R. Rappuoli,, J. L. Telford,, D. L. Kasper,, G. Grandi,, and C. M. Fraser. 2002. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of an emerging human pathogen, serotype V Streptococcus agalactiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:1239112396.
194. Tettelin, H.,, Saunders, J., Heidelberg, A. C., Jeffries, K. E., Nelson, J. A., Eisen, K. A., Ketchum, D. W., Hood, J. F., Peden, R. J., Dodson, W. C., Nelson, M. L., Gwinn, R. DeBoy,, J. D. Peterson,, E. K. Hickey,, D. H. Haft,, S. L. Salzberg,, O. White,, R. D. Fleischmann,, B. A. Dougherty,, T. Mason,, A. Ciecko,, D. S. Parksey,, E. Blair,, H. Cittone,, E. B. Clark,, M. D. Cotton,, R. R. Utterback,, H. Khouri,, H. Qin,, J. Vamathevan,, J. Gill,, V. Scarlato,, V. Masignani,, M. Pizza,, G. Grandi,, L. Sun,, H. O. Smith,, C. M. Fraser,, E. R. Moxon,, R. Rappuoli,, and J. C. Venter. 2000. Complete genome sequence of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B strain MC58. Science 287:18091815.
195. Throup, J. P.,, K. K. Koretke,, A. P. Bryant,, K. A. Ingraham,, A. F. Chalker,, Y. Ge,, A. Marra,, N. G. Wallis,, J. R. Brown,, D. J. Holmes,, M. Rosenberg,, and M. K. Burnham. 2000. A genomic analysis of two-component signal transduction in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol. Microbiol. 35:566576.
196. Tomasz, A. 1995. The pneumococcus at the gates. N. Engl. J. Med. 333:514515.
197.. Tomasz, A.,, M. Westphal,, E. B. Briles,, and P. Fletcher. 1975. On the physiological functions of teichoic acids. J. Supramol. Struct. 3:116.
198. Tuomanen, E. 1999. Molecular and cellular biology of pneumococcal infection. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2:3539.
199. Uhl, M. A.,, and J. F. Miller. 1994. Autophosphorylation and phosphotransfer in the Bordetella pertussis BvgAS signal transduction cascade. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:11631167.
200. Uhl, M. A.,, and J. F. Miller,. 1995. Bordetella pertussis BvgAS virulence control system, p. 333349. In J. A. Hoch, and T. Silhavy (ed.), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, D.C..
201. Uhl, M. A.,, and J. F. Miller. 1996. Central role of the BvgS receiver as a phosphorylated intermediate in a complex two-component phosphorelay. J. Biol. Chem. 271:3317633180.
202. Uhl, M. A.,, and J. F. Miller. 1996. Integration of multiple domains in a two-component sensor protein: the Bordetella pertussis BvgAS phosphorelay. EMBO J. 15:10281036.
203. Ui, J., 1990. Pertussis toxin as a valuable probe for G-protein involvement in signal transduction. In J. Moss, and M. Vaughan (ed.), ADP-Ribosylating Toxins and G-Proteins: Insights into Signal Transduction. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
204. Unnikrishnan, M.,, J. Cohen,, and S. Sriskandan. 1999. Growth-phase-dependent expression of virulence factors in an M1T1 clinical isolate of Streptococcus pyogenes. Infect. Immun. 67:54955499.
205. van Alphen, L.,, N. van den Berghe,, and L. Geelen-van den Broek. 1988. Interaction of Haemophilus influenzae with human erythrocytes and oropharyngeal epithelial cells is mediated by a common fimbrial epitope. Infect. Immun. 56:18001806.
206. van Deuren, M.,, P. Brandtzaeg,, and J. W. van der Meer. 2000. Update on meningococcal disease with emphasis on pathogenesis and clinical management. Clin. Microbiol. Rev.13:144166.
207. Virji, M.,, D. Evans,, J. Griffith,, D. Hill,, L. Serino,, A. Hadfield,, and S. M. Watt. 2000. Carcinoembryonic antigens are targeted by diverse strains of typable and non-typable Haemophilus influenzae. Mol. Microbiol. 36:784795.
208. Virji, M.,, D. Evans,, A. Hadfield,, F. Grunert,, A. M. Teixeira,, and S. M. Watt. 1999. Critical determinants of host receptor targeting by Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: identification of Opa adhesiotopes on the N-domain of CD66 molecules. Mol. Microbiol. 34:538551.
209. Virji, M.,, H. Kayhty,, D. J. Ferguson,, C. Alexandrescu,, J. E. Heckels,, and E. R. Moxon. 1991. The role of pili in the interactions of pathogenic Neisseria with cultured human endothelial cells. Mol. Microbiol. 5:18311841.
210. Virji, M.,, K. Makepeace,, D. J. Ferguson,, M. Achtman,, and E. R. Moxon. 1993. Meningococcal Opa and Opc proteins: their role in colonization and invasion of human epithelial and endothelial cells. Mol. Microbiol. 10:499510.
211. Virji, M.,, K. Makepeace,, D. J. Ferguson,, M. Achtman,, J. Sarkari,, and E. R. Moxon. 1992. Expression of the Opc protein correlates with invasion of epithelial and endothelial cells by Neisseria meningitidis. Mol. Microbiol. 6:27852795.
212. Virji, M.,, K. Makepeace,, D. J. Ferguson,, and S. M. Watt. 1996. Carcinoembryonic antigens (CD66) on epithelial cells and neutrophils are receptors for Opa proteins of pathogenic neisseriae. Mol. Microbiol. 22:941950.
213. Virji, M.,, K. Makepeace,, and E. R. Moxon. 1994. Distinct mechanisms of interactions of Opc-expressing meningococci at apical and basolateral surfaces of human endothelial cells; the role of integrins in apical interactions. Mol. Microbiol. 14:173184.
214. Virji, M.,, K. Makepeace,, I. R. Peak,, D. J. Ferguson,, M. P. Jennings,, and E. R. Moxon. 1995. Opc- and pilus-dependent interactions of meningococci with human endothelial cells: molecular mechanisms and modulation by surface polysaccharides. Mol. Microbiol. 18:741754.
215. Virji, M.,, J. R. Saunders,, G. Sims,, K. Makepeace,, D. Maskell,, and D. J. Ferguson. 1993. Pilus-facilitated adherence of Neisseria meningitidis to human epithelial and endothelial cells: modulation of adherence phenotype occurs concurrently with changes in primary amino acid sequence and the glycosylation status of pilin. Mol. Microbiol. 10:10131028.
216. Virji, M.,, S. M. Watt,, S. Barker,, K. Makepeace,, and R. Doyonnas. 1996. The N-domain of the human CD66a adhesion molecule is a target for Opa proteins of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Mol. Microbiol. 22:929939.
217. Vogel, U.,, and M. Frosch. 1999. Mechanisms of neisserial serum resistance. Mol. Microbiol. 32:11331139.