1887

Chapter 11 : Regulation in Response to Environmental Conditions

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Regulation in Response to Environmental Conditions, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817619/9781555813239_Chap11-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817619/9781555813239_Chap11-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter discusses what is currently known regarding how and why a few of the most important human respiratory pathogens control gene expression in response to environmental conditions. Even less well characterized is the ability of to control gene expression in response to environmental conditions. Like and , expresses a polysaccharide capsule that plays a major role in pathogenesis. Understanding how these regulators coordinate to mediate precise control of capsule and other virulence factors in response to specific environmental conditions awaits further study. Comparative analyses between and should facilitate understanding the structure and function of the Mga/MgrA regulons of these two streptococcal species. Roles for the other two, or for the C-terminal domain of the protein, remain to be determined, but there is presently no evidence that Mga protein activity is controlled in response to environmental conditions. does not cause severe invasive or systemic disease, although serious complications, including pneumonia, seizures, encephalopathy, and even death, sometimes occur. Natural-host animal models were recently developed to allow the study of the entire infectious cycle in the laboratory. Comparison of mutants altered in signal transduction and/or in Bvg-mediated control of specific factors in these models is expected to allow one to gain a better understanding of the importance of precise control of gene expression in the establishment, maintenance, and transmission of infection.

Citation: Cotter P. 2005. Regulation in Response to Environmental Conditions, p 141-159. In Nataro J, Cohen P, Mobley H, Weiser J (ed), Colonization of Mucosal Surfaces. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817619.ch11
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817619.chap11
1. Akerley, B. J.,, P. A. Cotter,, and J. F. Miller. 1995. Ectopic expression of the flagellar regulon alters development of the Bordetella-host interaction. Cell 80: 611 620.
2. Ashbaugh, C. D.,, S. Alberti,, and M. R. Wessels. 1998. Molecular analysis of the capsule gene region of group A Streptococcus: the hasAB genes are sufficient for capsule expression. J. Bacteriol. 180: 4955 4959.
3. Ashbaugh, C. D.,, T. J. Moser,, M. H. Shearer,, G. L. White,, R. C. Kennedy,, and M. R. Wessels. 2000. Bacterial determinants of persistent throat colonization and the associated immune response in a primate model of human group A streptococcal pharyngeal infection. Cell. Microbiol. 2: 283 292.
4. Beckert, S.,, B. Kreikemeyer,, and A. Podbielski. 2001. Group A streptococcal rofA gene is involved in the control of several virulence genes and eukaryotic cell attachment and internalization. Infect. Immun. 69: 534 547.
5. Beres, S. B.,, G. L. Sylva,, K. D. Barbian,, B. Lei,, J. S. Hoff,, N. D. Mammarella,, M. Y. Liu,, J. C. Smoot,, S. F. Porcella,, L. D. Parkins,, D. S. Campbell,, T. M. Smith,, J. K. Mc- Cormick,, D. Y. Leung,, P. M. Schlievert,, and J. M. Musser. 2002. Genome sequence of a serotype M3 strain of group A Streptococcus: phage-encoded toxins, the high-virulence phenotype, and clone emergence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 10078 10083.
6. Berggard, K.,, E. Johnsson,, E. Morfeldt,, J. Persson,, M. Stalhammar- Carlemalm,, and G. Lindahl. 2001. Binding of human C4BP to the hypervariable region of M protein: a molecular mechanism of phagocytosis resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes. Mol. Microbiol. 42: 539 551.
7. Bernish, B.,, and I. van de Rijn. 1999. Characterization of a two-component system in Streptococcus pyogenes which is involved in regulation of hyaluronic acid production. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 4786 4793.
8. Berry, A. M.,, R. A. Lock,, and J. C. Paton. 1996. Cloning and characterization of nanB, a second Streptococcus pneumoniae neuraminidase gene, and purification of the NanB enzyme from recombinant Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 178: 4854 4860.
9. Berry, A. M.,, R. A. Lock,, S. M. Thomas,, D. P. Rajan,, D. Hansman,, and J. C. Paton. 1994. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronidase gene and purification of the enzyme from recombinant Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 62: 1101 1108.
10. Berry, A. M.,, and J. C. Paton. 1996. Sequence heterogeneity of PsaA, a 37-kilodalton putative adhesin essential for virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 64: 5255 5262.
11. Bisno, A. L.,, M. O. Brito,, and C. M. Collins. 2003. Molecular basis of group A streptococcal virulence. Lancet Infect. Dis. 3: 191 200.
12. Biswas, I.,, and J. R. Scott. 2003. Identification of rocA, a positive regulator of covR expression in the group A Streptococcus. J. Bacteriol. 185: 3081 3090.
13. Black, S.,, H. Shinefield,, B. Fireman,, E. Lewis,, P. Ray,, J. R. Hansen,, L. Elvin,, K. M. Ensor,, J. Hackell,, G. Siber,, F. Malinoski,, D. Madore,, I. Chang,, R. Kohberger,, W. Watson,, R. Austrian,, K. Edwards, and the Northern California Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center Group. 2000. Efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 19: 187 195.
14. Black, S. B.,, H. R. Shinefield,, S. Ling,, J. Hansen,, B. Fireman,, D. Spring,, J. Noves,, E. Lewis,, P. Ray,, J. Lee,, and J. Hackell. 2002. Effectiveness of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children younger than five years of age for prevention of pneumonia. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 21: 810 815.
15. Bohach, G. A.,, D. J. Fast,, R. D. Nelson,, and P. M. Schlievert. 1990. Staphylococcal and streptococcal pyrogenic toxins involved in toxic shock syndrome and related illnesses. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 17: 251 272.
16. Boucher, P. E.,, A. E. Maris,, M. S. Yang,, and S. Stibitz. 2003. The response regulator BvgA and RNA polymerase alpha subunit C-terminal domain bind simultaneously to different faces of the same segment of promoter DNA. Mol. Cell 11: 163 173.
17. Boucher, P. E.,, K. Murakami,, A. Ishihama,, and S. Stibitz. 1997. Nature of DNA binding and RNA polymerase interaction of the Bordetella pertussis BvgA transcriptional activator at the fha promoter. J. Bacteriol. 179: 1755 1763.
18. Boucher, P. E.,, and S. Stibitz. 1995. Synergistic binding of RNA polymerase and BvgA phosphate to the pertussis toxin promoter of Bordetella pertussis. J. Bacteriol. 177: 6486 6491.
19. Camara, M.,, G. J. Boulnois,, P. W. Andrew,, and T. J. Mitchell. 1994. A neuraminidase from Streptococcus pneumoniae has the features of a surface protein. Infect. Immun. 62: 3688 3695.
20. Caparon, M. G.,, R. T. Geist,, J. Perez-Casal,, and J. R. Scott. 1992. Environmental regulation of virulence in group A streptococci: transcription of the gene encoding M protein is stimulated by carbon dioxide. J. Bacteriol. 174: 5693 5701.
21. Caparon, M. G.,, and J. R. Scott. 1987. Identification of a gene that regulates expression of M protein, the major virulence determinant of group A streptococci. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 8677 8681.
22. Caparon, M. G.,, D. S. Stephens,, A. Olsen,, and J. R. Scott. 1991. Role of M protein in adherence of group A streptococci. Infect. Immun. 59: 1811 1817.
23. Chapuy-Regaud, S.,, A. D. Ogunniyi,, N. Diallo,, Y. Huet,, J. F. Desnottes,, J. C. Paton,, S. Escaich,, and M. C. Trombe. 2003. RegR, a global LacI/GalR family regulator, modulates virulence and competence in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 71: 2615 2625.
24. Chaussee, M. S.,, D. Ajdic,, and J. J. Ferretti. 1999. The rgg gene of Streptococcus pyogenes NZ131 positively influences extracellular SPE B production. Infect. Immun. 67: 1715 1722.
25. Chaussee, M. S.,, J. Liu,, D. L. Stevens,, and J. J. Ferretti. 1997. Effects of environmental factors on streptococcal erythrogenic toxin A (SPE A) production by Streptococcus pyogenes. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 418: 551 554.
26. Chaussee, M. S.,, G. L. Sylva,, D. E. Sturdevant,, L. M. Smoot,, M. R. Graham,, R. O. Watson,, and J. M. Musser. 2002. Rgg influences the expression of multiple regulatory loci to coregulate virulence factor expression in Streptococcus pyogenes. Infect. Immun. 70: 762 770.
27. Cherry, J. D.,, and U. Heininger,. 1999. Pertussis, p. 1423 1440. In R. D. Feigin, and J. D. Cherry (ed.), Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 4th. ed. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa..
28. Cotter, P. A.,, and V. J. DiRita. 2000. Bacterial virulence gene regulation: an evolutionary perspective. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 54: 519 565.
29. Cotter, P. A.,, and A. M. Jones. 2003. Phosphorelay control of virulence gene expression in Bordetella. Trends Microbiol. 11: 367 373.
30. Cotter, P. A.,, and J. F. Miller. 2001. Bordetella, p. 619 674. In E. A. Groisman (ed.), Principles of Bacterial Pathogenesis. Academic Press, Inc. San Diego, Calif..
31. Cotter, P. A.,, and J. F. Miller. 1994. BvgAS-mediated signal transduction: analysis of phase-locked regulatory mutants of Bordetella bronchiseptica in a rabbit model. Infect. Immun. 62: 3381 3390.
32. Cotter, P. A.,, and J. F. Miller. 1997. A mutation in the Bordetella bronchiseptica bvgS gene results in reduced virulence and increased resistance to starvation, and identifies a new class of Bvg-regulated antigens. Mol. Microbiol. 24: 671 685.
33. Cotter, P. A.,, M. H. Yuk,, S. Mattoo,, B. J. Akerley,, J. Boschwitz,, D. A. Relman,, and J. F. Miller. 1998. The filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) of Bordetella bronchiseptica is required for efficient establishment of tracheal colonization. Infect. Immun. 66: 5921 5929.
34. Courtney, H. S.,, M. S. Bronze,, J. B. Dale,, and D. L. Hasty. 1994. Analysis of the role of M24 protein in group A streptococcal adhesion and colonization by use of omega-interposon mutagenesis. Infect. Immun. 62: 4868 4873.
35. Courtney, H. S.,, D. L. Hasty,, and J. B. Dale. 2002. Molecular mechanisms of adhesion, colonization, and invasion of group A streptococci. Ann. Med. 34: 77 87.
36. Courtney, H. S.,, S. Liu,, J. B. Dale,, and D. L. Hasty. 1997. Conversion of M serotype 24 of Streptococcus pyogenes to M serotypes 5 and 18: effect on resistance to phagocytosis and adhesion to host cells. Infect. Immun. 65: 2472 2474.
37. Craig, J. E.,, A. Nobbs,, and N. J. High. 2002. The extracytoplasmic sigma factor, final sigma(E), is required for intracellular survival of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in J774 macrophages. Infect. Immun. 70: 708 715.
38. Cross, A. S. 1990. The biologic significance of bacterial encapsulation. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 150: 87 95.
39. Cue, D.,, P. E. Dombek,, H. Lam,, and P. P. Cleary. 1998. Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M1 encodes multiple pathways for entry into human epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 66: 4593 4601.
40. Cundell, D. R.,, N. P. Gerard,, C. Gerard,, I. Idanpaan- Heikkila,, and E. I. Tuomanen. 1995. Streptococcus pneumoniae anchor to activated human cells by the receptor for platelet-activating factor. Nature 377: 435 438.
41. Cundell, D. R.,, J. N. Weiser,, J. Shen,, A. Young,, and E. I. Tuomanen. 1995. Relationship between colonial morphology and adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 63: 757 761.
42. Cunningham, M. W. 2000. Pathogenesis of group A streptococcal infections. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13: 470 511.
43. Cywes, C.,, I. Stamenkovic,, and M. R. Wessels. 2000. CD44 as a receptor for colonization of the pharynx by group A Streptococcus. J. Clin. Investig. 106: 995 1002.
44. Cywes, C.,, and M. R. Wessels. 2001. Group A Streptococcus tissue invasion by CD44-mediated cell signalling. Nature 414: 648 652.
45. Dale, J. B.,, R. G. Washburn,, M. B. Marques,, and M. R. Wessels. 1996. Hyaluronate capsule and surface M protein in resistance to opsonization of group A streptococci. Infect. Immun. 64: 1495 1501.
46. Dawid, S.,, S. J. Barenkamp,, and J. W. St. Geme III. 1999. Variation in expression of the Haemophilus influenzae HMW adhesins: a prokaryotic system reminiscent of eukaryotes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 1077 1082.
47. Dawid, S.,, S. Grass,, and J. W. St. Geme III. 2001. Mapping of binding domains of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 and HMW2 adhesins. Infect. Immun. 69: 307 314.
48. Deghmane, A. E.,, D. Giorgini,, M. Larribe,, J. M. Alonso,, and M. K. Taha. 2002. Down-regulation of pili and capsule of Neisseria meningitidis upon contact with epithelial cells is mediated by CrgA regulatory protein. Mol. Microbiol. 43: 1555 1564.
49. Deghmane, A. E.,, S. Petit,, A. Topilko,, Y. Pereira,, D. Giorgini,, M. Larribe,, and M. K. Taha. 2000. Intimate adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis to human epithelial cells is under the control of the crgA gene, a novel LysR-type transcriptional regulator. EMBO J. 19: 1068 1078.
50. Deora, R.,, H. J. Bootsma,, J. F. Miller,, and P. A. Cotter. 2001. Diversity in the Bordetella virulence regulon: transcriptional control of a Bvg-intermediate phase gene. Mol. Microbiol. 40: 669 683.
51. De Souza-Hart, J. A.,, W. Blackstock,, V. Di Modugno,, I. B. Holland,, and M. Kok. 2003. Two-component systems in Haemophilus influenzae: a regulatory role for ArcA in serum resistance. Infect. Immun. 71: 163 172.
52. Dintilhac, A.,, G. Alloing,, C. Granadel,, and J. P. Claverys. 1997. Competence and virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae: Adc and PsaA mutants exhibit a requirement for Zn and Mn resulting from inactivation of putative ABC metal permeases. Mol. Microbiol. 25: 727 739.
53. Doern, G. V.,, A. B. Brueggemann,, H. Huynh,, and E. Wingert. 1999. Antimicrobial resistance with Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States, 1997-98. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5: 757 765.
54. Dombek, P. E.,, D. Cue,, J. Sedgewick,, H. Lam,, S. Ruschkowski,, B. B. Finlay,, and P. P. Cleary. 1999. High-frequency intracellular invasion of epithelial cells by serotype M1 group A streptococci: M1 protein-mediated invasion and cytoskeletal rearrangements. Mol. Microbiol. 31: 859 870.
55. Echenique, J. R.,, and M. C. Trombe. 2001. Competence repression under oxygen limitation through the two-component MicAB signal-transducing system in Streptococcus pneumoniae and involvement of the PAS domain of MicB. J. Bacteriol. 183: 4599 4608.
56. Engleberg, N. C.,, A. Heath,, A. Miller,, C. Rivera,, and V. J. DiRita. 2001. Spontaneous mutations in the CsrRS twocomponent regulatory system of Streptococcus pyogenes result in enhanced virulence in a murine model of skin and soft tissue infection. J. Infect. Dis. 183: 1043 1054.
57. Farley, M. M.,, D. S. Stephens,, S. L. Kaplan,, and E. O. Mason, Jr. 1990. Pilus- and non-pilus-mediated interactions of Haemophilus influenzae type b with human erythrocytes and human nasopharyngeal mucosa. J. Infect. Dis. 161: 274 280.
58. Federle, M. J.,, K. S. McIver,, and J. R. Scott. 1999. A response regulator that represses transcription of several virulence operons in the group A Streptococcus. J. Bacteriol. 181: 3649 3657.
59. Fernandez, R. C.,, and A. A. Weiss. 1994. Cloning and sequencing of a Bordetella pertussis serum resistance locus. Infect. Immun. 62: 4727 4738.
60. Ferretti, J. J.,, W. M. McShan,, D. Ajdic,, D. J. Savic,, G. Savic,, K. Lyon,, C. Primeaux,, S. Sezate,, A. N. Suvorov,, S. Kenton,, H. S. Lai,, S. P. Lin,, Y. Qian,, H. G. Jia,, F. Z. Najar,, Q. Ren,, H. Zhu,, L. Song,, J. White,, X. Yuan,, S. W. Clifton,, B. A. Roe,, and R. McLaughlin. 2001. Complete genome sequence of an M1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 4658 4663.
61. Finn, T. M.,, and L. A. Stevens. 1995. Tracheal colonization factor: a Bordetella pertussis secreted virulence determinant. Mol. Microbiol. 16: 625 634.
62. Fireman, B.,, S. B. Black,, H. R. Shinefield,, J. Lee,, E. Lewis,, and P. Ray. 2003. Impact of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on otitis media. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 22: 10 16.
63. Fleischmann, R. D.,, M. D. Adams,, O. White,, R. A. Clayton,, E. Kirkness,, A. R. Kerlavage,, C. J. Bult,, J. F. Tomb,, B. A. Dougherty,, J. M. Merrick,, A. Glodek,, J. L. Scott,, S. M. Geoghagen,, J. F. Weidman,, J. L. Fuhrmann,, D. Nguyen,, T. R. Utterback,, J. M. Kelley,, J. D. Peterson,, P. W. Sadow,, M. C. Hanna,, M. D. Cotton,, K. M. Roberts,, M. A. Hurst,, B. P. Kaine,, M. Borodovsky,, H.-P. Klenk,, C. M. Fraser,, H. O. Smith,, C. R. Woese,, and J. C. Venter. 1995. Whole-genome random sequencing and assembly of Haemophilus influenzae Rd. Science 269: 496 512.
64. Fluckiger, U.,, K. F. Jones,, and V. A. Fischetti. 1998. Immunoglobulins to group A streptococcal surface molecules decrease adherence to and invasion of human pharyngeal cells. Infect. Immun. 66: 974 979.
65. Fogg, G. C.,, and M. G. Caparon. 1997. Constitutive expression of fibronectin binding in Streptococcus pyogenes as a result of anaerobic activation of rofA. J. Bacteriol. 179: 6172 6180.
66. Fogg, G. C.,, C. M. Gibson,, and M. G. Caparon. 1994. The identification of rofA, a positive-acting regulatory component of prtF expression: use of an m gamma delta-based shuttle mutagenesis strategy in Streptococcus pyogenes. Mol. Microbiol. 11: 671 684.
67. Friedman, R. L. 1987. Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase: isolation and purification by calmodulin-sepharose 4B chromatography. Infect. Immun. 55: 129 134.
68. Fuchslocher, B.,, L. L. Millar,, and P. A. Cotter. 2003. Comparison of bipA alleles within and across Bordetella species. Infect. Immun. 71: 3043 3052.
69. Georgellis, D.,, O. Kwon,, E. C. Lin,, S. M. Wong,, and B. J. Akerley. 2001. Redox signal transduction by the ArcB sensor kinase of Haemophilus influenzae lacking the PAS domain. J. Bacteriol. 183: 7206 7212.
70. Gerlach, G.,, F. von Wintzingerode,, B. Middendorf,, and R. Gross. 2001. Evolutionary trends in the genus Bordetella. Microbes Infect. 3: 61 72.
71. Geuijen, C. A.,, R. J. Willems,, M. Bongaerts,, J. Top,, H. Gielen,, and F. R. Mooi. 1997. Role of the Bordetella pertussis minor fimbrial subunit, FimD, in colonization of the mouse respiratory tract. Infect. Immun. 65: 4222 4228.
72. Giammarinaro, P.,, and J. C. Paton. 2002. Role of RegM, a homologue of the catabolite repressor protein CcpA, in the virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 70: 5454 5461.
73. Gold, R.,, I. Goldschneider,, M. L. Lepow,, T. F. Draper,, and M. Randolph. 1978. Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica in infants and children. J. Infect. Dis. 137: 112 121.
74. Graham, M. R.,, L. M. Smoot,, C. A. Migliaccio,, K. Virtaneva,, D. E. Sturdevant,, S. F. Porcella,, M. J. Federle,, G. J. Adams,, J. R. Scott,, and J. M. Musser. 2002. Virulence control in group A Streptococcus by a two-component gene regulatory system: global expression profiling and in vivo infection modeling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 13855 13860.
75. Greco, R.,, L. De Martino,, G. Donnarumma,, M. P. Conte,, L. Seganti,, and P. Valenti. 1995. Invasion of cultured human cells by Streptococcus pyogenes. Res. Microbiol. 146: 551 560.
76. Gryllos, I.,, J. C. Levin,, and M. R. Wessels. 2003. The CsrR/ CsrS two-component system of group A Streptococcus responds to environmental Mg 2+. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100: 4227 4232.
77. Hagman, M. M.,, J. B. Dale,, and D. L. Stevens. 1999. Comparison of adherence to and penetration of a human laryngeal epithelial cell line by group A streptococci of various M protein types. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 23: 195 204.
78. Hammerschmidt, S.,, A. Muller,, H. Sillmann,, M. Muhlenhoff,, R. Borrow,, A. Fox,, J. van Putten,, W. D. Zollinger,, R. Gerardy- Schahn,, and M. Frosch. 1996. Capsule phase variation in Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B by slipped-strand mispairing in the polysialyltransferase gene ( siaD): correlation with bacterial invasion and the outbreak of meningococcal disease. Mol. Microbiol. 20: 1211 1220.
79. Hammerschmidt, S.,, S. R. Talay,, P. Brandtzaeg,, and G. S. Chhatwal. 1997. SpsA, a novel pneumococcal surface protein with specific binding to secretory immunoglobulin A and secretory component. Mol. Microbiol. 25: 1113 1124.
80. Hart, C. A.,, and L. E. Cuevas. 1997. Meningococcal disease in Africa. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 91: 777 785.
81. Harvill, E. T.,, P. A. Cotter,, and J. F. Miller. 1998. Probing the function of a bacterial virulence factor by manipulating host immunity. Infect. Immun. 67: 1493 1500.
82. Hasty, D. L.,, I. Ofek,, H. S. Courtney,, and R. J. Doyle. 1992. Multiple adhesins of streptococci. Infect. Immun. 60: 2147 2152.
83. Hauser, A. R.,, D. L. Stevens,, E. L. Kaplan,, and P. M. Schlievert. 1991. Molecular analysis of pyrogenic exotoxins from Streptococcus pyogenes isolates associated with toxic shocklike syndrome. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 1562 1567.
84. Hava, D. L.,, and A. Camilli. 2002. Large-scale identification of serotype 4 Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factors. Mol. Microbiol. 45: 1389 1406.
85. Hava, D. L.,, C. J. Hemsley,, and A. Camilli. 2003. Transcriptional regulation in the Streptococcus pneumoniae rlrA pathogenicity islet by RlrA. J. Bacteriol. 185: 413 421.
86. Heath, A.,, V. J. DiRita,, N. L. Barg,, and N. C. Engleberg. 1999. A two-component regulatory system, CsrR-CsrS, represses expression of three Streptococcus pyogenes virulence factors, hyaluronic acid capsule, streptolysin S, and pyrogenic exotoxin B. Infect. Immun. 67: 5298 5305.
87. Heininger, U.,, K. Stehr,, S. Schmitt-Grohe,, C. Lorenz,, R. Rost,, P. D. Christenson,, M. Uberall,, and J. D. Cherry. 1994. Clinical characteristics of illness caused by Bordetella parapertussis compared with illness caused by Bordetella pertussis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 13: 306 309.
88. Hemsley, C.,, E. Joyce,, D. L. Hava,, A. Kawale,, and A. Camilli. 2003. MgrA, an orthologue of Mga, acts as a transcriptional repressor of the genes within the rlrA pathogenicity islet in Streptococcus pneumoniae. J. Bacteriol. 185: 6640 6647.
89. Henderson, I. R.,, R. Cappello,, and J. P. Nataro. 2000. Autotransporter proteins, evolution and redefining protein secretion. Trends Microbiol. 8: 529 532.
90. Hendrixson, D. R.,, and J. W. St. Geme III. 1998. The Haemophilus influenzae Hap serine protease promotes adherence and microcolony formation, potentiated by a soluble host protein. Mol. Cell 2: 841 850.
91. Hewlett, E. L.,, and N. J. Maloney,. 1994. Adenylyl cyclase toxim from Bordetella pertussis. In B. Iglewski,, J. Moss,, A. T. Tu,, and M. Vaughan (ed.), Handbook of Natural Toxins, vol. 8. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y..
92. Hidalgo-Grass, C.,, M. Ravins,, M. Dan-Goor,, J. Jaffe,, A. E. Moses,, and E. Hanski. 2002. A locus of group A Streptococcus involved in invasive disease and DNA transfer. Mol. Microbiol. 46: 87 99.
93. Hill, D. J.,, M. A. Toleman,, D. J. Evans,, S. Villullas,, L. Van Alphen,, and M. Virji. 2001. The variable P5 proteins of typeable and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae target human CEACAM1. Mol. Microbiol. 39: 850 862.
94. Hoch, J. A. 2000. Two-component and phosphorelay signal transduction. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 3: 165 170.
95. Hollingshead, S. K.,, J. W. Simecka,, and S. M. Michalek. 1993. Role of M protein in pharyngeal colonization by group A streptococci in rats. Infect. Immun. 61: 2277 2283.
96. Hoskins, J.,, W. E. Alborn, Jr.,, Arnold, L. C. Blaszczak,, S. Burgett,, B. S. DeHoff,, S. T. Estrem,, L. Fritz,, D. J. Fu,, W. Fuller,, C. Geringer,, R. Gilmour,, J. S. Glass,, H. Khoja,, A. R. Kraft,, R. E. Lagace,, D. J. LeBlanc,, L. N. Lee,, E. J. Lefkowitz,, J. Lu,, P. Matsushima,, S. M. McAhren,, M. McHenney,, K. McLeaster,, C. W. Mundy,, T. I. Nicas,, F. H. Norris,, M. O’Gara,, R. B. Peery,, G. T. Robertson,, P. Rockey,, P. M. Sun,, M. E. Winkler,, Y. Yang,, M. Young-Bellido,, G. Zhao,, C. A. Zook,, R. H. Baltz,, S. R. Jaskunas,, P. R. Rosteck, Jr.,, P. L. Skatrud,, and J. I. Glass. 2001. Genome of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae strain R6. J. Bacteriol. 183: 5709 5717.
97. Hultgren, S. J.,, S. Abraham,, M. Caparon,, P. Falk,, J. W. St. Geme III, and S. Normark. 1993. Pilus and nonpilus bacterial adhesins: assembly and function in cell recognition. Cell 73: 887 901.
98. Husmann, L. K.,, D. L. Yung,, S. K. Hollingshead,, and J. R. Scott. 1997. Role of putative virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes in mouse models of long-term throat colonization and pneumonia. Infect. Immun. 65: 1422 1430.
99. Jadoun, J.,, V. Ozeri,, E. Burstein,, E. Skutelsky,, E. Hanski,, and S. Sela. 1998. Protein F1 is required for efficient entry of Streptococcus pyogenes into epithelial cells. J. Infect. Dis. 178: 147 158.
100. Jedrzejas, M. J.,, S. K. Hollingshead,, J. Lebowitz,, L. Chantalat,, D. E. Briles,, and E. Lamani. 2000. Production and characterization of the functional fragment of pneumococcal surface protein A. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 373: 116 125.
101. Johnson, D. R.,, D. L. Stevens,, and E. L. Kaplan. 1992. Epidemiologic analysis of group A streptococcal serotypes associated with severe systemic infections, rheumatic fever, or uncomplicated pharyngitis. J. Infect. Dis. 166: 374 382.
102. Johnsson, E.,, K. Berggard,, H. Kotarsky,, J. Hellwage,, P. F. Zipfel,, U. Sjobring,, and G. Lindahl. 1998. Role of the hypervariable region in streptococcal M proteins: binding of a human complement inhibitor. J. Immunol. 161: 4894 4901.
103. Kadioglu, A.,, J. Echenique,, S. Manco,, M. C. Trombe,, and P. W. Andrew. 2003. The MicAB two-component signaling system is involved in virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 71: 6676 6679.
104. Kallstrom, H.,, M. K. Liszewski,, J. P. Atkinson,, and A. B. Jonsson. 1997. Membrane cofactor protein (MCP or CD46) is a cellular pilus receptor for pathogenic Neisseria. Mol. Microbiol. 25: 639 647.
105. Kaslow, H. R.,, and D. L. Burns. 1992. Pertussis toxin and target eukaryotic cells: binding, entry, and activation. FASEB J. 6: 2684 2690.
106. Katada, T.,, and M. Ui. 1982. Direct modification of the membrane adenylate cyclase system by islet-activating protein due to ADP-ribosylation of a membrane protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 3129 3133.
107. Kim, J. O.,, and J. N. Weiser. 1998. Association of intrastrain phase variation in quantity of capsular polysaccharide and teichoic acid with the virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. J. Infect. Dis. 177: 368 377.
108. Kinnear, S. M.,, R. R. Marques,, and N. H. Carbonetti. 2001. Differential regulation of Bvg-activated virulence factors plays a role in Bordetella pertussis pathogenicity. Infect. Immun. 69: 1983 1993.
109. Knapp, S.,, and J. J. Mekalanos. 1998. Two trans-acting regulatory genes ( vir and mod) control antigenic modulation in Bordetella pertussis. J. Bacteriol. 170: 5059 5066.
110. Kreikemeyer, B.,, K. S. McIver,, and A. Podbielski. 2003. Virulence factor regulation and regulatory networks in Streptococcus pyogenes and their impact on pathogen-host interactions. Trends Microbiol. 11: 224 232.
111. Laarmann, S.,, D. Cutter,, T. Juehne,, S. J. Barenkamp,, and J. W. St. Geme. 2002. The Haemophilus influenzae Hia autotransporter harbours two adhesive pockets that reside in the passenger domain and recognize the same host cell receptor. Mol. Microbiol. 46: 731 743.
112. LaPenta, D.,, C. Rubens,, E. Chi,, and P. P. Cleary. 1994. Group A streptococci efficiently invade human respiratory epithelial cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 12115 12119.
113. Lau, G. W.,, S. Haataja,, M. Lonetto,, S. E. Kensit,, A. Marra,, A. P. Bryant,, D. McDevitt,, D. A. Morrison,, and D. W. Holden. 2001. A functional genomic analysis of type 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence. Mol. Microbiol. 40: 555 571.
114. Lei, B.,, F. R. DeLeo,, N. P. Hoe,, M. R. Graham,, S. M. Mackie,, R. L. Cole,, M. Liu,, H. R. Hill,, D. E. Low,, M. J. Federle,, J. R. Scott,, and J. M. Musser. 2001. Evasion of human innate and acquired immunity by a bacterial homolog of CD11b that inhibits opsonophagocytosis. Nat. Med. 7: 1298 1305.
115. Leininger, E.,, M. Roberts,, J. G. Kenimer,, I. G. Charles,, N. Fairweather,, P. Novotny,, and M. J. Brennan. 1991. Pertactin, an Arg-Gly-Asp-containing Bordetella pertussis surface protein that promotes adherence of mammalian cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 345 349.
116. Levin, J. C.,, and M. R. Wessels. 1998. Identification of csrR/csrS, a genetic locus that regulates hyaluronic acid capsule synthesis in group A Streptococcus. Mol. Microbiol. 30: 209 219.
117. Lin, L.,, P. Ayala,, J. Larson,, M. Mulks,, M. Fukuda,, S. R. Carlsson,, C. Enns,, and M. So. 1997. The Neisseria type 2 IgA1 protease cleaves LAMP1 and promotes survival of bacteria within epithelial cells. Mol. Microbiol. 24: 1083 1094.
118. Livey, I.,, and A. Wardlaw. 1984. Production and properties of Bordetella pertussis heat-labile toxin. J. Med. Microbiol. 17: 91 103.
119. Loeb, M. R.,, E. Connor,, and D. Penney. 1988. A comparison of the adherence of fimbriated and nonfimbriated Haemophilus influenzae type b to human adenoids in organ culture. Infect. Immun. 56: 484 489.
120. MacLeod, C. M.,, and M. R. Krauss. 1950. Relation of virulence of pneumococcal strains for mice to the quantity of capsular polysaccharide formed in vitro. J. Exp. Med. 92: 1 9.
121. Marceau, M.,, J. L. Beretti,, and X. Nassif. 1995. High adhesiveness of encapsulated Neisseria meningitidis to epithelial cells is associated with the formation of bundles of pili. Mol. Microbiol. 17: 855 863.
122. Marceau, M.,, K. Forest,, J. L. Beretti,, J. Tainer,, and X. Nassif. 1998. Consequences of the loss of O-linked glycosylation of meningococcal type IV pilin on piliation and pilus-mediated adhesion. Mol. Microbiol. 27: 705 715.
123. Marrack, P.,, and J. Kappler. 1990. The staphylococcal enterotoxins and their relatives. Science 248: 705 711.
124. Martinez de Tejada, G.,, P. A. Cotter,, U. Heininger,, A. Camilli,, B. J. Akerley,, J. J. Mekalanos,, and J. F. Miller. 1998. Neither the Bvg - phase nor the vrg6 locus of Bordetella pertussis are required for respiratory infection in mice. Infect. Immun. 66: 2762 2768.
125. Martinez de Tejada, G.,, J. F. Miller,, and P. A. Cotter. 1996. Comparative analysis of the virulence control systems of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica. Mol. Microbiol. 22: 895 908.
126. Mascher, T.,, D. Zahner,, M. Merai,, N. Balmelle,, A. B. de Saizieu,, and R. Hakenbeck. 2003. The Streptococcus pneumoniae cia regulon: CiaR target sites and transcription profile analysis. J. Bacteriol. 185: 60 70.
127. Mattoo, S.,, A. K. Foreman-Wykert,, P. A. Cotter,, and J. F. Miller. 2001. Mechanisms of Bordetella pathogenesis. Front. Biosci. 6: E168 186. [Online] http://www.bioscience.org http://www.bioscience.org/2001/v6/e/mattoo/fulltext.htm">http://www.bioscience.org/2001/v6/e/mattoo/fulltext.htm.
128. Mattoo, S.,, J. F. Miller,, and P. A. Cotter. 2000. Role of Bordetella bronchiseptica fimbria in tracheal colonization and development of a humoral immune response. Infect. Immun. 68: 2024 2033.
128.a. Mattoo, S.,, M. H. Yuk,, L. L. Huang,, and J. F. Miller. 2004. Regulation of type III secretion in Bordetella. Mol. Microbiol. 52: 1201 1214.
129. McGee, Z. A.,, D. S. Stephens,, L. H. Hoffman,, W. F. Schlech III,, and R. G. Horn. 1983. Mechanisms of mucosal invasion by pathogenic Neisseria. Rev. Infect. Dis. 5( Suppl. 4): S708 S714.V
130. McIver, K. S.,, A. S. Heath,, and J. R. Scott. 1995. Regulation of virulence by environmental signals in group A streptococci: influence of osmolarity, temperature, gas exchange, and iron limitation on emm transcription. Infect. Immun. 63: 4540 4542.
131. McIver, K. S.,, and R. L. Myles. 2002. Two DNA-binding domains of Mga are required for virulence gene activation in the group A streptococcus. Mol. Microbiol. 43: 1591 1601.
132. McIver, K. S.,, and J. R. Scott. 1997. Role of mga in growth phase regulation of virulence genes of the group A Streptococcus. J. Bacteriol. 179: 5178 5187.
133. McIver, K. S.,, A. S. Thurman,, and J. R. Scott. 1999. Regulation of mga transcription in the group A Streptococcus: specific binding of mga within its own promoter and evidence for a negative regulator. J. Bacteriol. 181: 5373 5383.
134. Merkel, T. J.,, C. Barros,, and S. Stibitz. 1998. Characterization of the bvgR locus of Bordetella pertussis. J. Bacteriol. 180: 1682 1690.
135. Merkel, T. J.,, P. E. Boucher,, S. Stibitz,, and V. K. Grippe. 2003. Analysis of bvgR expression in Bordetella pertussis. J. Bacteriol. 185: 6902 6912.
136. Merkel, T. J.,, S. Stibitz,, J. M. Keith,, M. Leef,, and R. Shahin. 1998. Contribution of regulation by the bvg locus to respiratory infection of mice by Bordetella pertussis. Infect. Immun. 66: 4367 4373.
137. Miller, A. A.,, N. C. Engleberg,, and V. J. DiRita. 2001. Repression of virulence genes by phosphorylation-dependent oligomerization of CsrR at target promoters in S. pyogenes. Mol. Microbiol. 40: 976 990.
138. Mitchell, T. J.,, J. E. Alexander,, P. J. Morgan,, and P. W. Andrew. 1997. Molecular analysis of virulence factors of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Soc. Appl. Bacteriol. Symp. Ser. 26: 62S 71S.
139. Molinari, G.,, S. R. Talay,, P. Valentin-Weigand,, M. Rohde,, and G. S. Chhatwal. 1997. The fibronectin-binding protein of Streptococcus pyogenes, SfbI, is involved in the internalization of group A streptococci by epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 65: 1357 1363.
140. Mooi, F. R.,, W. H. Jansen,, H. Brunings,, H. Gielen,, H. G. J. van der Heide,, H. C. Walvoort,, and P. A. M. Guinee. 1992. Construction and analysis of Bordetella pertussis mutants defective in the production of fimbriae. Microb. Pathog. 12: 127 135.
141. Morona, J. K.,, J. C. Paton,, D. C. Miller,, and R. Morona. 2000. Tyrosine phosphorylation of CpsD negatively regulates capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol. Microbiol. 35: 1431 1442.
142. Moses, A. E.,, M. R. Wessels,, K. Zalcman,, S. Alberti,, S. Natanson-Yaron,, T. Menes,, and E. Hanski. 1997. Relative contributions of hyaluronic acid capsule and M protein to virulence in a mucoid strain of the group A Streptococcus. Infect. Immun. 65: 64 71.
143.. Moxon, E. R.,, and J. S. Kroll. 1990. The role of bacterial polysaccharide capsules as virulence factors. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 150: 65 85.
144. Moxon, E. R.,, and K. A. Vaughn. 1981. The type b capsular polysaccharide as a virulence determinant of Haemophilus influenzae: studies using clinical isolates and laboratory transformants. J. Infect. Dis. 143: 517 524.
145. Nassif, X. 1999. Interaction mechanisms of encapsulated meningococci with eucaryotic cells: what does this tell us about the crossing of the blood-brain barrier by Neisseria meningitidis? Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2: 71 77.
146. Nassif, X.,, J. Lowy,, P. Stenberg,, P. O’Gaora,, A. Ganji,, and M. So. 1993. Antigenic variation of pilin regulates adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis to human epithelial cells. Mol. Microbiol. 8: 719 725.
147.. O’Brien, K. L.,, B. Beall,, N. L. Barrett,, P. R. Cieslak,, A. Reingold,, M. M. Farley,, R. Danila,, E. R. Zell,, R. Facklam,, B. Schwartz,, and A. Schuchat. 2002. Epidemiology of invasive group a streptococcus disease in the United States, 1995- 1999. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35: 268 276.
148. Okada, N.,, M. K. Liszewski,, J. P. Atkinson,, and M. Caparon. 1995. Membrane cofactor protein (CD46) is a keratinocyte receptor for the M protein of the group A Streptococcus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 2489 2493.
149. Okada, N.,, A. P. Pentland,, P. Falk,, and M. G. Caparon. 1994. M protein and protein F act as important determinants of cell-specific tropism of Streptococcus pyogenes in skin tissue. J. Clin. Investig. 94: 965 977.
150. Otto, K.,, and T. J. Silhavy. 2002. Surface sensing and adhesion of Escherichia coli controlled by the Cpx-signaling pathway. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 2287 2292.
151. Parkhill, J.,, M. Achtman,, K. D. James,, S. D. Bentley,, C. Churcher,, S. R. Klee,, G. Morelli,, D. Basham,, D. Brown,, T. Chillingworth,, R. M. Davies,, P. Davis,, K. Devlin,, T. Feltwell,, N. Hamlin,, S. Holroyd,, K. Jagels,, S. Leather,, S. Moule,, K. Mungall,, M. A. Quail,, M. A. Rajandream,, K. M. Rutherford,, M. Simmonds,, J. Skelton,, S. Whitehead,, B. G. Spratt,, and B. G. Barrell. 2000. Complete DNA sequence of a serogroup A strain of Neisseria meningitidis Z2491. Nature 404: 502 506.
152. Parkhill, J.,, M. Sebaihia,, A. Preston,, L. D. Murphy,, N. Thomson,, D. E. Harris,, M. T. Holden,, C. M. Churcher,, S. D. Bentley,, K. L. Mungall,, A. M. Cerdeno-Tarraga,, L. Temple,, K. James,, B. Harris,, M. A. Quail,, M. Achtman,, R. Atkin,, S. Baker,, D. Basham,, N. Bason,, I. Cherevach,, T. Chillingworth,, M. Collins,, A. Cronin,, P. Davis,, J. Doggett,, T. Feltwell,, A. Goble,, N. Hamlin,, H. Hauser,, S. Holroyd,, K. Jagels,, S. Leather,, S. Moule,, H. Norberczak,, S. O’Neil,, D. Ormond,, C. Price,, E. Rabbinowitsch,, S. Rutter,, M. Sanders,, D. Saunders,, K. Seeger,, S. Sharp,, M. Simmonds,, J. Skelton,, R. Squares,, S. Squares,, K. Stevens,, L. Unwin,, S. Whitehead,, B. G. Barrell,, and D. J. Maskell. 2003. Comparative analysis of the genome sequences of Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica. Nat. Genet. 35: 32 40.
153. Parton, R. 1985. Effect of predisolone on the toxicity of Bordetella pertussis for mice. J. Med. Microbiol. 19: 3814 3818.
154. Pearson, R. D.,, P. Symes,, M. Conboy,, A. A. Weiss,, and E. L. Hewlett. 1987. Inhibition of monocyte oxidative responses by Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin. J. Immunol. 139: 2749 2754.
155. Perez-Caballero, D.,, S. Alberti,, F. Vivanco,, P. Sanchez-Corral,, and S. Rodriguez de Cordoba. 2000. Assessment of the interaction of human complement regulatory proteins with group A Streptococcus. Identification of a high-affinity group A Streptococcus binding site in FHL-1. Eur. J. Immunol. 30: 1243 1253.
156. Pettersson, J.,, R. Nordfelth,, E. Dubinina,, T. Bergman,, M. Gustafsson,, K. E. Magnusson,, and H. Wolf-Watz. 1996. Modulation of virulence factor expression by pathogen target cell contact. Science 273: 1231 1233.
157. Podbielski, A.,, J. A. Peterson,, and P. Cleary. 1992. Surface protein-CAT reporter fusions demonstrate differential gene expression in the vir regulon of Streptococcus pyogenes. Mol. Microbiol. 6: 2253 2265.
158. Podbielski, A.,, M. Woischnik,, B. A. Leonard,, and K. H. Schmidt. 1999. Characterization of nra, a global negative regulator gene in group A streptococci. Mol. Microbiol. 31: 1051 1064.
159. Polissi, A.,, A. Pontiggia,, G. Feger,, M. Altieri,, H. Mottl,, L. Ferrari,, and D. Simon. 1998. Large-scale identification of virulence genes from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 66: 5620 5629.
160. Ponnuraj, K.,, and M. J. Jedrzejas. 2000. Mechanism of hyaluronan binding and degradation: structure of Streptococcus pneumoniae hyaluronate lyase in complex with hyaluronic acid disaccharide at 1.7 A resolution. J. Mol. Biol. 299: 885 895.
161. Prasadarao, N. V.,, E. Lysenko,, C. A. Wass,, K. S. Kim,, and J. N. Weiser. 1999. Opacity-associated protein A contributes to the binding of Haemophilus influenzae to chang epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 67: 4153 4160.
162. Pujol, C.,, E. Eugene,, L. de Saint Martin,, and X. Nassif. 1997. Interaction of Neisseria meningitidis with a polarized monolayer of epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 65: 4836 4842.
163. Pujol, C.,, E. Eugene,, M. Marceau,, and X. Nassif. 1999. The meningococcal PilT protein is required for induction of intimate attachment to epithelial cells following pilus-mediated adhesion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 4017 4022.
164. Rayner, C. F.,, A. D. Jackson,, A. Rutman,, A. Dewar,, T. J. Mitchell,, P. W. Andrew,, P. J. Cole,, and R. Wilson. 1995. Interaction of pneumolysin-sufficient and -deficient isogenic variants of Streptococcus pneumoniae with human respiratory mucosa. Infect. Immun. 63: 442 447.
165. Read, R. C.,, A. A. Rutman,, P. K. Jeffery,, V. J. Lund,, A. P. Brain,, E. R. Moxon,, P. J. Cole,, and R. Wilson. 1992. Interaction of capsulate Haemophilus influenzae with human airway mucosa in vitro. Infect. Immun. 60: 3244 3252.
166. Reddy, M. S.,, J. M. Bernstein,, T. F. Murphy,, and H. S. Faden. 1996. Binding between outer membrane proteins of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and human nasopharyngeal mucin. Infect. Immun. 64: 1477 1479.
167. Relman, D.,, E. Tuomanen,, S. Falkow,, D. T. Golenbock,, K. Saukkonen,, and S. D. Wright. 1990. Recognition of a bacterial adhesion by an integrin: macrophage CR3 (αM β2, CD11b/CD18) binds filamentous hemagglutinin of Bordetella pertussis. Cell 61: 1375 1382.
168. Relman, D. A.,, M. Domenighini,, E. T. Tuomanen,, R. Rappuoli,, and S. Falkow. 1989. Filamentous hemagglutinin of Bordetella pertussis: nucleotide sequence and crucial role in adherence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 2634 2641.
169. Ribardo, D. A.,, and K. McIver. 2003. amrA encodes a putative membrane protein necessary for maximal exponential phase expression of the Mga virulence regulon in Streptococcus pyogenes. Mol. Microbiol. 50: 673 685.
170. Robbins, J. C.,, J. G. Spanier,, S. J. Jones,, W. J. Simpson,, and P. P. Cleary. 1987. Streptococcus pyogenes type 12 M protein gene regulation by upstream sequences. J. Bacteriol. 169: 5633 5640.
171. Rosenow, C.,, P. Ryan,, J. N. Weiser,, S. Johnson,, P. Fontan,, A. Ortqvist,, and H. R. Masure. 1997. Contribution of novel choline-binding proteins to adherence, colonization and immunogenicity of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol. Microbiol. 25: 819 829.
172. Rubins, J. B.,, and E. N. Janoff. 1998. Pneumolysin: a multifunctional pneumococcal virulence factor. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 131: 21 27.
173. Sarkari, J.,, N. Pandit,, E. R. Moxon,, and M. Achtman. 1994. Variable expression of the Opc outer membrane protein in Neisseria meningitidis is caused by size variation of a promoter containing poly-cytidine. Mol. Microbiol. 13: 207 217.
174. Scarlato, V.,, and R. Rappuoli. 1991. Differential response of the bvg virulence regulon of Bordetella pertussis to MgSO4 modulation. J. Bacteriol. 173: 7401 7404.
175. Schmidt, K. H.,, E. Gunther,, and H. S. Courtney. 1996. Expression of both M protein and hyaluronic acid capsule by group A streptococcal strains results in a high virulence for chicken embryos. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 184: 169 173.
176. Schrager, H. M.,, S. Alberti,, C. Cywes,, G. J. Dougherty,, and M. R. Wessels. 1998. Hyaluronic acid capsule modulates M protein-mediated adherence and acts as a ligand for attachment of group A Streptococcus to CD44 on human keratinocytes. J. Clin. Invest. 101: 1708 1716.
177. Sebert, M. E.,, L. M. Palmer,, M. Rosenberg,, and J. N. Weiser. 2002. Microarray-based identification of htrA, a Streptococcus pneumoniae gene that is regulated by the CiaRH twocomponent system and contributes to nasopharyngeal colonization. Infect. Immun. 70: 4059 4067.
178. Shakhnovich, E. A.,, S. J. King,, and J. N. Weiser. 2002. Neuraminidase expressed by Streptococcus pneumoniae desialylates the lipopolysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae: a paradigm for interbacterial competition among pathogens of the human respiratory tract. Infect. Immun. 70: 7161 7164.
179. Smoot, J. C.,, K. D. Barbian,, J. J. Van Gompel,, L. M. Smoot,, M. S. Chaussee,, G. L. Sylva,, D. E. Sturdevant,, S. M. Ricklefs,, S. F. Porcella,, L. D. Parkins,, S. B. Beres,, D. S. Campbell,, T. M. Smith,, Q. Zhang,, V. Kapur,, J. A. Daly,, L. G. Veasy,, and J. M. Musser. 2002. Genome sequence and comparative microarray analysis of serotype M18 group A Streptococcus strains associated with acute rheumatic fever outbreaks. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 4668 4673.
180. Steffen, P.,, S. Goyard,, and A. Ullmann. 1996. Phosphorylated BvgA is sufficient for transcriptional activation of virulence- regulated genes in Bordetella pertussis. EMBO J. 15: 102 109.
181. Steinfort, C.,, R. Wilson,, T. Mitchell,, C. Feldman,, A. Rutman,, H. Todd,, D. Sykes,, J. Walker,, K. Saunders,, P. W. Andrew,, G. J. Boulnois,, and P. J. Cole. 1989. Effect of Streptococcus pneumoniae on human respiratory epithelium in vitro. Infect. Immun. 57: 2006 2013.
182. Stephens, D. S.,, L. H. Hoffman,, and Z. A. McGee. 1983. Interaction of Neisseria meningitidis with human nasopharyngeal mucosa: attachment and entry into columnar epithelial cells. J. Infect. Dis. 148: 369 376.
183. Stephens, D. S.,, and Z. A. McGee. 1981. Attachment of Neisseria meningitidis to human mucosal surfaces: influence of pili and type of receptor cell. J. Infect. Dis. 143: 525 532.
184. Stern, A.,, M. Brown,, P. Nickel,, and T. F. Meyer. 1986. Opacity genes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: control of phase and antigenic variation. Cell 47: 61 71.
185. Stern, A.,, and T. F. Meyer. 1987. Common mechanism controlling phase and antigenic variation in pathogenic neisseriae. Mol. Microbiol. 1: 5 12.
186. St Geme, J. W., III, D. Cutter, and S. J. Barenkamp. 1996. Characterization of the genetic locus encoding Haemophilus influenzae type b surface fibrils. J. Bacteriol. 178: 6281 6287.
187. St Geme, J. W., III, M. L. de la Morena, and S. Falkow. 1994. A Haemophilus influenzae IgA protease-like protein promotes intimate interaction with human epithelial cells. Mol. Microbiol. 14: 217 233.
188. Stockbauer, K. E.,, A. K. Foreman-Wykert,, and J. F. Miller. 2003. Bordetella type III secretion induces caspase 1-independent necrosis. Cell Microbiol. 5: 123 132.
189. Stockbauer, K. E.,, B. Fuchslocher,, J. F. Miller,, and P. A. Cotter. 2001. Identification and characterization of BipA, a Bordetella Bvg-intermediate phase protein. Mol. Microbiol. 39: 65 78.
190. Swanson, J.,, R. J. Belland,, and S. A. Hill. 1992. Neisserial surface variation: how and why? Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 2: 805 811.
191. Swords, W. E.,, B. A. Buscher,, K. Ver Steeg Ii,, A. Preston,, W. A. Nichols,, J. N. Weiser,, B. W. Gibson,, and M. A. Apicella. 2000. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae adhere to and invade human bronchial epithelial cells via an interaction of lipooligosaccharide with the PAF receptor. Mol. Microbiol. 37: 13 27.
192. Taha, M. K.,, P. C. Morand,, Y. Pereira,, E. Eugene,, D. Giorgini,, M. Larribe,, and X. Nassif. 1998. Pilus-mediated adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis: the essential role of cell contact-dependent transcriptional upregulation of the PilC1 protein. Mol. Microbiol. 28: 1153 1163.
193. Tettelin, H.,, V. Masignani,, M. J. Cieslewicz,, J. A. Eisen,, S. Peterson,, M. R. Wessels,, I. T. Paulsen,, K. E. Nelson,, I. Margarit,, T. D. Read,, L. C. Madoff,, A. M. Wolf,, M. J. Beanan,, L. M. Brinkac,, S. C. Daugherty,, R. T. DeBoy,, A. S. Durkin,, J. F. Kolonay,, R. Madupu,, M. R. Lewis,, D. Radune,, N. B. Fedorova,, D. Scanlan,, H. Khouri,, S. Mulligan,, H. A. Carty,, R. T. Cline,, S. E. Van Aken,, J. Gill,, M. Scarselli,, M. Mora,, E. T. Iacobini,, C. Brettoni,, G. Galli,, M. Mariani,, F. Vegni,, D. Maione,, D. Rinaudo,, R. Rappuoli,, J. L. Telford,, D. L. Kasper,, G. Grandi,, and C. M. Fraser. 2002. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of an emerging human pathogen, serotype V Streptococcus agalactiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 12391 12396.
194. Tettelin, H.,, Saunders, J., Heidelberg, A. C., Jeffries, K. E., Nelson, J. A., Eisen, K. A., Ketchum, D. W., Hood, J. F., Peden, R. J., Dodson, W. C., Nelson, M. L., Gwinn, R. DeBoy,, J. D. Peterson,, E. K. Hickey,, D. H. Haft,, S. L. Salzberg,, O. White,, R. D. Fleischmann,, B. A. Dougherty,, T. Mason,, A. Ciecko,, D. S. Parksey,, E. Blair,, H. Cittone,, E. B. Clark,, M. D. Cotton,, R. R. Utterback,, H. Khouri,, H. Qin,, J. Vamathevan,, J. Gill,, V. Scarlato,, V. Masignani,, M. Pizza,, G. Grandi,, L. Sun,, H. O. Smith,, C. M. Fraser,, E. R. Moxon,, R. Rappuoli,, and J. C. Venter. 2000. Complete genome sequence of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B strain MC58. Science 287: 1809 1815.
195. Throup, J. P.,, K. K. Koretke,, A. P. Bryant,, K. A. Ingraham,, A. F. Chalker,, Y. Ge,, A. Marra,, N. G. Wallis,, J. R. Brown,, D. J. Holmes,, M. Rosenberg,, and M. K. Burnham. 2000. A genomic analysis of two-component signal transduction in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol. Microbiol. 35: 566 576.
196. Tomasz, A. 1995. The pneumococcus at the gates. N. Engl. J. Med. 333: 514 515.
197.. Tomasz, A.,, M. Westphal,, E. B. Briles,, and P. Fletcher. 1975. On the physiological functions of teichoic acids. J. Supramol. Struct. 3: 1 16.
198. Tuomanen, E. 1999. Molecular and cellular biology of pneumococcal infection. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2: 35 39.
199. Uhl, M. A.,, and J. F. Miller. 1994. Autophosphorylation and phosphotransfer in the Bordetella pertussis BvgAS signal transduction cascade. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 1163 1167.
200. Uhl, M. A.,, and J. F. Miller,. 1995. Bordetella pertussis BvgAS virulence control system, p. 333 349. In J. A. Hoch, and T. Silhavy (ed.), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, D.C..
201. Uhl, M. A.,, and J. F. Miller. 1996. Central role of the BvgS receiver as a phosphorylated intermediate in a complex two-component phosphorelay. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 33176 33180.
202. Uhl, M. A.,, and J. F. Miller. 1996. Integration of multiple domains in a two-component sensor protein: the Bordetella pertussis BvgAS phosphorelay. EMBO J. 15: 1028 1036.
203. Ui, J., 1990. Pertussis toxin as a valuable probe for G-protein involvement in signal transduction. In J. Moss, and M. Vaughan (ed.), ADP-Ribosylating Toxins and G-Proteins: Insights into Signal Transduction. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
204. Unnikrishnan, M.,, J. Cohen,, and S. Sriskandan. 1999. Growth-phase-dependent expression of virulence factors in an M1T1 clinical isolate of Streptococcus pyogenes. Infect. Immun. 67: 5495 5499.
205. van Alphen, L.,, N. van den Berghe,, and L. Geelen-van den Broek. 1988. Interaction of Haemophilus influenzae with human erythrocytes and oropharyngeal epithelial cells is mediated by a common fimbrial epitope. Infect. Immun. 56: 1800 1806.
206. van Deuren, M.,, P. Brandtzaeg,, and J. W. van der Meer. 2000. Update on meningococcal disease with emphasis on pathogenesis and clinical management. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13: 144 166.
207. Virji, M.,, D. Evans,, J. Griffith,, D. Hill,, L. Serino,, A. Hadfield,, and S. M. Watt. 2000. Carcinoembryonic antigens are targeted by diverse strains of typable and non-typable Haemophilus influenzae. Mol. Microbiol. 36: 784 795.
208. Virji, M.,, D. Evans,, A. Hadfield,, F. Grunert,, A. M. Teixeira,, and S. M. Watt. 1999. Critical determinants of host receptor targeting by Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: identification of Opa adhesiotopes on the N-domain of CD66 molecules. Mol. Microbiol. 34: 538 551.
209. Virji, M.,, H. Kayhty,, D. J. Ferguson,, C. Alexandrescu,, J. E. Heckels,, and E. R. Moxon. 1991. The role of pili in the interactions of pathogenic Neisseria with cultured human endothelial cells. Mol. Microbiol. 5: 1831 1841.
210. Virji, M.,, K. Makepeace,, D. J. Ferguson,, M. Achtman,, and E. R. Moxon. 1993. Meningococcal Opa and Opc proteins: their role in colonization and invasion of human epithelial and endothelial cells. Mol. Microbiol. 10: 499 510.
211. Virji, M.,, K. Makepeace,, D. J. Ferguson,, M. Achtman,, J. Sarkari,, and E. R. Moxon. 1992. Expression of the Opc protein correlates with invasion of epithelial and endothelial cells by Neisseria meningitidis. Mol. Microbiol. 6: 2785 2795.
212. Virji, M.,, K. Makepeace,, D. J. Ferguson,, and S. M. Watt. 1996. Carcinoembryonic antigens (CD66) on epithelial cells and neutrophils are receptors for Opa proteins of pathogenic neisseriae. Mol. Microbiol. 22: 941 950.
213. Virji, M.,, K. Makepeace,, and E. R. Moxon. 1994. Distinct mechanisms of interactions of Opc-expressing meningococci at apical and basolateral surfaces of human endothelial cells; the role of integrins in apical interactions. Mol. Microbiol. 14: 173 184.
214. Virji, M.,, K. Makepeace,, I. R. Peak,, D. J. Ferguson,, M. P. Jennings,, and E. R. Moxon. 1995. Opc- and pilus-dependent interactions of meningococci with human endothelial cells: molecular mechanisms and modulation by surface polysaccharides. Mol. Microbiol. 18: 741 754.
215. Virji, M.,, J. R. Saunders,, G. Sims,, K. Makepeace,, D. Maskell,, and D. J. Ferguson. 1993. Pilus-facilitated adherence of Neisseria meningitidis to human epithelial and endothelial cells: modulation of adherence phenotype occurs concurrently with changes in primary amino acid sequence and the glycosylation status of pilin. Mol. Microbiol. 10: 1013 1028.
216. Virji, M.,, S. M. Watt,, S. Barker,, K. Makepeace,, and R. Doyonnas. 1996. The N-domain of the human CD66a adhesion molecule is a target for Opa proteins of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Mol. Microbiol. 22: 929 939.
217. Vogel, U.,, and M. Frosch. 1999. Mechanisms of neisserial serum resistance. Mol. Microbiol. 32: 1133 1139.
218. Voyich, J. M.,, D. E. Sturdevant,, K. R. Braughton,, S. D. Kobayashi,, B. Lei,, K. Virtaneva,, D. W. Dorward,, J. M. Musser,, and F. R. DeLeo. 2003. Genome-wide protective response used by group A Streptococcus to evade destruction by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100: 1996 2001.
219. Wang, J. R.,, and M. W. Stinson. 1994. M protein mediates streptococcal adhesion to HEp-2 cells. Infect. Immun. 62: 442 448.
220. Weiser, J. N.,, R. Austrian,, P. K. Sreenivasan,, and H. R. Masure. 1994. Phase variation in pneumococcal opacity: relationship between colonial morphology and nasopharyngeal colonization. Infect. Immun. 62: 2582 2589.
221. Weiser, J. N.,, D. Bae,, H. Epino,, S. B. Gordon,, M. Kapoor,, L. A. Zenewicz,, and M. Shchepetov. 2001. Changes in availability of oxygen accentuate differences in capsular polysaccharide expression by phenotypic variants and clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 69: 5430 5439.
222. Weiser, J. N.,, S. T. Chong,, D. Greenberg,, and W. Fong. 1995. Identification and characterization of a cell envelope protein of Haemophilus influenzae contributing to phase variation in colony opacity and nasopharyngeal colonization. Mol. Microbiol. 17: 555 564.
223. Weiser, J. N.,, J. M. Love,, and E. R. Moxon. 1989. The molecular mechanism of phase variation of H. influenzae lipopolysaccharide. Cell 59: 657 665.
224. Weiser, J. N.,, M. Shchepetov,, and S. T. Chong. 1997. Decoration of lipopolysaccharide with phosphorylcholine: a phasevariable characteristic of Haemophilus influenzae. Infect. Immun. 65: 943 950.
225. Weiss, A. A.,, and S. Falkow. 1984. Genetic analysis of phase change in Bordetella pertussis. Infect. Immun. 43: 263 269.
226. Wessels, M. R.,, and M. S. Bronze. 1994. Critical role of the group A streptococcal capsule in pharyngeal colonization and infection in mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 12238 12242.
227. Wessels, M. R.,, J. B. Goldberg,, A. E. Moses,, and T. J. DiCesare. 1994. Effects on virulence of mutations in a locus essential for hyaluronic acid capsule expression in group A streptococci. Infect. Immun. 62: 433 441.
228. Whitnack, E.,, and E. H. Beachey. 1985. Inhibition of complement- mediated opsonization and phagocytosis of Streptococcus pyogenes by D fragments of fibrinogen and fibrin bound to cell surface M protein. J. Exp. Med. 162: 1983 1997.
229. Wirsing von Konig, C. H.,, and H. Finger. 1994. Role of pertussis toxin in causing symptoms of Bordetella parapertussis infection. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 13: 455 458.
230. Yeh, S. H. 2003. Pertussis: persistent pathogen, imperfect vaccines. Expert Rev. Vaccines 2: 113 127.
231. Yuk, M. H.,, E. T. Harvill,, P. A. Cotter,, and J. F. Miller. 2000. Modulation of host immune responses, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of NF-κB activation by the Bordetella type III secretion system. Mol. Microbiol. 35: 991 1104.
232. Yuk, M. H.,, E. T. Harvill,, and J. F. Miller. 1998. The bvgAS virulence control system regulates type III secretion in Bordetella bronchiseptica. Mol. Microbiol. 28: 945 959.
233. Zu, T.,, R. Manetti,, R. Rappuoli,, and V. Scarlato,. 1996. Differential binding of BvgA to two classes of virulence genes of Bordetella pertussis directs promoter selectivity by RNA polymerase. Mol. Microbiol. 21: 557 565. Peggy A. Cotter • Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9610.