Chapter 28 : Colonization of the Vaginal and Urethral Mucosa

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Colonization of the Vaginal and Urethral Mucosa, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817619/9781555813239_Chap28-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817619/9781555813239_Chap28-2.gif


This chapter examines the current knowledge of urogenital bacterial microbiota in women and explores methods to manipulate the organisms to restore and maintain health. One study that effectively monitored colonization of two newborns from birth showed that the primary colonizers in the first week of life in vaginally born, breast-fed babies are , , , , and , with bifidobacteria not appearing until the second week. In terms of urogenital colonization, most studies have focused on the transfer of pathogens, such as group B streptococci, from mother to newborn. Proteomic studies have shown that the protein composition of the urine fluctuates, with stone formers having higher concentrations of albumin. There is considerable knowledge about how sexually transmitted disease pathogens such as gonococci, herpes simplex virus, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interact with the host, but the focus of this chapter is on bacterial and yeast populations on the vaginal and urethral mucosa. Given that colonizes up to 60% of women deemed to have a healthy vaginal mucosa, more studies are needed to understand which hosts react in an inflammatory and symptomatic manner and to determine the triggers for this response. Vaccine development such as the recent use of recombined to express the CD4 receptor for HIV will continue for some pathogens, as will the search for new remedies for viral infections.

Citation: Reid G. 2005. Colonization of the Vaginal and Urethral Mucosa, p 431-448. In Nataro J, Cohen P, Mobley H, Weiser J (ed), Colonization of Mucosal Surfaces. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817619.ch28

Key Concept Ranking

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
Transforming Growth Factor beta
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Atomic force microscopy image of GR-1, illustrating the ability to examine nanoscale forces at the bacterial surface interface. Courtesy of Jonathan Hui and Jana Jass.

Citation: Reid G. 2005. Colonization of the Vaginal and Urethral Mucosa, p 431-448. In Nataro J, Cohen P, Mobley H, Weiser J (ed), Colonization of Mucosal Surfaces. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817619.ch28
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Vaginal health versus disease: what sways the balance?

Citation: Reid G. 2005. Colonization of the Vaginal and Urethral Mucosa, p 431-448. In Nataro J, Cohen P, Mobley H, Weiser J (ed), Colonization of Mucosal Surfaces. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817619.ch28
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

(formerly ) RC-14 (depicted on the right) colonizes the vagina, displaces pathogens, and sends signals to fimbriated uropathogenic (left) that down regulate some virulence factor activity.

Citation: Reid G. 2005. Colonization of the Vaginal and Urethral Mucosa, p 431-448. In Nataro J, Cohen P, Mobley H, Weiser J (ed), Colonization of Mucosal Surfaces. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817619.ch28
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of strains by using ApaI. Lanes: 1 and 6, low-range pulsed-field gel electrophoresis marker; 2, RC-14, 3, ATCC 23272 (DSM 20016); 4, NCIMB 702656; 5, NCIMB 701359. Note the significant difference between strain RC-14 and the other strains.

Citation: Reid G. 2005. Colonization of the Vaginal and Urethral Mucosa, p 431-448. In Nataro J, Cohen P, Mobley H, Weiser J (ed), Colonization of Mucosal Surfaces. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817619.ch28
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Agerholm-Larsen, L.,, A. Raben,, N. Haulrik,, A. S. Hansen,, M. Manders,, and A. Astrup. 2000. Effect of 8 week intake of probiotic milk products on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 54:288297.
2. Alonso, R.,, I. Llopis,, C. Flores,, A. Murgui,, and J. Timoneda. 2001. Different adhesins for type IV collagen on Candida albicans: identification of a lectin-like adhesin recognizing the 7S(IV) domain. Microbiology 147:19711981.
3. Anderl, J. N.,, M. J. Franklin,, and P. S. Stewart. 2000. Role of antibiotic penetration limitation in Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm resistance to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:18181824.
4. Anderson, G. G.,, J. J. Palermo,, J. D. Schilling,, R. Roth,, J. Heuser,, and S. J. Hultgren. 2003. Intracellular bacterial biofilm-like pods in urinary tract infections. Science 301:105107.
5.. Antonio, M. A.,, S. E. Hawes,, and S. L. Hillier. 1999. The identification of vaginal Lactobacillus species and the demographic and microbiologic characteristics of women colonized by these species. J. Infect. Dis. 180:19501956.
6. Bauer, G. 2001. Lactobacilli-mediated control of vaginal cancer through specific reactive oxygen species interaction. Med. Hypotheses 57:252257.
7. Bengmark, S. 2001. Use of prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics in clinical immunonutrition. In Int. Symp. Food Nutr. Health 21st Century, p. 187213. Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, Seoul.
8. Beninati, C.,, M. R. Oggioni,, M. Boccanera,, M. R. Spinosa,, T. Maggi,, S. Conti,, W. Magliani,, F. De Bernardis,, G. Teti,, A. Cassone,, G. Pozzi,, and L. Polonelli. 2000. Therapy of mucosal candidiasis by expression of an anti-idiotype in human commensal bacteria. Nat. Biotechnol. 18:10601064.
9. Berger, B. J.,, S. Kolton,, J. M. Zenilman,, M. C. Cummings,, J. Feldman,, and W. M. McCormack. 1995. Bacterial vaginosis in lesbians: a sexually transmitted disease. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21:14021405.
10. Beyenal, H.,, and Z. Lewandowski. 2002. Internal and external mass transfer in biofilms grown at various flow velocities. Biotechnol. Prog. 18:5561.
11. Biesalski, H. K.,, U. Sobeck,, and H. Weiser. 2001. Topical application of vitamin A reverses metaplasia of rat vaginal epithelium: a rapid and efficient approach to improve mucosal barrier function. Eur. J. Med. Res. 6:391398.
12. Bollgren, I.,, and J. Winberg. 1976. The periurethral aerobic bacterial flora in healthy boys and girls. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 65:7480.
13. Boskey, E. R.,, R. A. Cone,, K. J. Whaley,, and T. R. Moench. 2001. Origins of vaginal acidity: high D/L-lactate ratio is consistent with bacteria being the primary source. Hum. Reprod. 16:18091813.
14. Boyko, E. J.,, S. D. Fihn,, D. Scholes,, C. L. Chen,, E. H. Normand,, and P. Yarbro. 2002. Diabetes and the risk of acute urinary tract infection among postmenopausal women. Diabetes Care 25:17781783.
15. Brody, S. 2002. High-dose ascorbic acid increases intercourse frequency and improves mood: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Biol. Psychiatry 52:371374.
16.. Bruce, A. W.,, and G. Reid. 1988. Intravaginal instillation of lactobacilli for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections. Can. J. Microbiol. 34:339343.
17. Burton, J. P.,, P. Cadieux,, and G. Reid. 2003. Improved understanding of the bacterial vaginal microbiota of women before and after probiotic instillation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:97101.
17.a. Burton, J. P.,, and G. Reid. 2003. Evaluation of the bacterial vaginal flora of twenty postmenopausal women by direct (Nugent Score) and molecular (polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) techniques. J. Infect. Dis. 186:17771780.
18. Cadieux, P.,, J. Burton,, C. Y. Kang,, G. Gardiner,, I. Br aunstein,, A. W. Bruce,, and G. Reid. 2002. Lactobacillus strains and vaginal ecology. JAMA 287:19401941.
19. Cadieux, P. A.,, D. T. Beiko,, J. D. Watterson,, J. P. Burton,, J. Howard,, B. E. Knudsen,, B. S. Gan,, J. McCormick,, A. F. Chambers,, J. D. Denstedt,, and G. Reid. 2004. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS): a new proteomic urinary test for patients with urolithiasis. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 18:170175.
20. Calderone, R. A.,, and W. A. Fonzi. 2001. Virulence factors of Candida albicans. Trends Microbiol. 9:327335.
21. Campieri, C.,, M. Campieri,, V. Bertuzzi,, E. Swennen,, D. Matteuzzi,, S. Stefoni,, F. Pirovano,, C. Centi,, S. Ulisse,, G. Famularo,, and C. DeSimone. 2001. Reduction of oxaluria after an oral course of lactic acid bacteria at high concentration. Kidney Int. 60:10971105.
22. Carbone, M.,, D. L. Hasty,, K. C. Yi,, J. Rue,, M. T. Fera,, F. La Torre,, M. Giannone,, and E. Losi. 2002. Cytokine induction in murine bladder tissue by type 1 fimbriated Escherichia coli. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 963:332335.
23. Cardenas-Freytag, L.,, C. Steele,, F. L. Wormley Jr,, E. Cheng,, J. D. Clements,, and P. L. Fidel Jr. 2002. Partial protection against experimental vaginal candidiasis after mucosal vaccination with heat-killed Candida albicans and the mucosal adjuvant LT(R192G). Med. Mycol. 40:291299.
24. Cauci, S.,, S. Driussi,, S. Guaschino,, M. Isola,, and F. Quadrifoglio. 2002. Correlation of local interleukin-1beta levels with specific IgA response against Gardnerella vaginalis cytolysin in women with bacterial vaginosis. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. 47:257264.
25. Cauci, S.,, S. Guaschino,, S. Driussi,, D. De Santo,, P. Lanzafame,, and F. Quadrifoglio. 2002. Correlation of local interleukin- 8 with immunoglobulin A against Gardnerella vaginalis hemolysin and with prolidase and sialidase levels in women with bacterial vaginosis. J. Infect. Dis. 185:16141620.
26. Cauci, S.,, R. Monte,, S. Driussi,, P. Lanzafame,, and F. Quadrifoglio. 1998. Impairment of the mucosal immune system: IgA and IgM cleavage detected in vaginal washings of a subgroup of patients with bacterial vaginosis. J. Infect. Dis. 178:16981706.
27. Chan, R. C. Y.,, A. W. Bruce,, and G. Reid. 1984. Adherence of cervical, vaginal and distal urethral normal microbial flora to human uroepithelial cells and the inhibition of adherence of uropathogens by competitive exclusion. J. Urol. 131:596601.
27.a. Chang, T. L.,, C. H. Chang,, D. A. Simpson,, Q. Xu,, P. K. Martin,, L. A. Lagenaur,, G. K. Schoolnik,, D. D. Ho,, S. L. Hillier,, M. Holodniy,, J. A. Lewicki,, and P. P. Lee. 2003. Inhibition of HIV infectivity by a natural human isolate of Lactobacillus jensenii engineered to express functional two-domain CD4. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:1167211677.
28. Cohen, C. R.,, F. A. Plummer,, N. Mugo,, I. Maclean,, C. Shen,, F. A. Bukusi,, E. Irungu,, S. Sinei,, J. Bwayo,, and R. C. Brunham. 1999. Increased interleukin-10 in the the endocervical secretions of women with non-ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases: a mechanism for enhanced HIV-1 transmission? AIDS 13:327332.
29. Cotch, M. F.,, S. L. Hillier,, R. S. Gibbs,, D. A. Eschenbach, and the Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study Group. 1998. Epidemiology and outcomes associated with moderate to heavy Candida colonization during pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 178:374380.
30. Cottell, E.,, R. F. Harrison,, M. McCaffrey,, T. Walsh,, E. Mallon,, and C. Barry-Kinsella. 2000. Are seminal fluid microorganisms of significance or merely contaminants? Fertil. Steril. 74:465470.
31. Dan, M.,, N. Kaneti,, D. Levin,, F. Poch,, and Z. Samra. 2003. Vaginitis in a gynecologic practice in Israel: causes and risk factors. Isr. Med. Assoc. J. 5:629632.
32. Darouiche, R. O.,, W. H. Donovan,, M. Del Terzo,, J. I. Thornby,, D. C. Rudy,, and R. A. Hull. 2001. Pilot trial of bacterial interference for preventing urinary tract infection. Urology 58:339344.
33. Davis, C. P.,, M. S. Cohen,, R. L. Hackett,, M. D. Anderson,, and M. M. Warren. 1991. Urothelial hyperplasia and neoplasia. III. Detection of nitrosamine production with different bacterial genera in chronic urinary tract infections of rats. J. Urol. 145:875880.
34. De Bernardis, F.,, M. Boccanera,, D. Adriani,, A. Girolamo,, and A. Cassone. 2002. Intravaginal and intranasal immunizations are equally effective in inducing vaginal antibodies and conferring protection against vaginal candidiasis. Infect. Immun. 70:27252729.
35. de Man, P. 1991. Bacterial attachment, inflammation and renal scarring in urinary tract infection. Wien. Med. Wochenschr. 141:537540.
36. Demirezen, S. 2002. The lactobacilli-Candida relationship in cervico-vaginal smears. Cent. Eur. J. Public Health 10:9799.
37. Devillard, E.,, J. P. Burton,, J.-A. Hammond,, D. Lam,, and G. Reid. 2004. Novel insight into the vaginal microflora in post-menopausal women under hormone replacement therapy as analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 117:7681.
38. Domingue, P. A.,, K. Sadhu,, J. W. Costerton,, K. Bartlett,, and A. W. Chow. 1991. The human vagina: normal flora considered as an in situ tissue-associated, adherent biofilm. Genitourin. Med. 67:226231.
39. Donder, G. G.,, A. Vereecken,, E. Bosmans,, A. Dekeersmaecker,, G. Salembier,, and B. Spitz. 2002. Definition of a type of abnormal vaginal flora that is distinct from bacterial vaginosis: aerobic vaginitis. BJOG 109:3443.
40. Dontas, A. S.,, P. Kasviki-Charvati,, P. C. Papanayiotou,, and S. G. Marketos. 1981. Bacteriuria and survival in old age. N. Engl. J. Med. 304:939943.
41. Duerr, A.,, C. M. Heilig,, S. F. Meikle,, S. Cu-Uvin,, R. S. Klein,, A. Rompalo,, and J. D. Sobel for the HER Study Group. 2003. Incident and persistent vulvovaginal candidiasis among human immunodeficiency virus-infected women: risk factors and severity. Obstet. Gynecol. 101:548556.
42. Eijsink, V. G.,, L. Axelsson,, D. B. Diep,, L. S. Havarstein,, H. Holo,, and I. F. Nes. 2002. Production of class II bacteriocins by lactic acid bacteria; an example of biological warfare and communication. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 81:639654.
43. Ellis, A. K.,, and S. Verma. 2002. Quality of life in women with urinary tract infections: is benign disease a misnomer? J. Am. Board Fam. Pract. 13:392397.
44. El Messaoudi, K.,, L. Thiry,, N. Van Tieghem,, C. Liesnard,, Y. Englert,, N. Moguilevsky,, and A. Bollen, 1999. HIV-1 infectivity and host range modification by cathepsin D present in human vaginal secretions. AIDS 13:333339.
45. Evans, D. A.,, E. H. Kass,, C. H. Hennekens,, B. Rosner,, L. Miao,, M. I. Kendrick,, W. E. Miall,, and K. L. Stuart. 1982. Bacteriuria and subsequent mortality in women. Lancet i: 156158.
46. Favier, C. F.,, E. E. Vaughan,, W. M. De Vos,, and A. D. Akkermans. 2002. Molecular monitoring of succession of bacterial communities in human neonates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:219226.
47. Ferrer, J. 2000. Vaginal candidosis: epidemiological and etiological factors. Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 71(Suppl. 1):S21S27.
48. Fidel, P. L., Jr, M. Barousse, V. Lounev, T. Espinosa, R. R. Chesson, and K. Dunlap. 2003. Local immune responsiveness following intravaginal challenge with Candida antigen in adult women at different stages of the menstrual cycle. Med. Mycol. 41:97109.
49. Fidel, P. L., Jr.,, and J. D. Sobel. 1996. Immunopathogenesis of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 9:335348.
50. Flock, J.-L. 1999. Extracellular-matrix-binding proteins as targets for the prevention of Staphylococcus aureus infections. Mol. Med. Today 5:532537.
51. Fong, I. W. 1994. The rectal carriage of yeast in patients with vaginal candidiasis. Clin. Investig. Med. 17:426431.
52.Food and Agriculture Organization. 2001. Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Properties of Powder Milk and Live Lactic Acid Bacteria. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization expert consultation report. http://www.fao.org/es/ESN/Probio/probio. htm.
53.Food and Agriculture Organization. 2002. Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics in Food. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization working group report. ftp://ftp.fao.org/es/esn/food/ wgreport2.pdf.
54. Foxman, B.,, R. Barlow,, H. D’Arcy,, B. Gillespie,, and J. D. Sobel. 2000. Candida vaginitis: self-reported incidence and associated costs. Sex. Transm. Dis. 27:230252.
55. Foxman, B.,, R. Barlow,, H. D’Arcy,, B. Gillespie,, and J. D. Sobel. 2000. Urinary tract infection: self-reported incidence and associated costs. Ann. Epidemiol. 10:509515.
56. Gan, B. S.,, J. Kim,, G. Reid,, P. Cadieux,, and J. C. Howard. 2002. Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 inhibits Staphylococcus aureus infection of surgical implants in rats. J. Infect. Dis. 185:13691372.
57. Gardiner, G.,, C. Heinemann,, M. L. Baroja,, A. W. Bruce,, D. Beuerman,, J. Madrenas,, and G. Reid. 2002. Oral administration of the probiotic combination Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum RC-14 for human intestinal applications. Int. Dairy J. 12:191196.
58. Gardiner, G.,, C. Heinemann,, D. Beuerman,, A. W. Bruce,, and G. Reid. 2002. Persistence of Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 and L. rhamnosus GR-1, but not L. rhamnosus GG, in the human vagina as demonstrated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 9: 9296.
59. Geshnizgani, A. M.,, and A. B. Onderdonk. 1992. Defined medium simulating genital tract secretions for growth of vaginal microflora. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:13231326.
60. Gibbons, R. J.,, D. I. Hay,, W. C. Childs III,, and G. Davis. 1990. Role of cryptic receptors (cryptitopes) in bacterial adhesion to oral surfaces. Arch. Oral Biol. 35(Suppl.):107S114S.
61. Gilliland, S. E.,, M. L. Speck,, and C. G. Morgan. 1975. Detection of Lactobacillus acidophilus in feces of humans, pigs, and chickens. Appl. Microbiol. 30:541545.
62. Goh, S. H.,, R. R. Facklam,, M. Chang,, J. E. Hill,, G. J. Tyrrell,, E. C. Burns,, D. Chan,, C. He,, T. Rahim,, C. Shaw,, and S. M. Hemmingsen. 2000. Identification of Enterococcus species and phenotypically similar Lactococcus and Vagococcus species by reverse checkerboard hybridization to chaperonin 60 gene sequences. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:39533959.
63. Greenberg, E. P. 2003. Bacterial communication and group behavior. J. Clin. Investig. 112:12881290.
64. Guarner, F.,, and J. R. Malagelada. 2003. Gut flora in health and disease. Lancet 361:512519.
65. Gummuluru, S.,, M. Rogel,, L. Stamatatos,, and M. Emerman. 2003. Binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to immature dendritic cells can occur independently of DC-SIGN and mannose binding c-type lectin receptors via a cholesterol-dependent pathway. J. Virol. 77:1286512874.
66. Hafez, E. S.,, G. Merino,, R. Bailon,, and C. Moran. 1992. HIV/STD interactions immunosuppression and future research development. Arch. AIDS Res. 6:221246.
67. Hart, A.,, and M. A. Kamm. 2002. Review article: mechanisms of initiation and perpetuation of gut inflammation by stress. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 16:20172028.
68. Hatakka, K.,, E. Savilahti,, A. Ponka,, J. H. Meurman,, T. Poussa,, L. Nase,, M. Saxelin,, and R. Korpela. 2001. Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial. Br. Med. J. 322:1327.
69. Hedlund, M.,, R. D. Duan,, A. Nilsson,, and C. Svanborg. 1998. Sphingomyelin, glycosphingolipids and ceramide signalling in cells exposed to P-fimbriated Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 29:12971306.
70. Hein, M.,, E. V. Valore,, R. B. Helmig,, N. Uldbjerg,, and T. Ganz. 2002. Antimicrobial factors in the cervical mucus plug. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 187:137144.
71. Heinemann, C.,, J. E. T. Van Hylckama Vlieg,, D. B. Janssen,, H. J. Busscher,, H. C. van der Mei,, and G. Reid. 2000. Purification and characterization of a surface-binding protein from Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 inhibiting Enterococcus faecalis 1131 adhesion. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 190:177180.
71.a. Hill, J. E.,, S. L. Penny,, K. G. Crowell,, S. H. Goh,, and S. M. Hemmingsen. 2004. cpnDB: a chaperonin sequence database. Genome Res. 14:16691675.
72. Hill, J. E.,, R. P. Seipp,, M. Betts,, L. Hawkins,, A. G. Van Kessel,, W. L. Crosby,, and S. M. Hemmingsen. 2002. Extensive profiling of a complex microbial community by high-throughput sequencing. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:30553066.
73. Hochwalt, A. E.,, R. W. Berg,, S. J. Meyer,, and R. Eusebio. 2002. Site-specific prevalence and cell densities of selected microbes in the lower reproductive tract of menstruating tampon users. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 10:141151.
74. Hom, Y. K.,, P. Young,, A. A. Thomson,, and G. R. Cunha. 1998. Keratinocyte growth factor injected into female mouse neonates stimulates uterine and vaginal epithelial growth. Endocrinology 139:37723779.
75. Hooton, T. M.,, D. Scholes,, J. P. Hughes,, C. Winter,, P. L. Roberts,, A. E. Stapleton,, A. Stergachis,, and W. E. Stamm. 1996. A prospective study of risk factors for symptomatic urinary tract infection in young women. N. Engl. J. Med. 335:468474.
76. Hopkins, W.,, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick,, D. O. McCarthy,, J. E. Haine,, and D. T. Uehling. 1996. Lipopolysaccharide-responder and nonresponder C3H mouse strains are equally susceptible to an induced Escherichia coli urinary tract infection. Infect. Immun. 64:13691372.
77. Howard, J.,, C. Heinemann,, B. J. Thatcher,, B. Martin,, B. S. Gan,, and G. Reid. 2000. Identification of collagen-binding proteins in Lactobacillus spp. with surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight ProteinChip technology. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:43964400.
78. Howell, A. B. 2002. Cranberry proanthocyanidins and the maintenance of urinary tract health. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 42(3 Suppl.):273278.
79. Iguchi, T.,, F. D. Uchima,, P. L. Ostrander,, and H. A. Bern. 1983. Growth of normal mouse vaginal epithelial cells in and on collagen gels. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80:37433747.
80. Isolauri, E.,, P. V. Kirjavainen,, and S. Salminen. 2002. Probiotics: a role in the treatment of intestinal infection and inflammation? Gut 50(Suppl. 3):III54III59.
81. Isolauri, E.,, Y. Sutas,, P. Kankaanpaa,, H. Arvilommi,, and S. Salminen. 2001. Probiotics: effects on immunity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 73(2 Suppl.):444S450S.
82. Ito, T. Y.,, A. S. Trant,, and M. L. Polan. 2001. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of ArginMax, a nutritional supplement for enhancement of female sexual function. J. Sex Marital Ther. 27:541549.
83. Johnsborg, O.,, D. B. Diep,, and I. F. Nes. 2003. Structural analysis of the peptide pheromone receptor PlnB, a histidine protein kinase from Lactobacillus plantarum. J. Bacteriol. 185:69136920.
84. Juarez Tomas, M. S.,, V. S. Ocana,, B. Wiese,, and M. E. Nader- Macias. 2003. Growth and lactic acid production by vaginal Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 1259, and inhibition of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. J. Med. Microbiol. 52:11171124.
85. Kalinka, J.,, T. Laudanski,, W. Hanke,, and M. Wasiela. 2003. Do microbiological factors account for poor pregnancy outcome among unmarried pregnant women in Poland? Fetal Diagn. Ther. 18:345352.
86. Kalliomaki, M.,, S. Salminen,, T. Poussa,, H. Arvilommi,, and E. Isolauri. 2003. Probiotics and prevention of atopic disease: 4-year follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 361:18691871.
87. Karlsson, H.,, C. Hessle,, and A. Rudin. 2002. Innate immune responses of human neonatal cells to bacteria from the normal gastrointestinal flora. Infect. Immun. 70:66886696.
88. Keane, F. E.,, C. A. Ison,, and D. Taylor-Robinson. 1997. A longitudinal study of the vaginal flora over a menstrual cycle. Int. J. STD AIDS 8:489494.
88.a. Klebanoff, M. A.,, J. R. Schwebke,, J. Zhang,, T. R. Nansel,, K. F. Yu,, and W. W. Andrews. 2004. Vulvovaginal symptoms in women with bacterial vaginosis. Obstet. Gynecol. 104: 267272.
89. Kreft, B.,, S. Bohnet,, O. Carstensen,, J. Hacker,, and R. Marre. 1993. Differential expression of interleukin-6, intracellular adhesion molecule 1, and major histocompatibility complex class II molecules in renal carcinoma cells stimulated with S fimbriae of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 61:30603063.
90. Kwak, C.,, H. K. Kim,, E. C. Kim,, M. S. Choi,, and H. M. Kim. 2003. Urinary oxalate levels and the enteric bacterium Ox-alobacter formigenes in patients with calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Eur. Urol. 44:475481.
91. Mack, D. R.,, S. Michail,, S. Wei,, L. McDougall,, and M. A. Hollingsworth. 1999. Probiotics inhibit enteropathogenic E. coli adherence in vitro by inducing intestinal mucin gene expression. Am. J. Physiol. Ser. G 276:G941G950.
92. Marrazzo, J. M.,, L. A. Koutsky,, D. A. Eschenbach,, K. Agnew,, K. Stine,, and S. L. Hillier. 2002. Characterization of vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis in women who have sex with women. J. Infect. Dis. 185:13071313.
93. Marrie, T. J.,, C. A. Swantee,, and M. Hartlen. 1980. Aerobic and anaerobic urethral flora of healthy females in various physiological age groups and of females with urinary tract infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 11:654659.
94. Mattar, A. F.,, D. H. Teitelbaum,, R. A. Drongowski,, F. Yongyi,, C. M. Harmon,, and A. G. Coran. 2002. Probiotics up-regulate MUC-2 mucin gene expression in a Caco-2 cell-culture model. Pediatr. Surg. Int. 18:586590.
95. McGroarty, J. A.,, and G. Reid. 1988. Detection of a lactobacillus substance which inhibits Escherichia coli Can. J. Microbiol. 34:974978.
96. McGroarty, J. A.,, and G. Reid. 1988. Inhibition of enterococci by Lactobacillus species in vitro. Microb. Ecol. Health Dis. 1:215219.
97. Mulero-Marchese, R. D.,, K. J. Blank,, and T. G. Sieck. 1999. Strain-dependent migration of lymphocytes to the vaginal mucosa after peripheral immunization. Immunogenetics 49: 973980.
98. Myziuk, L.,, B. Romanowski,, and S. C. Johnson. 2003. BVBlue test for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:19251928.
99. Nagase, S.,, S. Shumiya,, T. Emori,, and H. Tanaka. 1983. High incidence of renal tumors induced by N-dimethylnitrosamine in analbuminemic rats. Gann 74:317318.
100. Naruszewicz, M.,, M. L. Johansson,, D. Zapolska-Downar,, and H. Bukowska. 2002. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on cardiovascular disease risk factors in smokers. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 76:12491255.
101. Nase, L.,, K. Hatakka,, E. Savilahti,, M. Saxelin,, A. Ponka,, T. Poussa,, R. Korpela,, and J. H. Meurman. 2001. Effect of long-term consumption of a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, in milk on dental caries and caries risk in children. Caries Res. 35:412420.
102. Ness, R. B.,, S. Hillier,, H. E. Richter,, D. E. Soper,, C. Stamm,, D. C. Bass,, R. L. Sweet,, and P. Rice. 2003. Can known risk factors explain racial differences in the occurrence of bacterial vaginosis? J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 95:201212.
103. Nettelbladt, C. G.,, M. Katouli,, T. Bark,, T. Svenberg,, R. Mollby,, and O. Ljungqvist. 2003. Orally inoculated Escherichia coli strains colonize the gut and increase bacterial translocation after stress in rats. Shock 20:251256.
104. Nordenstam, G. R.,, C. A. Brandberg,, A. S. Oden,, C. M. Svanborg Eden,, and A. Svanborg. 1996. Bacteriuria and mortality in an elderly population. N. Engl. J. Med. 314: 11521156.
105. Nugent, R. P.,, M. A. Krohn,, and S. L. Hillier. 1991. Reliability of diagnosing bacterial vaginosis is improved by a standardization method of Gram stain interpretation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:297301.
106. Obata-Yasuoka, M.,, W. Ba-Thein,, T. Tsukamoto,, H. Yoshikawa,, and H. Hayashi. 2002. Vaginal Escherichia coli share common virulence factor profiles, serotypes and phylogeny with other extraintestinal E. coli. Microbiology 148:27452752.
107. Ohashi, Y.,, S. Nakai,, T. Tsukamoto,, N. Masumori,, H. Akaza,, N. Miyanaga,, T. Kitamura,, K. Kawabe,, T. Kotake,, M. Kuroda,, S. Naito,, H. Koga,, Y. Saito,, K. Nomata,, M. Kitagawa,, and Y. Aso. 2002. Habitual intake of lactic acid bacteria and risk reduction of bladder cancer. Urol. Int. 68:273280.
108. Ohmit, S. E.,, J. D. Sobel,, P. Schuman,, A. Duerr,, K. Mayer,, A. Rompalo,, and R. S. Klein for the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) Group. 2003. Longitudinal study of mucosal Candida species colonization and candidiasis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and at-risk HIV-seronegative women. J. Infect. Dis. 188:118127.
109. Owen, D. H.,, and D. F. Katz. 1999. A vaginal fluid simulant. Contraception 59:9195.
110. Patton, D. L.,, Y. T. Cosgrove Sweeney,, M. A. Antonio,, L. K. Rabe,, and S. L. Hillier. 2003. Lactobacillus crispatus capsules: single-use safety study in the Macaca nemestrina model. Sex. Transm. Dis. 30:568570.
111. Picioreanu, C.,, M. C. Van Loosdrecht,, and J. J. Heijnen. 2000. Effect of diffusive and convective substrate transport on biofilm structure formation: a two-dimensional modeling study. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 69:504515.
112. Polonelli, L.,, F. De Bernadis,, S. Conti,, M. Boccanera,, W. Magliani,, M. Gerloni,, C. Cantelli,, and A. Cassone. 1996. Human natural yeast killer toxin-like candidacidal antibodies. J. Immunol. 156:18801885.
113. Quon, D. J. 2000. Monitoring of domestic and imported eggs for veterinary drug residues by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48:64216427.
114. Rafter, J. 2002. Lactic acid bacteria and cancer: mechanistic perspective. Br. J. Nutr. 88(Suppl. 1):S89S94.
115. Rayes, N.,, S. Hansen,, D. Seehofer,, A. R. Muller,, S. Serke,, S. Bengmark,, and P. Neuhaus. 2002. Early enteral supply of fiber and lactobacilli versus conventional nutrition: a controlled trial in patients with major abdominal surgery. Nutrition 18:609615.
116. Rayes, N.,, D. Seehofer,, S. Hansen,, K. Boucsein,, A. R. Muller,, S. Serke,, S. Bengmark,, and P. Neuhaus. 2000. Early enteral supply of Lactobacillus and fiber versus selective bowel decontamination: a controlled trial in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 74:123127.
117. Raz, R.,, R. Colodner,, Y. Rohana,, S. Battino,, E. Rottensterich,, I. Wasser,, and W. Stamm 2003. Effectiveness of estriol- containing vaginal pessaries and nitrofurantoin macrocrystal therapy in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36:13621368.
118. Raz, R.,, and W. E. Stamm. 1993. A controlled trial of intravaginal estriol in postmenopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 329:753756.
119. Reid, G.,, D. Beuerman,, C. Heinemann,, and A. W. Bruce. 2001. Probiotic Lactobacillus dose required to restore and maintain a normal vaginal flora. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 32:3741.
120. Reid, G.,, and A. Bocking. 2003. The potential for probiotics to prevent bacterial vaginosis and preterm labor. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 189:12021208.
121. Reid, G.,, H. J. L. Brooks,, and D. F. Bacon. 1983. In vitro attachment of Escherichia coli to human uroepithelial cells. Variation in receptivity during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. J. Infect. Dis. 148:412421.
122. Reid, G.,, A. W. Bruce,, R. L. Cook,, and M. Llano. 1990. Effect on the urogenital flora of antibiotic therapy for urinary tract infection. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 22:4347.
123. Reid, G.,, A. W. Bruce,, N. Fraser,, C. Heinemann,, J. Owen,, and B. Henning. 2001. Oral probiotics can resolve urogenital infections. FEMS Microbiol. Immunol. 30:4952.
124. Reid, G.,, A. W. Bruce,, F. Soboh,, and M. Mittelman. 1998. Effect of nutrient composition on the in vitro growth of urogenital Lactobacillus and uropathogens. Can. J. Microbiol. 44:16.
125. Reid, G.,, A. W. Bruce,, and M. Taylor. 1995. Instillation of Lactobacillus and stimulation of indigenous organisms to prevent recurrence of urinary tract infections. Microecol. Ther. 23:3245.
125.a. Reid, G.,, J. Burton,, J.-A. Hammond,, and A. W. Bruce. 2004. Nucleic acid-based diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and improved management using probiotic lactobacilli. J. Med. Food 7:223228.
126. Reid, G.,, R. C. Y. Chan,, A. W. Bruce,, and J. W. Costerton. 1985. Prevention of urinary tract infection in rats with an indigenous Lactobacillus casei strain. Infect. Immun. 49:320324.
127. Reid, G.,, D. Charbonneau,, J. Erb,, B. Kochanowski,, D. Beuerman,, R. Poehner,, and A. W. Bruce. 2003. Oral use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum RC-14 significantly alters vaginal flora: randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 64 healthy women. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 35:131134.
128. Reid, G.,, R. Charbonneau-Smith,, D. Lam,, M. Lacerte,, Y. S. Kang,, and K. C. Hayes. 1992. Bacterial biofilm formation in the urinary bladder of spinal cord injured patients. Paraplegia 30:711717.
129. Reid, G.,, R. L. Cook,, and A. W. Bruce. 1987. Examination of strains of lactobacilli for properties which may influence bacterial interference in the urinary tract. J. Urol. 138:330335.
130. Reid, G.,, R. L. Cook,, L. Hagberg,, and A. W. Bruce,. 1989. Lactobacilli as competitive colonizers of the urinary tract, p. 390396. In E. H. Kass, and C. Svanborg Eden (ed.), Host-Parasite Interactions in Urinary Tract Infections. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill.
131. Reid, G.,, B. S. Gan,, Y.-M. She,, W. Ens,, S. Weinberger,, and J. C. Howard. 2002. Rapid identification of probiotic lactobacilli biosurfactant proteins by ProteinChip MS/MS tryptic peptide sequencing. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 977980.
132. Reid, G.,, J.-A. Hammond,, and A. W. Bruce. 2003. Effect of lactobacilli oral supplement on the vaginal microflora of antibiotic treated patients: randomized, placebo-controlled study. Nutraceut. Foods 8:145148.
133. Reid, G.,, C. Heinemann,, J. Howard,, G. Gardiner,, and B. S. Gan. 2001. Understanding urogenital biofilms and the potential impact of probiotics. Methods Enzymol. 336:403410.
134. Reid, G.,, J. Jass,, T. Sebulsky,, and J. McCormick. 2003. Probiotics in clinical practice. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 16:658672.
135. Reid, G.,, J. A. McGroarty,, R. Angotti,, and R. L. Cook. 1988. Lactobacillus inhibitor production against E. coli and coaggregation ability with uropathogens. Can. J. Microbiol. 34:344351.
136. Reid, G.,, J. A. McGroarty,, L. Tomeczek,, and A. W. Bruce. 1996. Identification and plasmid profiles of Lactobacillus species from the vagina of 100 healthy women. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 15:2326.
137. Reid, G.,, K. Millsap,, and A. W. Bruce. 1994. Implantation of Lactobacillus casei var rhamnosus into the vagina. Lancet 344:1229.
138. Reid, G.,, P. Potter,, D. Lam,, D. Warren,, M. Borrie, and K Hayes. 2003. Cranberry juice to reduce bladder biofilms and infection in geriatric and spinal cord injured patients with dysfunctional bladders. Nutraceut. Foods 8:2428.
139. Reid, G.,, M. E. Sanders,, R. Gaskins,, G. Gibson,, A. Mercenier,, B. Rastall,, M. Roberfroid,, I. Rowland,, C. Cherbut,, and T. Klaenhammer. 2003. New scientific paradigms for probiotics and prebiotics. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 37:105118.
140. Riemersma, W. A.,, C. J. van der Schee,, W. I. van der Meijden,, H. A. Verbrugh,, and A. van Belkum. 2003. Microbial population diversity in the urethras of healthy males and males suffering from nonchlamydial, nongonococcal urethritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:19771986.
141. Royce, R. A.,, T. P. Jackson,, J. M. Thorp Jr,, S. L. Hillier,, L. K. Rabe,, L. M. Pastore,, and D. A. Savitz. 1999. Race/ethnicity, vaginal flora patterns, and pH during pregnancy. Sex. Transm. Dis. 26:96102.
142. Rozanova, G. N.,, D. A. Voevodin,, M. A. Stenina,, and M. V. Kushnareva. 2002. Pathogenetic role of dysbacteriosis in the development of complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 133:164166.
143. Schaeffer, A. J.,, S. K. Amundsen,, and L. N. Schmidt. 1979. Adherence of Escherichia coli to human urinary tract epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 24:753759.
144. Schafer, K. S.,, and S. E. Kegley. 2002. Persistent toxic chemicals in the US food supply. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 56:813817.
145. Schell, M. A.,, M. Karmirantzou,, B. Snel,, D. Vilanova,, B. Berger,, G. Pessi,, M. C. Zwahlen,, F. Desiere,, P. Bork,, M. Delley,, R. D. Pridmore,, and F. Arigoni. 2002. The genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum reflects its adaptation to the human gastrointestinal tract. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:1442214427.
146. Schilling, J. D.,, S. M. Martin,, C. S. Hung,, R. G. Lorenz,, and S. J. Hultgren. 2003. Toll-like receptor 4 on stromal and hematopoietic cells mediates innate resistance to uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:42034208.
147. Schwebke, J. R.,, S. L. Hillier,, J. D. Sobel,, J. A. McGregor,, and R. L. Sweet. 1996. Validity of the vaginal Gram stain for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Obstet. Gynecol. 88: 573576.
148. Schwebke, J. R.,, C. M. Richey,, and H. L. Weiss. 1999. Correlation of behaviors with microbiological changes in vaginal flora. J. Infect. Dis. 180:16321636.
149. Seddon, J. M.,, A. W. Bruce,, P. Chadwick,, and P. Carter. 1976. Introital bacterial flora—effect of increased frequency of micturition. Br. J. Urol. 48:211218.
150. Serafini-Cessi, F.,, N. Malagolini,, and D. Cavallone. 2003. Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein: biology and clinical relevance. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 42:658676.
151. Smeianov, V.,, K. Scott,, and G. Reid. 2000. Activity of Fall-39 and Cecropin P1 against urogenital microflora. Microbes Infect. 2:773777.
152. Soderhall, M.,, S. Normark,, K. Ishikawa,, K. Karlsson,, S. Teneberg,, J. Winberg,, and R. Mollby. 1997. Induction of protective immunity after Escherichia coli bladder infection in primates. Dependence of the globoside-specific P-fimbrial tip adhesin and its cognate receptor. J. Clin. Investig. 100:364372.
153. Steele, C.,, and P. L. Fidel, Jr. 2002. Cytokine and chemokine production by human oral and vaginal epithelial cells in response to Candida albicans. Infect. Immun. 70:577583.
154. Strus, M.,, L. Pakosz,, H. Gosciniak,, A. Przondo-Mordarska,, E. Rozynek,, H. Pituch,, F. Meisel-Mikolajczyk,, and P. B. Heczko. 2001. Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus bacteria strains against anaerobic gastrointestinal tract pathogens (Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium difficile). Med. Dosw. Mikrobiol. 53:133142. (In Polish.)
155. Sundstrom, P. 2002. Adhesion in Candida spp. Cell. Microbiol. 4:461469.
156. Svanborg, C.,, W. Agace,, S. Hedges,, R. Lindstedt,, and M. L. Svensson. 1994. Bacterial adherence and mucosal cytokine production. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 730:162181.
157. Svanborg, C.,, G. Bergsten,, H. Fischer,, B. Frendeus,, G. Godaly,, E. Gustafsson,, L. Hang,, M. Hedlund,, D. Karpman,, A. C. Lundstedt,, M. Samuelsson,, P. Samuelsson,, M. Svensson,, and B. Wullt. 2001. The ‘innate’ host response protects and damages the infected urinary tract. Ann. Med. 33:563570.
158. Tamboli, C. P.,, C. Caucheteux,, A. Cortot,, J. F. Colombel,, and P. Desreumaux. 2003. Probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease: a critical review. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 17:805820.
159. Tannock, G. W. 2002. Exploring the relationships between intestinal microflora and inflammatory conditions of the human bowel and spine. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 81:529535.
160. Tannock, G. W. 2001. Molecular assessment of intestinal microflora. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 73(2 Suppl.):410S414S.
161. Tannock, G. W.,, R. Fuller,, S. L. Smith,, and M. A. Hall. 1990. Plasmid profiling of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, lactobacilli, and bifidobacteria to study the transmission of bacteria from mother to infant. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:12251228.
162. Taylor, J. K.,, R. W. Hall,, and A. R. Dupre. 2002. The incidence of group B streptococcus in the vaginal tracts of pregnant women in central Alabama. Clin. Lab. Sci. 15:1617.
163. Tomas, M. S.,, E. Bru,, and M. E. Nader-Macias. 2003. Comparison of the growth and hydrogen peroxide production by vaginal probiotic lactobacilli under different culture conditions. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 188:3544.
164. Trinel, P. A.,, E. Maes,, J. P. Zanetta,, F. Delplace,, B. Coddeville,, T. Jouault,, G. Strecker,, and D. Poulain. 2002. Candida albicans phospholipomannan, a new member of the fungal mannose inositol phosphoceramide family. J. Biol. Chem. 277:3726037271.
165. Uehling, D. T.,, D. B. Johnson,, and W. J. Hopkins. 1999. The urinary tract response to entry of pathogens. World J. Urol. 17:351358.
166. Uhlen, P.,, A. Laestadius,, T. Jahnukainen,, T. Soderblom,, F. Backhed,, G. Celsi,, H. Brismar,, S. Normark,, A. Aperia,, and A. Richter-Dahlfors. 2000. Alpha-haemolysin of uropathogenic E. coli induces Ca2+ oscillations in renal epithelial cells. Nature 405:694697.
167. Vallor, A. C.,, M. A. Antonio,, S. E. Hawes,, and S. L. Hillier. 2001. Factors associated with acquisition of, or persistent colonization by, vaginal lactobacilli: role of hydrogen peroxide production. J. Infect. Dis. 184:14311436.
168. Valore, E. V.,, C. H. Park,, S. L. Igreti,, and T. Ganz. 2002. Antimicrobial components of vaginal fluid. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 187:561568.
169. Veazey, R. S.,, P. A. Marx,, and A. A. Lackner. 2003. Vaginal CD4+ T cells express high levels of CCR5 and are rapidly depleted in simian immunodeficiency virus infection. J. Infect. Dis. 187:769776.
170. Velraeds, M. C.,, B. van der Belt,, H. C. van der Mei,, G. Reid,, and H. J. Busscher. 1998. Interference in initial adhesion of uropathogenic bacteria and yeasts silicone rubber by a Lactobacillus acidophilus biosurfactant. J. Med. Microbiol. 49: 790794.
171. Velraeds, M. C.,, H. C. van der Mei,, G. Reid,, and H. J. Busscher. 1996. Inhibition of initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis by biosurfactants from Lactobacillus isolates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:19581963.
172. Velraeds, M. C.,, H. C. van der Mei,, G. Reid,, and H. J. Busscher. 1996. Physicochemical and biochemical characterization of biosurfactants released from Lactobacillus strains. Colloids Surf. Ser. B. 8:5161.
172.a. Vollenweider, S.,, G. Grassi,, I. Konig,, and Z. Puhan. 2003. Purification and structural characterization of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde and its derivatives. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:32873293.
173. Weller, T. M. 2000. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus typing methods: which should be the international standard? J. Hosp. Infect. 44:160172.
174. West, B.,, L. Morison,, M. S. van der Loeff,, E. Gooding,, A. A. Awasana,, E. Demba,, and P. Mayaud. 2003. Evaluation of a new rapid diagnostic kit (FemExam) for bacterial vaginosis in patients with vaginal discharge syndrome in The Gambia. Sex. Transm. Dis. 30:483489.
175. Wettergren, B.,, U. Jodal,, and G. Jonasson. 1985. Epidemiology of bacteriuria during the first year of life. Acta Paediatr. Scand. 74:925933.
176. Xia, Y.,, K. Forsman,, J. Jass,, and B. E. Uhlin. 1998. Oligomeric interaction of the PapB transcriptional regulator with the upstream activating region of pili adhesin gene promoters in Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 30:513523.
177. Xu, J.,, M. K. Bjursell,, J. Himrod,, S. Deng,, L. K. Carmichael,, H. C. Chiang,, L. V. Hooper,, and H. I. Gordon. 2003. A genomic view of the human-Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron symbiosis. Science 299:20742076.
178. Yoshida, M.,, T. Watanabe,, T. Usui,, Y. Matsunaga,, Y. Shirai,, M. Yamori,, T. Itoh,, S. Habu,, T. Chiba,, T. Kita,, and Y. Wakatsuki. 2001. CD4 T cells monospecific to ovalbumin produced by Escherichia coli can induce colitis upon transfer to BALB/c and SCID mice. Int. Immunol. 13:15611570.
179. Zheng, H.,, J. Cao,, H. Jin,, and J. Wang. 1999. Preliminary examination of a LB-H2O2 substance that inhibit Neisseria gonorrhea growth. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 21:379383. (In Chinese.)
180. Zhong, W.,, K. Millsap,, H. Bialkowska-Hobrzanska,, and G. Reid. 1998. Differentiation of Lactobacillus species by molecular typing. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:24182423.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error