1887

Chapter 2 : Insights from Simulated Evolution

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Insights from Simulated Evolution, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817626/9781555819118_Chap02-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817626/9781555819118_Chap02-2.gif

Abstract:

All biological systems, including viruses, are essentially systems that store, copy, and express information. This chapter presents some of the insights of simulated evolution and attempts to evaluate the relevance of the simulations to extant biological systems and processes that we can now observe. The study of chemical replicators, attempts to create models of catalysis from which prebiotic characteristics can be determined. The parasites of parasitic replicators would correspond to the defective viruses that are observed for most types of viruses. Defective viruses are thus exactly the parasitic replicators of a functional virus, itself a parasitic replicator. These parasites of parasites are expected to have existed even under prebiotic conditions. In addition, computer-based modeling of replicator evolution also suggests a role for the parasitic replicators as well as the parasites of parasites. The temporal component for persistent virus selection may be even more extended than for lambda. Clearly, models must first develop more formal ways to define the issues of persistence before they can provide useful insights into the successful life strategies of a persistent virus.

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. Insights from Simulated Evolution, p 29-43. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817626.ch2
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 2.1
Figure 2.1

(A) Hypercycles (nonparasitic) as developed for an RNA virus by M. Eigen. Plus- and minus-strand templates ( ) are indicated. Additional coupled hypercycles are not indicated. (B) Parasitic hypercycle. Shown is the emergence of a parasitic and defective template () with enhanced replication relative to that of the full ( ) template.

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. Insights from Simulated Evolution, p 29-43. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817626.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817626.chap2
1. Gesteland, R. F.,, T. Cech,, and J. F. Atkins. 1999. The RNA World: the Nature of Modern RNA Suggests a Prebiotic RNA, 2nd ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.
2. Hutton, T. J. 2002. Evolvable self-replicating molecules in an artificial chemistry. Artif. Life 8:341356.
3. Shapiro, R. 2000. A replicator was not involved in the origin of life. IUBMB Life 49:173176.
4. Szabo, P.,, I. Scheuring,, T. Czaran,, and E. Szathmary. 2002. In silico simulations reveal that replicators with limited dispersal evolve towards higher efficiency and fidelity. Nature 420:340343.
5. Szathmary, E. 2000. The evolution of replicators. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 355:16691676.
6. Cronhjort, M. B. 1995. Hypercycles versus parasites in the origin of life: model dependence in spatial hypercycle systems. Origins Life Evol. Biosph. 25:227233.
7. Eigen, M.,, P. Schuster,, K. Sigmund,, and R. Wolff. 1980. Elementary step dynamics of catalytic hypercycles. Biosystems 13:122.
8. Eigen, M.,, and R. Winkler. 1992. Steps towards Life: a Perspective on Evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.
9. Szathmary, E. 1988. A hypercyclic illusion. J. Theor. Biol. 134:561563.
10. Szathmary, E. 1992. Viral sex, levels of selection, and the origin of life. J. Theor. Biol. 159:99109.
11. Adami, C. 1998. Introduction to Artificial Life. Springer, New York, N.Y.
12. Gesteland, R. F.,, T. Cech,, and J. F. Atkins. 1999. The RNA World: the Nature of Modern RNA Suggests a Prebiotic RNA, 2nd ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.
13. Huberman, B. A.,, and N. S. Glance. 1993. Evolutionary games and computer simulations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:77167718.
14. Hutton, T. J. 2002. Evolvable self-replicating molecules in an artificial chemistry. Artif. Life 8:341356.
15. Langton, C. G. 1992. Artificial Life II: Proceedings of the Workshop on Artificial Life Held February 1990 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Addison-Wesley, Redwood City, Calif.
16. Lenski, R. E.,, C. Ofria,, R. T. Pennock,, and C. Adami. 2003. The evolutionary origin of complex features. Nature 423:139144.
17. Levy, S. 1992. Artificial Life. Pantheon, New York, N.Y.
18. Rowe, G. 1994. Theoretical Models in Biology: the Origin of Life, the Immune System, and the Brain. Clarendon Press, Oxford, England.
19. Szabo, P.,, I. Scheuring,, T. Czaran,, and E. Szathmary. 2002. In silico simulations reveal that replicators with limited dispersal evolve towards higher efficiency and fidelity. Nature 420:340343.
20. Szathmary, E. 1992. Viral sex, levels of selection, and the origin of life. J. Theor. Biol. 159:99109.
21. Ward, M. 2000. Virtual Organisms: the Startling World of Artificial Life. St. Martin's Press, New York, N.Y.
22. Wilke, C. O.,, J. L. Wang,, C. Ofria,, R. E. Lenski,, and C. Adami. 2001. Evolution of digital organisms at high mutation rates leads to survival of the flattest. Nature 412:331333.
23. Yedid, G.,, and G. Bell. 2002. Macroevolution simulated with autonomously replicating computer programs. Nature 420:810812.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error