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8 Evolution of Terrestrial Animals and Their Viruses

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Abstract:

As vertebrates emerged from the oceans to become land-dwelling animals, numerous basic changes in their physiology and organ structures were necessary. This chapter examines the roles that persistent viruses and especially endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have had in the evolution of terrestrial vertebrates. The mammalian paramyxovirus lineage may trace its evolutionary origins from reptiles, through avians, to mammals, and during the course of this adaptation the reptilian and avian viruses appear to have gained the ability to establish species-specific persistent infections. Although monotreme-like mammals are evolutionarily old (predating the dinosaurs), little is known about the viruses or genomes of these early mammalian predecessors. The majority of small DNA viruses (adenoviruses, papillo-maviruses, polyomaviruses, and TT viruses) have persistent life strategies, are host specific, and are phylogenetically congruent with the evolution of their hosts. The epidemiological concept of a reservoir species has been used for many decades to help explain the recurrence of viral disease after it has apparently been eliminated from a population or habitat. With the completion of the sequencing of the human genome, one can now consider what types of genetic changes were associated with this recent stage in human evolution. The successful genomes that have colonized host cells might be expected to persist in the ecosystem and contribute this vast genetic creativity to the tree of life.

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. 8 Evolution of Terrestrial Animals and Their Viruses, p 289-382. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch8
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Image of Figure 8.1
Figure 8.1

Schematic of HERVs and related elements (LINEs, SINEs, and ). The number of copies per genome present in invertebrates is indicated in parentheses.

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. 8 Evolution of Terrestrial Animals and Their Viruses, p 289-382. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch8
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Image of Figure 8.2
Figure 8.2

Schematic of the time line for the evolution of mammalian species.

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. 8 Evolution of Terrestrial Animals and Their Viruses, p 289-382. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch8
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Image of Figure 8.3
Figure 8.3

Outline of ERVs acquired by terrestrial vertebrates. Asterisks indicate significant ERV expansion. Rav-0, Rous-associated virus-0; JASV, jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus.

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. 8 Evolution of Terrestrial Animals and Their Viruses, p 289-382. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch8
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Image of Figure 8.4
Figure 8.4

Phylogenetic relationship of rhabdoviruses. Data are from H. Badrane, C. Bahloul, P. Perrin, and N. Tordo, 3268–3276, 2001.

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. 8 Evolution of Terrestrial Animals and Their Viruses, p 289-382. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch8
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Image of Figure 8.5
Figure 8.5

A dendrogram schematic of the evolutionary relationships of the Muridae family of rodents, based on mitochondrial DNA and cytochrome B sequence data. Data are from C. J. Conroy and J. A. Cook, 221–245, 1999. Also shown are some common names as well as patterns of hantavirus (Puumula virus [PUUV]) and coronavirus (rat coronavirus [RCV] and MHV) rodent infection.

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. 8 Evolution of Terrestrial Animals and Their Viruses, p 289-382. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch8
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Image of Figure 8.6
Figure 8.6

Dendrogram schematic of the HERV elements associated with schizophrenia by subtractive cDNA analysis. Relationship to the HERV SINE-R.C2 is shown. Data are from H.-S. Kim, R. V. Wadekar, O. Takenaka, C. Winstanley, F. Mitsunaga, T. Kageyama, B.-H. Hyun, and T. J. Crow, . 560–566, 1999.

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. 8 Evolution of Terrestrial Animals and Their Viruses, p 289-382. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch8
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 8.1

Classification of ERVs

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. 8 Evolution of Terrestrial Animals and Their Viruses, p 289-382. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch8
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Table 8.2

Known intact HERVs

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. 8 Evolution of Terrestrial Animals and Their Viruses, p 289-382. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 8.3

Major examples of persistence emergence

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. 8 Evolution of Terrestrial Animals and Their Viruses, p 289-382. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 8.4

Hantavirus emergence from rodent- or shrew-specific persistence

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. 8 Evolution of Terrestrial Animals and Their Viruses, p 289-382. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch8

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