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17 Induction of Apoptosis by Microbial Pathogens

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17 Induction of Apoptosis by Microbial Pathogens, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

There are two criteria to distinguish apoptosis from necrosis: morphology and DNA fragmentation. Typical morphological changes that occur during apoptosis include cell shrinkage and loss of normal cell-to-cell contacts, blebbing at the cell surface, and intense cytoplasmic vacuolization. Interestingly, the morphological changes, the fragmentation of DNA, and the expression of markers for recognition by phagocytes are very similar across different cell types and species. Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases that play a central role in the apoptotic pathway. Among cysteine proteases, caspases are unique in requiring an aspartate at the cleavage site. Bcl-2 is homologous to the apoptosis inhibitor gene . complements the mutation in worms and inhibits apoptosis in many different instances when overexpressed in mammalian cells. Many bacterial pathogens induce apoptosis in host cells. This chapter groups microbial pathogens by the mechanisms they use to induce apoptosis. kills macrophages by apoptosis in vitro by secreting adenylate cyclase-hemolysin (AcHly) toxin. This toxin has two domains: (i) a potent adenylate cyclase activity, which is activated by calmodulin, and (ii) a hemolysin activity, which is a pore-forming protein that is thought to allow the translocation of the cyclase into the host cell cytoplasm.

Citation: Moss J, Idanpaan-Heikkila I, Zychlinsky A. 2004. 17 Induction of Apoptosis by Microbial Pathogens, p 409-423. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch17

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Figures

Image of Figure 17.1
Figure 17.1

Morphology of thymocytes undergoing necrosis and apoptosis. Thymocytes undergoing necrosis. Organelles are critically damaged, the plasma membrane is ruptured, the cytoplasmic elements are dispersed, the shape of the nucleus is normally conserved, but flocculation of chromatin can be detected. Thymocytes undergoing apoptosis. Cell shrinkage, blebbing at the cell surface, intense cytoplasmic vacuolization, conservation of organelle structure, condensation of the chromatin at the perinuclear region, and loss of nuclear morphology, which appears like segmentation of the nucleus, are all apparent.

Citation: Moss J, Idanpaan-Heikkila I, Zychlinsky A. 2004. 17 Induction of Apoptosis by Microbial Pathogens, p 409-423. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.2
Figure 17.2

Models for induction of apoptosis. Receptor binding or DNA damage activates a signal cascade that culminates in caspase activation and/or disruption of binding of members of the Bcl-2 family and release of mitochondrial proteins required for cell death.

Citation: Moss J, Idanpaan-Heikkila I, Zychlinsky A. 2004. 17 Induction of Apoptosis by Microbial Pathogens, p 409-423. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.3
Figure 17.3

Model of pathogenesis. Colonic macrophages are activated to synthesize IL-1β by exposure to bacterial products of the normal microflora, like lipopolysaccharide (LPS). translocates through M cells, infects resident macrophages, and escapes the phagocytic vacuoles. It secretes IpaB, which binds to ICE, which is activated. ICE activation leads to macrophage apoptosis and IL-1β maturation. IL-1β initiates an acute inflammatory response. PMNs break the epithelial barrier, allowing further bacterial invasion. Bacteria invade epithelial cells through the basolateral side and then spread from cell to cell. Redrawn from A. Zychlinsky and P. J. Sansonetti, . 201–204, 1997.

Citation: Moss J, Idanpaan-Heikkila I, Zychlinsky A. 2004. 17 Induction of Apoptosis by Microbial Pathogens, p 409-423. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch17
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References

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1. Ellis, H. M.,, and H. R. Horvitz. 1986. Genetic control of programmed cell death in the nematode C. elegans. Cell 44:817829. A landmark paper on the discovery of the genetic basis of cell death.
2. Monack, D. M.,, C. S. Detweiler,, and S. Falkow. 2001. Salmonella pathogenicity island 2-dependent macrophage death is mediated in part by the host cysteine protease caspase-1. Cell Microbiol. 3:825837.
3. Orth, K.,, Z. Xu,, M. B. Mudgett,, Z. Q. Bao,, L. E. Palmer,, J. B. Bliska,, W. F. Mangel,, B. Staskawicz,, and J. E. Dixon. 2000. Disruption of signaling by Yersinia effector YopJ, a ubiquitin-like protein protease. Science 290:15941597. A combinatorial approach to understanding a cell death pathway activated by bacterial pathogens in different systems.
4. Sansonetti, P. J.,, A. Phalipon,, J. Arondel,, K. Thirumalai,, S. Banerjee,, S. Akira,, K. Takeda,, and A. Zychlinsky. 2000. Caspase-1 activation of IL-1beta and IL-18 are essential for Shigella flexneri-induced inflammation. Immunity 12:581590. In vivo validation of the caspase-1-dependent pathway of pathogenesis.
5. Thornberry, N. A.,, and Y. Lazebnik. 1998. Caspases: enemies within. Science 281:13121316. Thorough review of caspases and their intricacies.
6. Weinrauch, Y.,, and A. Zychlinsky. 1999. The induction of apoptosis by bacterial pathogens. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 53:155187. Comprehensive review of the induction of apoptosis by bacteria and bacterial products.
7. Wyllie, A. H. 1980. Glucocorticoid-induced thymocyte apoptosis is associated with endogenous endonuclease activation. Nature 284:555556. Landmark paper on the discovery of DNA fragmentation during apoptosis.
8. Yuan, J.,, S. Shaham,, S. Ledoux,, H. M. Ellis,, and H. R. Horvitz. 1993. The C. elegans cell death gene ced-3 encodes a protein similar to mammalian interleukin-1β - converting enzyme. Cell 75:641652. Key contribution on the genetic identification of proteases as mediators of cell death.
9. Zychlinsky, A.,, M. C. Prevost,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 1992. Shigella flexneri induces apoptosis in infected macrophages. Nature 358:167169. Initial report on the induction of apoptosis by bacterial pathogens.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 17.1

genes involved in apoptosis

Citation: Moss J, Idanpaan-Heikkila I, Zychlinsky A. 2004. 17 Induction of Apoptosis by Microbial Pathogens, p 409-423. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch17
Generic image for table
Table 17.2

Bacteria that cause apoptosis

Citation: Moss J, Idanpaan-Heikkila I, Zychlinsky A. 2004. 17 Induction of Apoptosis by Microbial Pathogens, p 409-423. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch17

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