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3 Cell Biology: an Overview

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3 Cell Biology: an Overview, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Mechanisms controlling basic cellular functions, such as cell division, motility, adherence, differentiation, cell death, and the detection of potential cell dangers, are extremely highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom. This chapter aims to introduce some of these basic cell biology mechanisms. Cell membranes are fluid structures at physiological temperatures due to the double bond present in glycerophospholipids, which prevent the close packing of the lipidic acyl chains. Membrane receptors can be divided into three main classes according to their response to ligand binding: the ligand-gated ion channels open a selective pore; the seven transmembrane receptors are linked to heterotrimeric guanine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins, and various receptors are linked to enzyme cascades. Endocytosis is mediated by different mechanisms. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) produces glycerolipids and cholesterol, and the Golgi apparatus produces sphingolipids. Lipids travel between organelles by the secretory and endocytic pathways via vesicle-mediated transport or via lipid-carrier proteins present in the cytosol. Apoptosis is divided into three phases. Detection of the apoptotic signal by sensors is followed by conversion of the signal so that it can trigger the execution phase of apoptosis. When a cell prepares to divide, it must coordinate the duplication and division steps. To ensure good quality control, the transitions between phases must be governed by a decision-making process that assesses such things as the quality of the duplicated DNA and the successful reorganization of the cellular machinery.

Citation: Philpott D, Boquet P. 2004. 3 Cell Biology: an Overview, p 63-86. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch3

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Figures

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Figure 3.2

Important signaling pathways: the MAPK and NF- κB pathways. The MAPK pathways are kinase cascades that end in activation of a terminal kinase (either ERK, P38, or SAPK/JNK). These terminal kinases phosphorylate and activate proteins that control the transcription of SRF/AP1, ATF2, C-jun-dependent genes. Stimuli like LPS or TNFα activate the Nemo complex that phosphorylates the NF- κB inhibitor IκB. The phosphorylated IκB is polyubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome. Removal of IκB from NF-κB uncovers a nuclear localization signal on NF-κB. This factor then enters into the nucleus and plays the role of a transcription factor. The ultimate response of the cell activation of these pathways is indicated at the bottom of the figure.

Citation: Philpott D, Boquet P. 2004. 3 Cell Biology: an Overview, p 63-86. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch3
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Image of Figure 3.3
Figure 3.3

Motor proteins and intracellular traffic. The involvement of the motor proteins kinesin, dynein, and myosin in cellular motility of intracellular vesicles is shown.

Citation: Philpott D, Boquet P. 2004. 3 Cell Biology: an Overview, p 63-86. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch3
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 3.1

Main inhibitors and activators used in cell biology

Citation: Philpott D, Boquet P. 2004. 3 Cell Biology: an Overview, p 63-86. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 3.2

TLRs and their ligands

Citation: Philpott D, Boquet P. 2004. 3 Cell Biology: an Overview, p 63-86. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch3

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