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4 Extracellular Matrix and Host Cell Surfaces: Potential Sites of Pathogen Interaction

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Abstract:

Bacteria express surface-associated adhesion molecules, generally termed adhesins, recognize the eukaryotic cell surface, the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, or carbohydrate structures. The major structural components of the eukaryotic ECM are collagens that form different types of interstitial or basement membrane networks, including fibril-forming collagens (types I, II, and III) and the two-dimensional collagen type IV network. Due to the tight association of other adhesion proteins, such as fibronectin, vitronectin, von Willebrand factor, laminin, nidogen, and proteoglycans with collagens to form supramolecular aggregates of variable structure and composition, the interaction with host cells or bacteria is not determined solely by the collagen component. Although most characterized interactions with gram-negative bacteria involve recognition of lectins and carbohydrate structures in the host tissue, several types of fimbriae of enterobacteria exhibit specific interactions with fibronectin, laminin, or other adhesion proteins. Importantly, thrombospondin binds Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized erythrocytes and, together with its cell surface receptor, CD36, mediates their adherence to endothelial and other cells. Chlamydia trachomatis expresses a heparan sulfate-like glycan that links the bacterium to host cell heparin-binding proteins, thereby using a trimolecular complex for adherence and invasion. Finally, the epithelial-cell mucosal barriers in the body provide different high-molecular weight mucin glycoproteins (containing 50 to 80% carbohydrate) which exhibit considerable genetic polymorphism among individuals.

Citation: Preissner K, Chhatwal G. 2004. 4 Extracellular Matrix and Host Cell Surfaces: Potential Sites of Pathogen Interaction, p 87-104. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch4

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Figures

Image of Figure 4.1
Figure 4.1

Scanning electron micrographs showing the specific binding of streptococci to the ECM protein fibronectin in association with collagen , indicating that fibronectin-mediated collagen recruitment leads to matrix deposition on and between streptococcal cells and to their adherence on fibrillar collagen. The interaction of streptococci to fibrillar collagen alone leads to bacterial aggregation adherence and colonization . Photograph: M. Rohde (Braunschweig, Germany).

Citation: Preissner K, Chhatwal G. 2004. 4 Extracellular Matrix and Host Cell Surfaces: Potential Sites of Pathogen Interaction, p 87-104. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch4
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Image of Figure 4.2
Figure 4.2

Scanning electron micrographs demonstrating the interaction between latex beads, coated with fibronectin-binding streptococcal adhesin SFBI, and HEp-2 cells. Different stages of adhesion, engulfment, and internalization are apparent. Bar, 3 μm. Photograph: M. Rohde (Braunschweig, Germany).

Citation: Preissner K, Chhatwal G. 2004. 4 Extracellular Matrix and Host Cell Surfaces: Potential Sites of Pathogen Interaction, p 87-104. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch4
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Image of Figure 4.3
Figure 4.3

Schematic representation of bacterial interactions with host cells and ECM mediated by adhesion molecules. COL, collagens; FN, fibronectin; LN, laminin; VN, vitronectin; SFBI, fibronectin-binding streptococcal adhesin.

Citation: Preissner K, Chhatwal G. 2004. 4 Extracellular Matrix and Host Cell Surfaces: Potential Sites of Pathogen Interaction, p 87-104. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch4
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References

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1. Chavakis, T.,, M. Hussain,, S. M. Kanse,, G. Peters,, R. G. Bretzel,, J.-I. Flock,, M. Herrmann,, and K. T. Preissner. 2002. Staphylococcus aureus extracellular adherence protein (Eap) serves as anti-inflammatory factor by inhibiting the recruitment of host leukocytes. Nat. Med. 8:687693.In this “trick and treat” paper, Eap was found to inhibit leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in addition to its adherence function for bacteria. Eap thereby not only protects bacteria from host defense mechanisms but can act, independent of bacteria, as an efficient anti-inflammatory factor for new therapeutic strategies.
2. Cheung, A. L.,, M. Krishnan,, E. A. Jaffe,, and V. A. Fischetti. 1991. Fibrinogen acts as a bridging molecule in the adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to cultured human endothelial cells. J. Clin. Investig. 87:22362245.This is another example in which the symmetric, divalent fibrinogen molecule is able to cross-link bacteria with host cells and thereby promote cell-cell contact. Similarly, fibrinogen serves to bridge platelets (in platelet aggregation) as well as leukocytes and endothelial cells.
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12. Pancholi, V.,, and V.A. Fischetti. 1998. a-Enolase, a novel strong plasmin(ogen) binding protein on the surface of pathogenic streptococci. J. Biol. Chem. 273:1450314515.
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 4.1

Structural and functional components of the ECM

Citation: Preissner K, Chhatwal G. 2004. 4 Extracellular Matrix and Host Cell Surfaces: Potential Sites of Pathogen Interaction, p 87-104. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 4.2

Specific interactions of bacterial species with host ECM components

Citation: Preissner K, Chhatwal G. 2004. 4 Extracellular Matrix and Host Cell Surfaces: Potential Sites of Pathogen Interaction, p 87-104. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 4.3

Microbial interactions with host adhesion receptors

Citation: Preissner K, Chhatwal G. 2004. 4 Extracellular Matrix and Host Cell Surfaces: Potential Sites of Pathogen Interaction, p 87-104. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch4

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