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9 Membrane Traffic in the Endocytic Pathway of Eukaryotic Cells

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9 Membrane Traffic in the Endocytic Pathway of Eukaryotic Cells, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Eukaryotic cells need to be in constant communication with their environment in order to perform most of their functions, such as the transmission of neuronal, metabolic, and proliferative signals and the uptake of nutrients or to protect the organism from microbial invasion, to name only a few. Macropinocytosis involves remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, a process regulated by the small GTPases Ras, Rac, and Cdc42, and leads to massive membrane internalization. Phagocytosis requires important actin rearrangements and pseudopod extension under the control of Rho GTPases. Several pathways have been proposed to mediate membrane traffic between endosomes and the biosynthetic pathway. In particular, several lines of evidence support the view that direct transport routes mediate anterograde and retrograde transport between early endosomes and the trans-Golgi network (TGN). PI3K activity and, hence, PI(3)P are required for autophagy in yeast, where Vps34 has been shown to coimmunoprecipitate with proteins required for autophagy. Early endosomes are important sorting stations along the endocytic pathway. After receptor-ligand uncoupling at the mildly acidic pH (pH 6.2), housekeeping receptors are transported along the recycling route, whereas ligands follow the degradation pathway together with downregulated receptors and fluid phase markers. Phosphorylation of the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol in the 3, 4, and 5 positions generates seven different phosphoinositides at the cytosolic face of cellular membranes. During the past few years, phosphoinositides have emerged as regulators of membrane traffic by regulating the localization and/or activity of effector proteins.

Citation: Felberbaum-Corti M, Flukiger-Gagescu R, Gruenberg J. 2004. 9 Membrane Traffic in the Endocytic Pathway of Eukaryotic Cells, p 203-226. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch9

Key Concept Ranking

Plasma Membrane
0.44969937
Simian virus 40
0.43224686
MHC Class II
0.4220922
0.44969937
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Figures

Image of Figure 9.1
Figure 9.1

Intracellular compartments involved in endocytic and biosynthetic membrane trafficking. Newly synthesized molecules are transported from the ER through the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane. In the endocytic pathway, molecules are internalized at the plasma membrane and transported first to early endosomes, then to late endosomes, and finally to lysosomes. The endocytic and biosynthetic pathways are interconnected. Transport intermediates and most recycling routes are not depicted.

Citation: Felberbaum-Corti M, Flukiger-Gagescu R, Gruenberg J. 2004. 9 Membrane Traffic in the Endocytic Pathway of Eukaryotic Cells, p 203-226. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch9
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Image of Figure 9.2
Figure 9.2

Intracellular compartments of the higher eukaryotic cell. This electron micrograph shows a perinuclear region of a Vero cell. C, centriole; N, nucleus; G, Golgi; E, possible early endosome; L, late endosome or lysosome; M, mitochondrion; ER, endoplasmic reticulum. Courtesy of Rob Parton.

Citation: Felberbaum-Corti M, Flukiger-Gagescu R, Gruenberg J. 2004. 9 Membrane Traffic in the Endocytic Pathway of Eukaryotic Cells, p 203-226. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch9
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Image of Figure 9.3
Figure 9.3

Two types of invaginations at the cytosolic side of the plasma membrane visualized by freeze-etch electron microscopy. (A to C) Different states of clathrin assembly, which presumably reflect different stages of vesicle formation from a flat lattice (A) to a deeply invaginated pit (C). (D to G) Different types of caveolae with the typical spiraling appearance, perhaps corresponding to different stages of invagination. Courtesy of John Heuser.

Citation: Felberbaum-Corti M, Flukiger-Gagescu R, Gruenberg J. 2004. 9 Membrane Traffic in the Endocytic Pathway of Eukaryotic Cells, p 203-226. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch9
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Image of Figure 9.4
Figure 9.4

Electron micrograph of an early endosome labeled with LDL-gold. LDL-gold was internalized into endosomes in vivo before the cells were fractionated. The endosomal fraction was mounted onto mica plates and processed for freeze-etch electron microscopy. The image shows the typical organization of an early endosome consisting of tubular and vesicular elements connected to a cisternal region. The large vesicular element containing LDL-gold (top right) may correspond to a forming endosomal carrier vesicle. Courtesy of John Heuser.

Citation: Felberbaum-Corti M, Flukiger-Gagescu R, Gruenberg J. 2004. 9 Membrane Traffic in the Endocytic Pathway of Eukaryotic Cells, p 203-226. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch9
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Image of Figure 9.5
Figure 9.5

Electron micrograph of a late endosome (LE) and two endosomal carrier vesicles (ECV). Internal membranes, characteristic of organelles in the degradative pathway, are visible in both types of structures. Courtesy of Rob Parton.

Citation: Felberbaum-Corti M, Flukiger-Gagescu R, Gruenberg J. 2004. 9 Membrane Traffic in the Endocytic Pathway of Eukaryotic Cells, p 203-226. In Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R (ed), Cellular Microbiology, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817633.ch9
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