1887

Chapter 9 : Initiation of Chromosomal Replication

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Initiation of Chromosomal Replication, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817640/9781555812324_Chap09-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817640/9781555812324_Chap09-2.gif

Abstract:

The complex process of bacterial chromosomal replication can be divided into several stages: initiation, priming of chain starts, chain elongation, and termination. Since much of what is known about the initiation of bacterial chromosomal replication comes from studies of , this chapter concentrates on initiation in that organism. The roles of the crucial sequence elements in the initiation and regulation of chromosomal replication are discussed in this chapter. DnaA protein, a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein, is responsible for setting in motion the cascade of events for initiating chromosomal replication, including origin recognition, strand opening, and loading of the replicative helicase at the sites of the future bidirectional replication forks. SeqA tetramers must interact properly and form active aggregates for binding to hemimethylated DNA to occur. This SeqA aggregation may be important not only for regulating chromosomal replication, but also for chromosomal segregation. Bypassing the normal, DnaA-dependent initiation of chromosomal replication from via constitutive stable DNA replication relieves the growth arrest of cells lacking sufficient acidic phospholipids. Regulated initiation of chromosomal replication likely involves not only its timing during the cell cycle, but also where it happens within the cell. Recently, significant advances have been made in our knowledge of the initiation of chromosomal replication.

Citation: Camara J, Crooke E. 2005. Initiation of Chromosomal Replication, p 177-192. In Higgins N (ed), The Bacterial Chromosome. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817640.ch9

Key Concept Ranking

DNA Synthesis
0.541909
Bacterial Proteins
0.5358699
DNA Polymerase III
0.49320403
0.541909
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Alignment of bacterial DNA sequences. The sequences were acquired by performing a standard nucleotide-nucleotide BLAST search with the sequence (gi | 42154) on the National Center for Biotechnology Information website (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/BLAST/). Matches were found for (gi | 148371), (gi | 40915), (gi | 149827), and Salmonella (gi | 154217). The alignment was performed using AlignX from Vector NTI software (InforMax, Inc.) The solid brackets highlight the traditional 245-bp region. The dotted bracket encompasses an AT-rich region also found important for oriC function. AT-rich 13-mers are indicated with a dotted underline, GATC methylation sites are indicated with a triple bar, and 9-mer DnaA-binding sites are indicatedwith underlining arrows and are labeled (R1 through R4, andM). Shaded regions represent identity to the consensus sequence. Variations from the consensus sequence are indicated by a letter, or by a hyphen (-) for a gap in the sequence. Regions of oriC that lack consensus are represented by N. (Fewer than three sequences contain the same nucleotide at that position.).

Citation: Camara J, Crooke E. 2005. Initiation of Chromosomal Replication, p 177-192. In Higgins N (ed), The Bacterial Chromosome. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817640.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Stages in the initiation of DNA replication from .

Citation: Camara J, Crooke E. 2005. Initiation of Chromosomal Replication, p 177-192. In Higgins N (ed), The Bacterial Chromosome. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817640.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Mechanisms controlling the initiation of chromosomal replication. Prior to the initiation of a round of chromosomal replication, the amount of ATP-DnaA increases through de novo protein synthesis and possibly through the membrane rejuvenation of ADP-DnaA into ATP-DnaA (indicated by the left-to-right increasing wedge shapes). Once a critical level of DnaA has been reached, replication is initiated at . Three mechanisms then come into play to prevent untimely reinitiation (indicated by the left-to-right decreasing wedge shapes). Immediately following its replication, is sequestered away from the activity of DnaA, with the sequestration of lasting for approximately one-third of the cell cycle. Before sequestration ends, the availability of active DnaA must be decreased to a level too low to promote reinitiation of the replicated origin. This occurs through the binding of DnaA protein to the locus and RIDA conversion of ATP-DnaA protein to inactive ADP-DnaA. The onset of titration of DnaA and the onset of DnaA inactivation by RIDA happen relatively soon after initiation. When in a cell cycle, whether they cease to contribute significantly to the decrease of DnaA potential is unclear. PL, phospholipid.

Citation: Camara J, Crooke E. 2005. Initiation of Chromosomal Replication, p 177-192. In Higgins N (ed), The Bacterial Chromosome. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817640.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Positive and negative effects on the initiation potential of DnaA protein. Processes that decrease the initiation potential of DnaA protein are shaded in dark gray. Processes that contribute to the initiation potential of DnaA are shaded in light gray.

Citation: Camara J, Crooke E. 2005. Initiation of Chromosomal Replication, p 177-192. In Higgins N (ed), The Bacterial Chromosome. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817640.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817640.chap9
1. Asai, T.,, M. Takanami,, and M. Imai. 1990. The AT richness and gid transcription determine the left border of the replication origin of the E. coli chromosome. EMBO J. 9:40654072.
2. Atlung, T.,, E. Clausen,, and F. G. Hansen,. 1984. Autorepression of the dnaA gene of Escherichia coli, p. 199207. In U. Huebscher, and S. Spardi (ed.), Proteins Involved in DNA Replication. Plenum Press, New York, N.Y.
3. Atlung, T.,, E. Clausen,, and F. G. Hansen. 1985. Autoregulation of the dnaA gene of Escherichia coli. Mol. Gen. Genet. 200:442450.
4. Bahloul, A.,, F. Boubrik,, and J. Rouviere-Yaniv. 2001. Roles of Escherichia coli histone-like protein HU in DNA replication: HU-beta suppresses the thermosensitivity of dnaA46ts. Biochimie 83:219229.
5. Blaesing, F.,, C. Weigel,, M. Welzeck,, and W. Messer. 2000. Analysis of the DNA-binding domain of Escherichia coli DnaA protein. Mol. Microbiol. 36:557569.
6. Boye, E.,, T. Stokke,, N. Kleckner,, and K. Skarstad. 1996. Coordinating DNA replication initiation with cell growth: differential roles for DnaA and SeqA proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:1220612211.
7. Boye, E.,, A. Lobner-Olesen,, and K. Skarstad. 2000. Limiting DNA replication to once and only once. EMBO Rep. 1:479483.
8. Bramhill, D.,, and A. Kornberg. 1988. Duplex opening by dnaA protein at novel sequences in initiation of replication at the origin of the E. coli chromosome. Cell 52:743755.
9. Bramhill, D.,, and A. Kornberg. 1988. A model for initiation at origins of DNA replication. Cell 54:915918.
10. Braun, R. E., K O’Day, and A. Wright. 1985. Autoregulation of the DNA replication gene dnaA in E. coli. Cell 40:159169.
11. Camara, J. E.,, K. Skarstad,, and E. Crooke. 2003. Controlled initiation of chromosomal replication in Escherichia coli requires functional Hda protein. J. Bacteriol. 185:32443248.
12. Carr, K. M.,, and J. M. Kaguni. 2001. Stoichiometry of DnaA and DnaB proteins in initiation of the E. coli chromosomal origin. J. Biol. Chem. 276:4491944925.
13. Cassler, M. R.,, J. E. Grimwade,, and A. C. Leonard. 1995. Cell cycle-specific changes in nucleoprotein complexes at a chromosomal replication origin. EMBO J. 14:58335841.
14. Cassler, M. R.,, J.E. Grimwade,, K.C. McGarry,, R. T. Mott,, and A. C. Leonard. 1999. Drunken-cell footprints: nuclease treatment of ethanol-permeabilized bacteria reveals an initiation-like nucleoprotein complex in stationary phase replication origins. Nucleic Acids Res. 27:45704576.
15. Castuma, C. E.,, E. Crooke,, and A. Kornberg. 1993. Fluid membranes with acidic domains activate DnaA, the initiator protein of replication in Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 268:2466524668.
16. Crooke, E.,, C. E. Castuma,, and A. Kornberg. 1992. The chromosome origin of Escherichia coli stabilizes DnaA protein during rejuvenation by phospholipids. J. Biol. Chem. 267:1677916782.
17. Crooke, E. 1995. Regulation of chromosomal replication in E. coli: sequestration and beyond. Cell 82:877880.
18. Crooke, E. 2001. Escherichia coli DnaA protein-phospholipid interactions: in vitro and in vivo. Biochimie 83:1923.
19. Erzberger, J. P.,, M. M. Pirruccello,, and J. M. Berger. 2002. The structure of bacterial DnaA: implications for general mechanisms underlying DNA replication initiation. EMBO J. 21:47634773.
20. Fujita, M. Q.,, H. Yoshikawa,, and N. Ogasawara. 1989. Structure of the dnaA region of Pseudomonas putida: conservation among three bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and P. putida. Mol. Gen. Genet. 215:381387.
21. Fuller, R. S.,, B. E. Funnell,, and A. Kornberg. 1984. The dnaA protein complex with the E. coli chromosomal replication origin (oriC) and other DNA sites. Cell 38:889900.
22. Funnell, B. E.,, T. A. Baker,, and A. Kornberg. 1987. In vitro assembly of a prepriming complex at the origin of the Escherichia coli chromosome. J. Biol. Chem. 262:1032710334.
23. Garner, J.,, P. Durrer,, J. Kitchen,, J. Brunner,, and E. Crooke. 1998. Membrane-mediated release of nucleotide from an initiator of chromosomal replication, Escherichia coli DnaA, occurs with insertion of a distinct region of the protein into the lipid bilayer. J. Biol. Chem. 273:51675173.
24. Gille, H.,, and W. Messer. 1991. Localized DNA melting and structural perturbations in the origin of replication, oriC, of Escherichia coli in vitro and in vivo. EMBO J. 10:15791584.
25. Gordon, G. S.,, D. Sitnikov,, C. D. Webb,, A. Teleman,, A. Straight,, R. Losick,, A. W. Murray,, and A. Wright. 1997. Chromosome and low copy plasmid segregation in E. coli: visual evidence for distinct mechanisms. Cell 90:11131121.
26. Grimwade, J. E.,, V. T. Ryan,, and A. C. Leonard. 2000. IHF redistributes bound initiator protein, DnaA, on supercoiled oriC of Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 35:835844.
27. Heacock, P. N.,, and W. Dowhan. 1989. Alteration of the phospholipid composition of Escherichia coli through genetic manipulation. J. Biol. Chem. 264:1467214677.
28. Hiasa, H.,, and K. J. Marians. 1994. Fis cannot support oriC DNA replication in vitro. J. Biol. Chem. 269:2499925003.
29. Hiraga, S. 1976. Novel F prime factors able to replicate in Escherichia coli Hfr strains. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73:198202.
30. Hiraga, S.,, C. Ichinose,, H. Niki,, and M. Yamazoe. 1998. Cell cycle-dependent duplication and bidirectional migration of SeqA-associated DNA-protein complexes in E. coli. Mol. Cell 1:381387.
31. Hiraga, S.,, C. Ichinose,, T. Onogi,, H. Niki,, and M. Yamazoe. 2000. Bidirectional migration of SeqA-bound hemimethylated DNA clusters and pairing of oriC copies in Escherichia coli. Genes Cells 5:327341.
32. Holz, A.,, C. Shaefer,, H. Gille,, W. R. Jueterbock,, and W. Messer. 1992. Mutations in the DnaA binding sites of the replication origin of Escherichia coli. Mol. Gen. Genet. 233: 8188.
33. Hsu, J.,, D. Bramhill,, and C. M. Thompson. 1994. Open complex formation by DnaA initiation protein at the Escherichia coli chromosomal origin requires the 13-mers precisely spaced relative to the 9-mers. Mol. Microbiol. 11:903911.
34. Hwang, D. S.,, and A. Kornberg. 1990. A novel protein binds a key origin sequence to block replication of an E. coli minichromosome. Cell 63:325331.
35. Hwang, D. S.,, and A. Kornberg. 1992. Opening of the replication origin of Escherichia coli by DnaA protein with protein HU or IHF. J. Biol. Chem. 267:2308323086.
36. Hwang, D. S.,, and A. Kornberg. 1992. Opposed actions of regulatory proteins, DnaA and IciA, in opening the replication origin of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 267:2308723091.
37. Hwang, D. S.,, B. Thony,, and A. Kornberg. 1992. IciA protein, a specific inhibitor of initiation of Escherichia coli chromosomal replication. J. Biol. Chem. 267:22092213.
38. Ishigo-oka, D.,, N. Ogasawara,, and S. Moriya. 2001. DnaD protein of Bacillus subtilis interacts with DnaA, the initiator protein of replication. J. Bacteriol. 183:21482150.
39. Jakimowicz, D.,, J. Majka,, W. Messer,, C. Speck,, M. Fernandez,, M. C. Martin,, J. Sanchez,, F. Schauwecker,, U. Keller,, H. Schrempf,, and J. Zakrzewska-Czerwinska. 1998. Structural elements of the Streptomyces oriC region and their interactions with the DnaA protein. Microbiology 144: 12811290.
40. Kaguni, J. M. 1997. Escherichia coli DnaA protein: the replication initiator. Mol. Cell 7:145157.
41. Katayama, T.,, and E. Crooke. 1995. DnaA protein is sensitive to a soluble factor and is specifically inactivated for initiation of in vitro replication of the Escherichia coli minichromosome. J. Biol. Chem. 270:92659271.
42. Katayama, T.,, E. Crooke,, and K. Sekimizu. 1995. Characterization of Escherichia coli DnaAcos protein in replication systems reconstituted with highly purified proteins. Mol. Microbiol. 18:813820.
43. Katayama, T.,, T. Kubota,, K. Kurokawa,, E. Crooke,, and K. Sekimizu. 1998. The initiator function of DnaA protein is negatively regulated by the sliding clamp of the E. coli chromosomal replicase. Cell 94:6171.
44. Katayama, T.,, and K. Sekimizu. 1999. Inactivation of Escherichia coli DnaA protein by DNA polymerase III and negative regulations for initiation of chromosomal replication. Biochimie 81:835840.
45. Katayama, T.,, K. Fujimitsu,, and T. Ogawa. 2001. Multiple pathways regulating DnaA function in Escherichia coli: distinct role for DnaA titration by the datA locus and the regulatory inactivation of DnaA. Biochimie 83:1317.
46. Katayama, T. 2001. Feedback controls restrain the initiation of Escherichia coli chromosomal replication. Mol. Microbiol. 41:917.
47. Kato, J.,, and T. Katayama. 2001. Hda, a novel DnaA-related protein, regulates the replication cycle in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 20:42534262.
48. Kitagawa, R.,, H. Mitsuki,, T. Okazaki,, and T. Ogawa. 1996. A novel DnaA protein-binding site at 94.7 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome. Mol. Microbiol. 19:11371147.
49. Kitagawa, R.,, T. Ozaki,, S. Moriya,, and T. Ogawa. 1998. Negative control of replication initiation by a novel chromosomal locus exhibiting exceptional affinity for Escherichia coli DnaA protein. Genes Dev. 12:30323043.
50. Kitchen, J. L.,, Z. Li,, and E. Crooke. 1999. Electrostatic interactions during acidic phospholipid reactivation of DnaA protein, the Escherichia coli initiator of chromosomal replication. Biochemistry 38:62136221.
51. Kogoma, T.,, and K. von Meyenburg. 1983. The origin of replication, oriC, and the dnaA protein are dispensable in stable DNA replication (sdrA) mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. EMBO J. 2:463468.
52. Kornberg, A.,, and T. A. Baker. 1992. DNA Replication, 2nd ed. W. H. Freeman & Co., New York, N.Y.
53. Kubota, T.,, T. Katayama,, Y. Ito,, T. Mizushima,, and K. Sekimizu. 1997. Conformational transition of DnaA protein by ATP: structural analysis of DnaA protein, the initiator of Escherichia coli chromosome replication. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 232:130135.
54. Kucherer, C.,, H. Lother,, R. Kolling,, M. A. Schauzu,, and W. Messer. 1986. Regulation of transcription of the chromosomal dnaA gene of Escherichia coli. Mol. Gen. Genet. 205:115121.
55. Kurokawa, K.,, T. Mizushima,, T. Kubota,, T. Tsuchiya,, T. Katayama,, and K. Sekimizu. 1998. A stimulation factor for hydrolysis of ATP bound to DnaA protein, the initiator of chromosomal DNA replication in Escherichia coli. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 243:9095.
56. Kurokawa, K.,, S. Nishida,, A. Emoto,, K. Sekimizu,, and T. Katayama. 1999. Replication cycle-coordinated change of the adenine nucleotide-bound forms of DnaA protein in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 18:66426652.
57. Langer, U.,, S. Richter,, A. Roth,, C. Weigel,, and W. Messer. 1996. A comprehensive set of DnaA-box mutations in the replication origin, oriC, of Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 21:301311.
58. Lee, H.,, H. K. Kim,, S. Kang,, C. B. Hong,, J. Yim,, and D. S. Hwang. 2001. Expression of the seqA gene is negatively modulated by the HU protein in Escherichia coli. Mol Gen. Genet. 264:931935.
59. Lee, H.,, S. Kang,, S. H. Bae,, B. S. Choi,, and D. S. Hwang. 2001. SeqA protein aggregation is necessary for SeqA function. J. Biol. Chem. 276:3460034606.
60. Lu, M.,, J. L. Campbell,, E. Boye,, and N. Kleckner. 1994. SeqA: a negative modulator of replication initiation in E. coli. Cell 77:413426.
61. Makise, M.,, S. Mima,, T. Tsuchiya,, and T. Mizushima. 2001. Molecular mechanism for functional interaction between DnaA protein and acidic phospholipids. J. Biol. Chem. 276:74507456.
62. Margulies, C.,, and J. M. Kaguni. 1998. The FIS protein fails to block the binding of DnaA protein to oriC, the Escherichia coli chromosomal origin. Nucleic Acids Res. 26:51705175.
63. Marians, K. J. 1992. Prokaryotic DNA replication. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 61:673719.
64. Marszalek, J.,, and J. M. Kaguni. 1994. DnaA protein directs the binding of DnaB protein in initiation of DNA replication in Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 269:48834890.
65. Marszalek, J.,, W. Zhang,, T. R. Hupp,, C. Marguiles,, K. M. Carr,, S. Cherry,, and J. M. Kaguni. 1996. Domains of DnaA protein involved in interaction with DnaB protein, and in unwinding the Escherichia coli chromosomal origin. J. Biol. Chem. 271:1853518542.
66. Matsui, M.,, A. Oka,, M. Takanami,, S. Yasuda,, and Y. Hirota. 1985. Sites of dnaA protein-binding in the replication origin of Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome. J. Mol. Biol. 184:529533.
67. Messer, W.,, H. Hartmann-Kuhlein,, U. Langer,, E. Mahlow,, A. Roth,, S. Schaper,, B. Urmoneit,, and B. Woelker. 1992. The complex for replication initiation of Escherichia coli. Chromosoma 102:S1S6.
68. Messer, W.,, and C. Weigel,. 1996. Initiation of chromosome replication, p. 15791601. In F. C. Neidhardt,, R. Curtiss III,, J. L. Ingraham,, E. C. C. Lin,, K. B. Low,, B. Magasanik,, W. S. Reznikoff,, M. Riley,, M. Schaechter,, and H. E. Umbarger (ed.), Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed., vol. 2. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
69. Messer, W.,, F. Blaesing,, J. Majka,, J. Nardmann,, S. Schaper,, A. Schmidt,, H. Seitz,, C. Speck,, D. Tungler,, G. Wegrzyn,, C. Weigel,, M. Welzeck,, and J. Zakrzewska-Czerwinska. 1999 Functional domains of DnaA proteins. Biochimie 81:819825.
70. Mileykovskaya, E., and W. Dowhan. 2000. Visualization of phospholipid domains in Escherichia coli by using the cardiolipin- specific dye 10-N-nonyl acridine orange. J. Bacteriol. 182:11721175.
71. Mizushima, T.,, S. Nishida,, K. Kurokawa,, T. Katayama,, T. Miki,, and K. Sekimizu. 1997. Negative control of DNA replication by hydrolysis of ATP bound to DnaA protein, the initiator of chromosomal DNA replication in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 16:37242730.
72. Miszushima, T.,, T. Takaki,, T. Kubota,, T. Tsuchiya,, T. Miki,, T. Katayama,, and K. Sekimizu. 1998. Site-directed mutational analysis for the ATP binding of DnaA protein. Functions of two conserved amino acids (Lys-178 and Asp- 235) located in the ATP-binding domain of DnaA protein in vitro and in vivo. J. Biol. Chem. 273:2084720851.
73. Morigen, E. Boye, K. Skarstad, and A. Lobner-Olesen. 2001. Regulation of chromosomal replication by DnaA protein availability in Escherichia coli: effects of the datA region. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1521:7380.
74. Moriya, S.,, T. Fukuoka,, N. Ogasawara,, and H. Yoshikawa. 1988. Regulation of initiation of the chromosomal replication by DnaA-boxes in the origin region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. EMBO J. 7:29112917.
75. Moriya, S.,, T. Atlung,, F. G. Hansen,, H. Yoshikawa,, and N. Ogasawara. 1992. Cloning of an autonomously replicating sequence (ars) from the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. Mol. Microbiol. 6:309315.
76. Moriya, S.,, W. Firshein,, H. Yoshikawa,, and N. Ogasawara. 1994. Replication of a Bacillus subtilis oriC plasmid in vitro. Mol. Microbiol. 12:469478.
77. Moriya, S.,, and N. Ogasawara. 1996. Mapping of the replication origin of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome by the two-dimensional gel method. Gene 176:8184.
78. Neuwald, A. F.,, L. Aravind,, J. L. Spouge,, and E. V. Koonin. 1999. AAAþ: a class of chaperone-like ATPases associated with the assembly, operation, and disassembly of protein complexes. Genome Res. 9:2743.
79. Newman, G.,, and E. Crooke. 2000. DnaA, the initiator of Escherichia coli chromosomal replication, is located at the cell membrane. J. Bacteriol. 182:26042610.
80. Niki, H.,, and S. Hiraga. 1998. Polar localization of the replication origin and terminus in Escherichia coli nucleoids during chromosome partitioning. Genes Dev. 12:10361045.
81. Niki, H.,, Y. Yamaichi,, and S. Hiraga. 2001. Dynamic organization of chromosomal DNA in Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 14:212223.
82. Ogasawara, N.,, S. Moriya,, K. von Meyenburg,, F. G. Hansen,, and H. Yoshikawa. 1985. Conservation of genes and their organization in the chromosomal replication origin region of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 4:33453350.
83. Ogura, Y.,, Y. Imai,, N. Ogasawara,, and S. Moriya. 2001. Autoregulation of the dnaA-dnaN operon and effects of DnaA protein levels on replication initiation in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 183:38333841.
84. Oka, A.,, K. Sugimoto,, M. Takanami,, and Y. Hirota. 1980. Replication origin of the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome: the size and structure of the minimum DNA segment carrying the information for autonomous replication. Mol. Gen. Genet. 178:920.
85. Polaczek, P.,, and A. Wright. 1990. Regulation of expression of the dnaA gene in Escherichia coli: role of the two promoters and the DnaA box. New Biol. 2:574582.
86. Qin, M.-H.,, M. V. V. S. Madiraju,, S. Zachariah,, and M. Rajagopalan. 1997. Characterization of the oriC region of Mycobacterium smegmatis. J. Bacteriol. 179:63116317.
87. Roos, M.,, A. B. van Geel,, M. E. Aarsman,, J. T. Veuskens,, C. L. Woldringh,, and N. Nanninga. 1999. Cellular localization of oriC during the cell cycle of Escherichia coli as analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Biochimie 81:797802.
88. Roth, A.,, and W. Messer. 1995. The DNA binding domain of the initiator protein DnaA. EMBO J. 14:21062111.
89. Roth, A.,, and W. Messer. 1998. High-affinity binding sites for the initiator protein DnaA on the chromosome of Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 28:395401.
90. Schaper, S.,, and W. Messer. 1997. Prediction of the structure of the replication initiator protein DnaA. Proteins 28:19.
91. Schaper, S.,, J. Nardmann,, G. Luder,, R. Lurz,, C. Speck,, and W. Messer. 2000. Identification of the chromosomal replication origin from Thermus thermophilus and its interaction with the replication initiator DnaA. J. Mol. Biol. 299:655665.
92. Seitz, H.,, M. Welzeck,, and W. Messer. 2001. A hybrid bacterial replication origin. EMBO Rep. 2:10031006.
93. Sekimizu, K.,, D. Bramhill,, and A. Kornberg. 1987. ATP activates dnaA protein in initiating replication of plasmids bearing the origin of the E. coli chromosome. Cell 50:259265.
94. Sekimizu, K.,, and A. Kornberg. 1988. Cardiolipin activation of DnaA protein, the initiation protein in E. coli. J. Biol. Chem. 263:71317135.
95. Skarstad, K.,, E. Boye,, and H. B. Steen. 1986. Timing of initiation of chromosome replication in individual Escherichia coli cells. EMBO J. 5:17111717.
96. Skarstad, K.,, B. Thony,, D. S. Hwang,, and A. Kornberg. 1993. A novel binding protein of the origin of the Escherichia coli chromosome. J. Biol. Chem. 268:53655370.
97. Skarstad, K.,, and E. Boye. 1994. The initiator protein DnaA: evolution, properties and function. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1217:111130.
98. Skarstad, K.,, G. Lueder,, R. Lurz,, C. Speck,, and W. Messer. 2000. The Escherichia coli SeqA protein binds specifically and co-operatively to two sites in hemimethylated and fully methylated oriC. Mol. Microbiol. 36:13191326.
99. Skarstad, K.,, N. Torheim,, S. Wold,, R. Lurz,, W. Messer,, S. Fossum,, and T. Bach. 2001. The Escherichia coli SeqA protein binds to two sites in fully and hemimethylated oriC and has the capacity to inhibit DNA replication and effect chromosome topology. Biochimie 83:4951.
100. Slater, S.,, S. Wold,, M. Lu,, E. Boye,, K. Skarstad,, and N. Kleckner. 1995. E. coli SeqA protein binds oriC in two different methyl-modulated reactions appropriate to its roles in DNA replication initiation and origin sequestration. Cell 82:927936.
101. Speck, C.,, C. Weigel,, and W. Messer. 1999. ATP- and ADPDnaA protein, a molecular switch in gene regulation. EMBO J. 18:61696176.
102. Speck, C.,, and W. Messer. 2001. Mechanism of origin unwinding: sequential binding of DnaA to double- and singlestranded DNA. EMBO J. 20:14691476.
103. Súetsugu, M.,, H. Kawakami,, K. Kurokawa,, T. Kubota,, M. Takata,, and T. Katayama. 2001. DNA replication-coupled inactivation of DnaA protein in vitro: a role for DnaA arginine- 334 of the AAAþBox VIII motif in ATP hydrolysis. Mol. Microbiol. 40:376386.
104. Sutton, M. D.,, and J. M. Kaguni. 1997. The Escherichia coli dnaA gene: four functional domains. J. Mol. Biol. 274:546561.
105. Sutton, M. D.,, and J. M. Kaguni. 1997. Threonine 435 of Escherichia coli DnaA protein confers sequence-specific DNA binding activity. J. Biol. Chem. 272:4882451319.
106. Sutton, M. D.,, K. M. Carr,, M. Vicente,, and J. M. Kaguni. 1998. Escherichia coli DnaA protein: the N-terminal domain and loading of DnaB helicase at the E. coli chromosomal origin. J. Biol. Chem. 273:3425534262.
107. Taghbalout, A.,, A. Landoulsi,, R. Kern,, M. Yamazoe,, S. Hiraga,, B. Holland,, M. Kohiyama,, and A. Malki. 2000. Competition between the replication initiator DnaA and the sequestration factor SeqA for binding to the hemimethylated chromosomal origin of E. coli in vitro. Genes Cells 5:873884.
108. Takata, M.,, L. Guo,, T. Katayama,, M. Hase,, Y. Seyama,, T. Miki,, and K. Sekimizu. 2000. Mutant DnaA proteins defective in duplex opening of oriC, the origin of chromosomal DNA replication in Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 35:454462.
109. Thony, B.,, D. S. Hwang,, L. Fradkin,, and A. Kornberg. 1991. IciA, an Escherichia coli gene encoding a specific inhibitor of chromosomal initiation of replication in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:40664070.
110. Torheim, N. K.,, and K. Skarstad. 1999. Escherichia coli SeqA protein affects DNA topology and inhibits open complex formation at oriC. EMBO J. 18:48824888.
111. Torheim, N. K.,, E. Boye,, A. Lobner-Olesen,, T. Stokke,, and K. Skarstad. 2000. The Escherichia coli SeqA protein destabilizes mutant DnaA204 protein. Mol. Microbiol. 37: 629638.
112. von Freiesleben, U.,, K. V. Rasmussen,, and M. Schaechter. 1994. SeqA limits DnaA activity in replication from oriC in Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 14:763772.
113. von Freiesleben, U.,, M. A. Krekling,, F. G. Hansen,, and A. Lobner-Olesen. 2000. The eclipse period of Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 19:62406248.
114. Wang, Q.,, and J. M. Kaguni. 1987. Transcriptional repression of the dnaA gene of Escherichia coli by dnaA protein. Mol. Gen. Genet. 209:518525.
115. Weigel, C.,, W. Messer,, S. Preiss,, M. Welzeck, Morigen, and E. Boye. 2001. The sequence requirements for a functional Escherichia coli replication origin are different for the chromosome and a minichromosome. Mol. Microbiol. 40:498507.
116. Woelker, B.,, and W. Messer. 1993. The structure of the initiation complex at the replication origin, oriC, of Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 21:2308723091.
117. Wold, S.,, E. Crooke,, and K. Skarstad. 1996. The Escherichia coli Fis protein prevents initiation of DNA replication from oriC in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 24:35273532.
118. Wold, S.,, E. Boye,, S. Slater,, N. Kleckner,, and K. Skarstad. 1998. Effects of purified SeqA protein on oriC-dependent DNA replication in vitro. EMBO J. 17:41584165.
119. Xia, W.,, and W. Dowhan. 1995. In vivo evidence for the involvement of anionic phospholipids in initiation of DNA replication in Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:783787.
120. Yasuda, S.,, and Y. Hirota. 1977. Cloning and mapping of the replication origin of Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74:54585462.
121. Yung, B. Y.,, and A. Kornberg. 1988. Membrane attachment activates dnaA protein, the initiation protein of chromosome replication in Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:72027205.
122. Zawilak, A.,, S. Cebrat,, P. Mackiewicz,, A. Krol-Hulewicz,, D. Jakimowicz,, W. Messer,, G. Gosciniak,, and J. Zakrzewska- Czerwinska. 2001. Identification of a putative chromosomal replication origin from Helicobacter pylori and its interaction with the initiator protein DnaA. Nucleic Acids Res. 29:22512259.
123. Zheng, W.,, Z. Li,, K. Skarstad,, and E. Crooke. 2001. Mutations in DnaA protein suppress the growth arrest of acidic phospholipid-deficient Escherichia coli cells. EMBO J. 20: 11641172.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error