1887

Chapter 1 : Global Burden of Tuberculosis: Past, Present, and Future

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Global Burden of Tuberculosis: Past, Present, and Future, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817657/9781555812959_Chap01-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817657/9781555812959_Chap01-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter summarizes the current understanding of the global epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB), including regional estimates and trends in the burden of morbidity and mortality, and details the main recent events and persisting obstacles towards improving control in the coming decade. The explosive epidemic of HIV among intravenous drug users (IVDUs) deserves special attention because there are epidemiological links between drug use and TB. First, being an IVDU seems to be a strong risk factor for becoming infected with TB, regardless of HIV status. Second, the rate of imprisonment among IVDUs is high, and this carries its own risks of institutionally transmitted TB. Direct observation of therapy (DOT), one of the core elements of directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS), is intended to reduce the default rate and minimize the risk of acquired drug resistance due to selective noncompliance with one or more of the different drugs. TB control programs can and should have a special place in HIV care provision, because of the strong epidemiological link between the two diseases and the high prevalence of HIV infection among TB patients. Even today, many African TB patients will not have any discussion about HIV with their health care providers, on the grounds that providing sufficient counseling is impractical. The principal research challenge, however, will be to identify new strategies that are capable of regaining control and reducing mortality from TB in areas with high HIV prevalence.

Citation: Corbett L, Raviglione M. 2005. Global Burden of Tuberculosis: Past, Present, and Future, p 3-12. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch1

Key Concept Ranking

Infectious Diseases
0.7606594
Antiretroviral Therapy
0.5459969
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
0.53846157
Tuberculosis
0.5
Risk Management
0.41895255
0.7606594
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

DOTS and trends in pulmonary TB case notifications in Peru. DOTS was implemented in Peru in 1990 and is now performed countrywide. After an initial peak of case notifications attributable to increased case detection, there has been a progressive decrease in case notifications that is likely to reflect decreasing TB transmission rates secondary to reduction in the prevalence of infectious TB (58). From reference 21 with permission.

Citation: Corbett L, Raviglione M. 2005. Global Burden of Tuberculosis: Past, Present, and Future, p 3-12. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Number of new TB cases in each of the 22 high-burden countries at the start of 2000. Numbers are estimated from case notifications and estimated case detection rates in each country (67).

Citation: Corbett L, Raviglione M. 2005. Global Burden of Tuberculosis: Past, Present, and Future, p 3-12. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Time trends in TB case notification numbers and rates in the United States from 1991 to 2001 according to place of birth. Bars show the number of case notifications among U.S. born (cross-hatched bars) and foreign-born (grey bars) residents. Lines show the corresponding case notification rates per 100,000 population. The number of case notifications and case notification rates among U.S.-born residents has declined progressively during the last decade, whereas disease among foreign-born residents has changed relatively little (CDC, 2002: http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/surv/surv2001/default.htm). For 2001, case notification rates were 3.1 and 26.6 per 100,000 population for U.S.-born and foreign-born residents, respectively.

Citation: Corbett L, Raviglione M. 2005. Global Burden of Tuberculosis: Past, Present, and Future, p 3-12. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Rate of progress toward the 70% global case detection target for smear-positive TB. Black points mark the number of smear-positive cases notified under DOTS from 1994 to 2000, expressed as a percentage of all estimated smear-positive cases for each year. Projected lines show the rate at which case detection under DOTS would have to increase from 2000 to meet the 2005 targets of 70% global case detection (solid line). There has been a steady increase in the rate of case detection under DOTS, but at the current rate of progress targets will not be met until the year 2013 (dashed line). The estimate for 2001 (white point) is more compatible with the 2013 than the 2005 projection, however, and the overall rate of case detection under any strategy (grey points) appears to be leveling off at about 40%. From reference 68a with permission.

Citation: Corbett L, Raviglione M. 2005. Global Burden of Tuberculosis: Past, Present, and Future, p 3-12. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817657.chap1
1. Ackah, A. N.,, D. Coulibaly,, H. Digbeu,, K. Diallo,, K. M. Vetter,, I. M. Coulibaly,, A. E. Greenberg,, and K. M. De Cock. 1995. Response to treatment, mortality, and CD4 lymphocyte counts in HIV-infected persons with tuberculosis in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire. Lancet 345:607610.
2. Ansari, N. A.,, A. H. Kombe,, T. A. Kenyon,, N. M. Hone,, J. W. Tappero,, S. T. Nyirenda,, N. J. Binkin,, and S. B. Lucas. 2002. Pathology and causes of death in a group of 128 predominantly HIV-positive patients in Botswana, 1997-1998. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 6:5563.
3. Badri, M.,, D. Wilson,, and R. Wood. 2002. Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on incidence of tuberculosis in South Africa: a cohort study. Lancet 359:20592064.
4. Broekmans, J. F.,, G. B. Migliori,, H. L. Rieder,, J. Lees,, P. Ruutu,, R. Loddenkemper,, and M. C. Raviglione. 2002. European framework for tuberculosis control and elimination in countries with a low incidence. Recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) and Royal Netherlands Tuberculosis Association (KNCV) Working Group. Eur. Respir. J. 19:765775.
5. Brudney, K.,, and J. Dobkin. 1991. Resurgent tuberculosis in New York City. Human immunodeficiency virus, homelessness, and the decline of tuberculosis control programs. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 144:745749.
6. Bucher, H. C.,, L. E. Griffith,, G. H. Guyatt,, P. Sudre,, M. Naef,, P. Sendi,, and M. Battegay. 1999. Isoniazid prophylaxis for tuberculosis in HIV infection: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. AIDS 13:501507.
7.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1991. Nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among HIV-infected persons—Florida and New York, 1988-1991. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 40:585591.
8. Churchyard, G. J.,, E. L. Corbett,, I. Kleinschmidt,, D. Mulder,, and K. M. De Cock. 2000. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in South African gold miners: incidence and associated factors. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung. Dis. 4:433440.
9. Coninx, R.,, D. Maher,, H. Reyes,, and M. Grzemska. 2000. Tuberculosis in prisons in countries with high prevalence. Br. Med. J. 320:440442.
10. Conti, S.,, M. Masocco,, P. Pezzotti,, V. Toccaceli,, M. Vichi,, S. Boros,, R. Urciuoli,, C. Valdarchi,, and G. Rezza. 2000. Differential impact of combined antiretroviral therapy on the survival of Italian patients with specific AIDS-defining illnesses. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 25:451458.
11. Corbett, E. L.,, G. J. Churchyard,, S. Charalambous,, B. Samb,, V. Moloi,, T. C. Clayton,, A. D. Grant,, J. Murray,, R. J. Hayes,, and K. M. De Cock. 2002. Morbidity and mortality in South African gold miners: impact of untreated HIV infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:12511258.
12. Corbett, E. L.,, R. W. Steketee,, F. O. ter Kuile,, A. S. Latif,, A. Kamali,, and R. J. Hayes. 2002. HIV-1/AIDS and the control of other infectious diseases in Africa. Lancet 359:21772187.
13. Corbett, E. L.,, C. J. Watt,, N. Walker,, D. Maher,, S. Lazzari,, B. G. Williams,, M. C. Raviglione,, and C. Dye. 2003. The growing burden of tuberculosis: global trends and interactions with the HIV epidemic. Arch. Intern. Med. 163:10091021.
14. Dean, G. L.,, S. G. Edwards,, N. J. Ives,, G. Matthews,, E. F. Fox,, L. Navaratne,, M. Fisher,, G. P. Taylor,, R. Miller,, C. B. Taylor,, A. de Ruiter,, and A. L. Pozniak. 2002. Treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected persons in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 16:7583.
15. De Cock, K. M.,, B. Soro,, I. M. Coulibaly,, and S. B. Lucas. 1992. Tuberculosis and HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. JAMA 268:15811587.
16. De Cock, K. M.,, and R. E. Chaisson. 1999. Will DOTS do it? A reappraisal of tuberculosis control in countries with high rates of HIV infection. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 3:457465.
17. De Cock, K. M.,, D. Mbori-Ngacha,, and E. Marum. 2002. Shadow on the continent: public health and HIV/AIDS in Africa in the 21st century. Lancet 360:6772.
18. Dehne, K. L.,, V. Pokrovskiy,, Y. Kobyshcha,, and B. Schwartlander. 2000. Update on the epidemics of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union. AIDS 14(Suppl. 3):S75S84.
19. Dye, C.,, S. Scheele,, P. Dolin,, V. Pathania,, and M. C. Raviglione. 1999. Global burden of tuberculosis: estimated incidence, prevalence, and mortality by country. JAMA 282:677686.
20. Dye, C.,, F. Zhao,, S. Scheele,, and B. G. Williams. 2000. Evaluating the impact of tuberculosis control: number of deaths prevented by short-course chemotherapy in China. Int. J. Epidemiol. 29:564.
21. Dye, C.,, C. J. Watt,, and D. Bleed. 2002. Low access to a highly effective therapy: a challenge for international tuberculosis control. Bull W. H. O. 80:437444.
22. Espinal, M. A.,, S. J. Kim,, P. G. Suarez,, K. M. Kam,, A. G. Khomenko,, G. B. Migliori,, J. Baez,, A. Kochi,, C. Dye,, and M. C. Raviglione. 2000. Standard short-course chemotherapy for drug-resistant tuberculosis: treatment outcomes in 6 countries. JAMA 283:25372545.
23. Espinal, M. A.,, A. Laszlo,, L. Simonsen,, F. Boulahbal,, S. J. Kim,, A. Reniero,, S. Hoffner,, H. L. Rieder,, N. Binkin,, C. Dye,, R. Williams,, and M. C. Raviglione. 2001. Global trends in resistance to antituberculosis drugs. World Health Organization— International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Working Group on Antituberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance. N. Engl. J. Med. 344:12941303.
24. Ferreira, M.M.,, L. Ferrazoli,, M. Palaci,, P. S. Salles,, L. A. Medeiros,, P. Novoa,, C. R. Kiefer,, M. Schechtmann,, A. L. Kritski,, W. D. Johnson,, L. W. Riley,, and J. O. Ferreira. 1996. Tuberculosis and HIV infection among female inmates in Sao Paulo, Brazil: a prospective cohort study. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 13:177183.
25. Frieden, T. R.,, T. Sterling,, A. Pablos-Mendez,, J. O. Kilburn,, G. M. Cauthen,, and S. W. Dooley. 1993. The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis in New York City. N. Engl. J. Med. 328:521526.
26. Frieden, T. R.,, P. I. Fujiwara,, R. M. Washko,, and M. A. Hamburg. 1995. Tuberculosis in New York City—turning the tide. N. Engl. J. Med. 333:229233.
27. Girardi, E.,, G. Antonucci,, P. Vanacore,, M. Libanore,, I. Errante,, A. Mattelli,, G. Ippolito, and Gruppo Italiano di Studio Tuberculosi e AIDS (GISTA). 2000. Impact of combination antiretroviral therapy on the risk of tuberculosis among persons with HIV infection. AIDS 14:19851991.
28. Godfrey-Faussett, P.,, D. Maher,, Y. D. Mukadi,, P. Nunn,, J. Perriens,, and M. Raviglione. 2002. How human immunodeficiency virus voluntary testing can contribute to tuberculosis control. Bull. W. H. O. 80:939945.
29. Grzybowski, S.,, and D. A. Enarson. 1978. The fate of pulmonary tuberculosis under various treatment programmes. Bull. Int. Union Tuberc. 53:7075.
30. Gupta, R.,, J. P. Cegielski,, M. A. Espinal,, M. Henkens,, J. Y. Kim,, C. S. Lambregts-Van Weezenbeek,, J. W. Lee,, M. C. Raviglione,, P. G. Suarez,, and F. Varaine. 2002. Increasing transparency in partnerships for health—introducing the Green Light Committee. Trop. Med. Int. Health 7:970976.
31. Harries A. D.,, D. Maher,, and P. Nunn. 1997. Practical and affordable measures for the protection of health care workers from tuberculosis in low-income countries. Bull. W. H. O. 75:477489.
32.Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. 2000. Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic. UNAIDS/00.13E. United Nations, New York, N.Y.
33. Jones, J. L.,, D. L. Hanson,, M. S. Dworkin,, K. M. De Cock, and The Adult/Adolescent Spectrum of HIV Disease Group. 2000. HIV associated TB in the era of HAART. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 4:10261031.
34. Kenyon, T. A.,, M. J. Mwasekaga,, R. Huebner,, D. Rumisha,, N. Binkin,, and E. Maganu. 1999. Low levels of drug resistance amidst rapidly increasing tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-epidemics in Botswana. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 3:411.
35. Khatri, G. R.,, and T. R. Frieden. 2002. Controlling tuberculosis in India. N. Engl. J. Med. 347:14201425.
36. Lucas, S. B.,, A. Hounnou,, C. Peacock,, A. Beaumel,, G. Djomand,, J. M. N’Gbichi,, K. Yeboue,, M. Honde,, M. Diomande,, C. Giordano,, R. Doorly,, K. Brattegaard,, L. Kestens,, R. W. Smithwick,, A. Kadio,, N. Ezani,, A. Yapi,, and K. M. De Cock. 1993. The mortality and pathology of HIV infection in a west African city. AIDS 7:15691579.
37. Maher, D.,, J. L. van Gorkom,, P. C. Gondrie,, and M. Raviglione. 1999. Community contribution to tuberculosis care in countries with high tuberculosis prevalence: past, present and future. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 3:762768.
38. McKenna, M. T.,, E. McCray,, and I. Onorato. 1995. The epidemiology of tuberculosis among foreign-born persons in the United States, 1986-1993. N. Engl. J. Med. 332:10711076.
39. Migliori, G. B.,, M. Espinal,, I. D. Danilova,, V. V. Punga,, M. Grzemska,, and M. C. Raviglione. 2002. Frequency of recurrence among MDR-tB cases “successfully” treated with standardised short-course chemotherapy. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 6:858864.
40.Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China. 2002. Report on Nationwide Random Survey for the Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in 2000. Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing, China.
41. Moss, A. R.,, J. A. Hahn,, J. P. Tulsky,, C. L. Daley,, P. M. Small,, and P. C. Hopewell. 2000. Tuberculosis in the homeless. A prospective study. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 162:460464.
42. Murray, C. J.,, K. Styblo,, and A. Rouillon. 1990. Tuberculosis in developing countries: burden, intervention and cost. Bull. Int. Union Tuberc. Lung Dis. 65:624.
43. Murthy, K. J.,, T. R. Frieden,, A. Yazdani,, and P. Hreshikesh. 2001. Public-private partnership in tuberculosis control: experience in Hyderabad, India. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 5:354359.
44. Nunn, P.,, A. Harries,, P. Godfrey-Faussett,, R. Gupta,, D. Maher,, and M. Raviglione. 2002. The research agenda for improving health policy, systems performance, and service delivery for tuberculosis control: a WHO perspective. Bull. W. H. O. 80:471476.
45. Nyangulu, D. S.,, A. D. Harries,, C. Kang’ombe,, A. E. Yadidi,, K. Chokani,, T. Cullinan,, D. Maher,, P. Nunn,, and F. M. Sala- niponi. 1997. Tuberculosis in a prison population in Malawi. Lancet 350:12841287.
46. Pablos-Mendez, A.,, M. C. Raviglione,, A. Laszlo,, N. Binkin,, H. L. Rieder,, F. Bustreo,, D. L. Cohn,, W. C. Lambregts-van Weezenbeck,, S. J. Kim,, P. Chaulet,, and P. Nunn. 1998. Global surveillance for antituberculosis-drug resistance, 1994-1997. World Health Organization—International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Working Group on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance. N. Engl. J. Med. 338:16411649.
47. Portu, J. J.,, M. Aldamiz-Etxebarria,, J. M. Agud,, J. M. Arevalo,, M. J. Almaraz,, and C. Ayensa. 2002. Tuberculin skin testing in intravenous drug users: differences between HIVseropositive and HIV-seronegative subjects. Addict. Biol. 7:235241.
48. Rana, F. S.,, M. P. Hawken,, C. Mwachari,, S. M. Bhatt,, F. Abdullah,, L. W. Ng’ang’a,, C. Power,, W. A. Githui,, J. D. Porter,, and S. B. Lucas. 2000. Autopsy study of HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative adult medical patients in Nairobi, Kenya. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 24:2329.
49. Raviglione, M. C.,, P. Sudre,, H. L. Rieder,, S. Spinaci,, and A. Kochi. 1993. Secular trends of tuberculosis in western Europe. Bull. W. H. O. 71:297306.
50. Raviglione, M. C.,, H. L. Rieder,, K. Styblo,, A. G. Khomenko,, K. Esteves,, and A. Kochi. 1994. Tuberculosis trends in eastern Europe and the former USSR. Tubercle Lung Dis. 75:400416.
51. Raviglione, M. C.,, C. Dye,, S. Schmidt,, and A. Kochi. 1997. Assessment of worldwide tuberculosis control. WHO Global Surveillance and Monitoring Project. Lancet 350: 624629.
52. Raviglione, M. C.,, and A. Pio. 2002. Evolution of WHO policies for tuberculosis control, 1948-2001. Lancet 359:775780.
53. Rieder, H. L.,, G. M. Cauthen,, G. W. Comstock,, D. E. Snider, Jr. 1989. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in the United States. Epidemiol. Rev. 11:7998.
54. Rose, A. M.,, J. M. Watson,, C. Graham,, A. J. Nunn,, F. Drobniewski,, L. P. Ormerod,, J. H. Darbyshire,, and J. Leese. 2001. Tuberculosis at the end of the 20th century in England and Wales: results of a national survey in 1998. Thorax 56:173179.
55. Selwyn, P. A.,, D. Hartel,, V. A. Lewis,, E. E. Schoenbaum,, S. H. Vermund,, R. S. Klein,, A. T. Walker,, and G. H. Friedland. 1989. A prospective study of the risk of tuberculosis among intravenous drug users with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 320:545550.
56. Shilova, M. V.,, and C. Dye. 2001. The resurgence of tuberculosis in Russia. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London B Ser. 356: 10691075.
57. Styblo, K.,, and A. Rouillon. 1981. Estimated global incidence of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Unreliability of officially reported figures on tuberculosis. Bull. Int. Union Tuberc. 56:118126.
58. Suarez, P.,, C. J. Watt,, E. Alarcon,, J. Portocarrero,, D. Zavala,, R. Canales,, F. Luelmo,, M. A. Espinal,, and C. Dye. 2001. The dynamics of tuberculosis in response to 10 years of intensive control effort in Peru. J. Infect. Dis. 184:473478.
59. Suarez, P. G.,, K. Floyd,, J. Portocarrero,, E. Alarcon,, E. Rapiti,, G. Ramos,, C. Bonilla,, I. Sabogal,, I. Aranda,, C. Dye,, M. Raviglione,, and M. A. Espinal. 2002. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of standardised second-line drug treatment for chronic tuberculosis patients: a national cohort study in Peru. Lancet 359:19801989.
60.Tuberculosis Research Centre CCI. 2001. Trends in the prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis in South India. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 5:142157.
61. Tupasi, T. E.,, S. Radhakrishna,, A. B. Rivera,, M. L. Pascual,, M. I. Quelapio,, V. M. Co,, M. L. A. Villa,, G. Beltran,, J. D. Legaspi,, N. V. Mangubat,, J. N. Sarol,, A. C. Reyes,, A. Sarmiento,, M. Solon,, F. S. Solon,, and M. J. Mantala. 1999. The 1997 nationwide tuberculosis prevalence survey in the Philippines. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 3:471477.
62. Uplekar, M.,, S. Juvekar,, S. Morankar,, S. Rangan,, and P. Nunn. 1998. Tuberculosis patients and practitioners in private clinics in India. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 2:324329.
63. Wiktor, S. Z.,, M. M. Sassan,, A. D. Grant,, L. Abouya,, J. M. Karon,, C. Maurice,, G. Djomand,, A. Ackah,, K. Domoua,, A. Kadio,, A. Yapi,, P. Combe,, O. Tossou,, T. H. Roels,, E. M. Lackritz,, D. Coulibaly,, K. M. De Cock,, I. M. Coulibaly,, and A. E. Greenberg. 1999. Efficacy of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole prophylaxis to decrease morbidity and mortality in HIV-1-infected patients with tuberculosis in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 353:14691475.
64. Wilkinson, D. 1994. High-compliance tuberculosis treatment programme in a rural community. Lancet 343:647648.
65.World Bank. 1993. World Development Report 1993. Investing in Health. World Bank, Washington, D.C.
66.World Health Organization, UNAIDS. 1999. Preventive therapy against tuberculosis in people living with HIV. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 74:385398.
67.World Health Organization. 2002. Global Tuberculosis Control: Surveillance, Planning, Financing. WHO/TB/2002.287. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
68.World Health Organization. 2002. Strategic Framework to Decrease the Burden of TB/HIV. WHO/CDS/TB/2002.296, WHO/HIV-AIDS/2002.2. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
68a..World Health Organization. 2002. Global Tuberculosis Control: Surveillance, Planning, Financing. WHO Report 2002. WHO/TB/2002.295. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
69.World Health Organization. 2003. Global Tuberculosis Control: Surveillance, Planning, Financing. WHO/TB/2003.316. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
70. Ya Diul, M.,, D. Maher,, and A. Harries. 2001. Tuberculosis case fatality rates in high HIV prevalence populations in sub- Saharan Africa. AIDS 15:143152.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

WHO TB control strategies

Citation: Corbett L, Raviglione M. 2005. Global Burden of Tuberculosis: Past, Present, and Future, p 3-12. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 2

Regional trends, burdens of morbidity and mortality, and associations with HIV infection at the start of 2000

Citation: Corbett L, Raviglione M. 2005. Global Burden of Tuberculosis: Past, Present, and Future, p 3-12. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch1

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error