1887

Chapter 7 : Global Impact of Multidrug Resistance

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Global Impact of Multidrug Resistance, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817657/9781555812959_Chap07-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817657/9781555812959_Chap07-2.gif

Abstract:

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by strains of resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin. This chapter assesses the global impact of MDR-TB from the dual perspective of high-income and resource-limited countries. It also addresses the laboratory services needed for diagnosis and management strategies and discusses the future of MDR-TB. MDR-TB has been the focus of international attention since the late 1980s and early 1990s, when several outbreaks were reported in the industrialized world. The British TB Association conducted a study in 1960 to 1961 to assess the magnitude of acquired drug resistance in 38 chest clinics. This study estimated that there were 3,500 patients in Great Britain excreting drug-resistant bacilli and at least 1,800 patients with bacilli resistant to the three standard drugs of the time. It is now clear that in high-income countries, the majority of drug resistance and MDR-TB is occurring in foreign-born individuals. The majority of studies in resource-limited countries before the 1990s were not able to shed much light on the magnitude of the problem. A study of 70 patients identified as having MDR-TB showed that after careful rereview of medical and laboratory records, pulmonary MDR-TB had been misdiagnosed in 9 (13%) of them. This study underscores the fact that susceptibility test results alone are not sufficient to dictate the initiation of treatment for drug-resistant TB, and that careful clinical correlation is necessary in making the diagnosis of MDR-TB.

Citation: Espinal M, Salfinger M. 2005. Global Impact of Multidrug Resistance, p 99-114. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch7

Key Concept Ranking

Chronic Carriers
0.5217391
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
0.50795656
Point Mutation
0.49683014
Tuberculosis
0.45815688
0.5217391
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Correlation of MDR and resistance to any drug among new TB cases. The magnitude of MDR-TB strains correlates with the magnitude of TB strains with resistance to at least one drug. The majority of countries show low prevalence of both MDR-TB and TB resistant to at least one drug, with the exception of countries in Eastern Europe and other areas ( ).

Citation: Espinal M, Salfinger M. 2005. Global Impact of Multidrug Resistance, p 99-114. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817657.chap7
1. Adegbola, R. A.,, P. Hill,, I. Baldeh,, J. Otu,, R. Sarr,, J. Sillah,, C. Lienhardt,, T. Corrah,, K. Manneh,, F. Drobniewski,, and K. P. W. McAdam. 2003. Surveillance of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in The Gambia. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 7:306311.
2. Agerton, T. B.,, S. E. Valway,, R. J. Blinkhorn,, K. L. Shilkret,, R. Reves,, W. W. Schluter,, B. Gore,, C. J. Pozsik,, B. B. Plikaytis,, C. Woodley,, and I. M. Onorato. 1999. Spread of strain W, a highly drug-resistant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, across the United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:8592.
3. Armstrong, A. R. 1966. The prevalence in Canada of drug resistant tubercle bacilli in newly discovered untreated patients with tuberculosis. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 94:420425.
4. Bifani, P. J.,, B. Mathema,, N. E. Kurepina,, and B. Kreiswirth. 2002. Global dissemination of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis W-Beijing family strains. Trends Microbiol. 10:4552.
5. Bloch, A. B.,, G. M. Cauthen,, I. M. Onorato,, K. G. Dansbury,, G. D. Kelly,, C. R. Driver,, and D. E. Snider. 1994. Nationwide survey of drug-resistant tuberculosis in the United States. JAMA 271:665671.
6. Blower, S. M.,, and J. L. G. Gerberding. 1998. Understanding, predicting and controlling the emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis: a theoretical framework. J. Mol. Med. 76:624636.
7. Boulahbal, F.,, S. Khaled,, and M. Tazir. 1989. The interest of follow-up of resistance of the tubercle bacillus in the evaluation of a programme. Bull. IUATLD 64:2325.
8. Bouvet, E. 1993. Transmission nosocomiale de tuberculose multirésistante parmi les patients infectés par le VIH. Bull. Epidémiol. Hebdom. 45:195197.
9. Brennan, P. J.,, and H. Nikaido. 1995. The envelope of mycobacteria. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64:2963.
10. Bretzel, G.,, M. Aziz,, U. Wendl-Richter,, F. Adatu,, T. Aisu,, A. van Wijnen,, and V. Sticht-Groh. 1999. Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance surveillance in Uganda 1996-1997. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 3:810815.
11.British Tuberculosis Association. 1963. Acquired drug-resistance in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Great Britain—a national survey, 1960-61. Tubercle (London) 44:126.
12. Burman, W. J.,, and R. R. Reves. 2000. Review of false-positive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and recommendations for avoiding unnecessary treatment. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31:13901395.
13.Buzingo T., M. Sanders, J.-P. Masabo, S. Nyandwi, and A. Van Deun. 2003. Systematic restaining of sputum smears for quality control is useful in Burundi. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 7:439444.
13.a. Canadian Tuberculosis Laboratory Surveillance System. 2003. Tuberculosis: Drug Resistance in Canada, p. 123. Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
14. Canetti, G.,, S. Froman,, J. Grosset,, P. Hauduroy,, M. Langerová,, H. T. Mahler,, G. Meissner,, D. A. Mitchison,, and L. Sula. 1963. Mycobacteria: laboratory methods for testing drug sensitivity and resistance. Bull. W. H. O. 29: 565578.
15.Canetti G., W. Fox, A. Khomenko, H. T. Mahler, N. K. Menon, D. A. Mitchison, N. Rist, and N. A. Smelev. 1969. Advances in techniques of testing mycobacterial drug sensitivity, and the use of sensitivity tests in tuberculosis control programs. Bull. W. H. O. 41:2143.
16. Canetti, G. 1955. The tubercle bacillus in the pulmonary tuberculous lesion, p. 2985. In G. Canetti (ed.), The Tubercle Bacillus. Springer Publishing Co., New York, N.Y..
17. Canetti, G.,, N. Rist,, and J. Grosset. 1964. Primary drug resistance in tuberculosis. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 90:792802.
18. Canetti, G.,, P. H. Gay,, and M. Le Lirzin. 1972. Trends in the prevalence of primary drug resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis in France from 1962 to 1979: a national survey. Tubercle 53:5783.
19.Centers for Disease Control. 1980. Primary resistance to antituberculosis drugs—United States. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 29:345346.
20.Centers for Disease Control. 1983. Primary resistance to antituberculosis drugs—United States. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. ep. 32:521523.
21.Centers for Disease Control. 1992. Transmission of multidrug- resistant TB among immuno-compromised persons in a correctional system—New York, 1991. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 41:507509.
22..Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2001. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga. .
23. Chonde, T. M. 1989. The role of bacteriological services in the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme in Tanzania. Bull. Int. Union. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 64:3739.
24. Cohen, T.,, B. Sommers,, and M. Murray. 2003. The effect of drug resistance on the fitness of Mycobacterium turberculosis. Lancet Infect. Dis. 3:1321.
25. Cohn, D.,, F. Bustreo,, and M. C. Raviglione. 1997. Drug resistant tuberculosis: review of the worldwide situation. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24:s121s130.
26. Cole, S. T.,, R. Brosch,, J. Parkhill,, T. Garnier,, C. Churcher,, D. Harris,, S. V. Gordon,, K. Eiglmeier,, S. Gas,, C. E. Barry III,, F. Tekaia,, K. Badcock,, D. Basham,, D. Brown,, T. Chillingworth,, R. Conner,, R. Davies,, K. Devlin,, T. Feltwell,, S. Gentles,, N. Hamlin,, S. Holroyd,, T. Hornsby,, K. Jagels,, A. Krogh,, J. McLean,, S. Moule,, L. Murphy,, K. Oliver,, J. Osborne,, M. A. Quail,, M.-A. Rajandream,, J. Rogers,, S. Rutter,, K. Seeger,, J. Skelton,, R. Squares,, S. Squares,, J. E. Sulston,, K. Taylor,, S. Whitehead,, and B. G. Barrell. 1998. Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the complete genome sequence. Nature 393:537544.
27. Corbett, E. L.,, C. J. Watt,, N. Walker,, D. Maher,, B. G. Williams,, M. C. Raviglione,, and C. Dye. 2003. The growing burden of tuberculosis—global trends and interactions with the HIV epidemic. Arch. Intern. Med. 163:10091021.
28. David, H. L. 1970. Probability distribution of drug-resistant mutants of unselected population of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 20:810814.
29. Dawson, D.,, D. F. Cheah,, W. K. Chew,, F. C. Havekort,, R. Lumb,, and A. S. Sievers. 1995. Tuberculosis in Australia, 1989-1992: bacteriology confirmed cases and drug resistance. Med. J. Aust. 62:287290.
30. Djuretic, T.,, J. Herbert,, F. Drobniewski,, M. Yates,, E. G. Smith,, J. G. Magee,, R. Williams,, P. Flanagan,, B. Watt,, A. Rayner,, M. Crowe,, M. V. Chadwick,, A. M. Middleton,, and J. M. Watson. 2002. Antibiotic resistant tuberculosis in the United Kingdom: 1993-1999. Thorax 57:477482.
31. Doster, B.,, G. J. Caras,, and D. E. Snider. 1976. A continuing survey of primary drug resistance in tuberculosis, 1961 to 1968. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 113:419425.
32. Dosso, M.,, D. Bonard,, P. Msellati,, A. Bamba,, C. Doulhourou,, V. Vincent,, M. Peyre,, M. Traore,, K. Koffi,, and I. M. Coulibaly. 1999. Primary resistance to antituberculosis drugs: a national survey conducted in Côte d’Ivoire in 1995- 1996. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 3:805809.
33. Dye, C.,, and M. A. Espinal. 2001. Will tuberculosis become resistant to all antibiotics? Proc. R. Soc. London B. Ser. 268:4552.
34. Dye, C.,, M. A. Espinal,, C. J. Watt,, C. Mbiaga,, and B. G. Williams. 2002. Worldwide incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. J. Infect. Dis. 185:1197202.
35. Espinal, M. A.,, J. Báez,, G. Soriano,, V. Garcia,, A. Laszlo,, A. L. Reingold,, and S. Sanchez. 1998. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in the Dominican Republic: results of a nationwide survey. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 2:490498.
36. Espinal, M. A.,, C. Dye,, M. Raviglione,, and A. Kochi. 1999. Rational DOTS-Plus for the control of MDRTB. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 3:561563.
37. Espinal, M. A.,, S. J. Kim,, P. G. Suarez,, K. M. Kam,, A. G. Khomenko,, G. B. Migliori,, J. Baéz,, A. Kochi,, C. Dye,, and M. C. Raviglione. 2000. Standard short-course chemotherapy for drug-resistant tuberculosis: treatment outcome in 6 countries. JAMA 283:25372545.
38. Espinal, M. A.,, A. Laszlo,, L. Simonsen,, F. Boulahbal,, S. J. Kim,, A. Reniero,, S. Hoffner,, H. L. Rieder,, N. Binkin,, C. Dye,, R. Williams,, and M. C. Raviglione. 2001. Global trends in resistance to antituberculosis drugs. N. Engl. J. Med. 344:12941303.
39. Espinal, M. 2003. The global situation of MDR-TB. Tuberculosis 83:4451.
40..EuroTB and the National Coordinators for Tuberculosis Surveillance in the WHO European Region. 2003. Surveillance of Tuberculosis in Europe. Report on Tuberculosis Cases Notified in 2000, p. 5758. EuroTB/InVS, Saint-Maurice Cedex, France.
41. Farmer, P.,, J. Bayona,, M. Becerra,, J. Furin,, C. Henry,, H. Hiatt,, J. Y. Kim,, C. Mitnick,, E. Nardell,, and S. Shin. 1998. The dilemma of MDR-TB in the global era. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 2:869876.
42. Farmer, P.,, and J. Y. Kim. 1998. Community based approaches to the control of multidrug resistant tuberculosis: introducing “DOTS-Plus.” Br. Med. J. 317S:671674.
43. Fischl, M. A.,, R. B. Uttamchandani,, G. L. Daikos,, R. B. Poblete,, J. N. Moreno,, R. R. Reyes,, A. M. Boota,, L. M. Thompson,, T. J. Cleary,, and S. Lai. 1992. An outbreak of tuberculosis caused by multiple-drug resistant tubercle bacilli among patients with HIV infection. Ann. Intern. Med. 39:719722.
44. Fox, W.,, A. Wiener,, D. H. Mitchison,, J. B. Selkon,, and I. Sutherland. 1957. The prevalence of drug-resistant tubercle bacilli in untreated patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: a national survey, 1955-56. Tubercle 38:7184.
45. Fox, W.,, G. A. Ellard,, and D. A. Mitchison. 1999. Studies on the treatment of tuberculosis undertaken by the British Medical Research Council tuberculosis Units, 1946-1986, with relevant subsequent publications. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 3:S231S279.
46. Frieden, T. R.,, P. I. Fujiwara,, R. M. Washko,, and M. A. Hamburg. 1995. Tuberculosis in New York City—turning the tide. N. Engl. J. Med. 333:229233.
47. Garcia-Garcia, M.,, A. Ponce-de-Leon,, M. E. Jimenez- Corona,, A. Jimenez-Corona,, M. Palacios-Martinez,, S. Balandrano- Campos,, L. Ferreyra-Reyes,, L. Juarez-Sandino,, J. Sifuentes-Osornio,, H. Olivera-Diaz,, J. L. Valdespino- Gomez,, and P. M. Small. 2000. Clinical consequences and transmissibility of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Southern Mexico. Arch. Intern. Med. 160:630636.
48. Geerligs, W. A.,, R. van Altena,, W. C. M. de Lange,, D. van Soolingen,, and T. S. van der Werf. 2000. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: long-term treatment outcome in The Netherlands. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 4:758764.
49. Gillespie, S. H. 2002. Evolution of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: clinical and molecular perspective. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:267274.
50. Githui, W. A.,, E. S. Juma,, J. van Gorkom,, D. Kibuga,, J. Odhiambo,, and F. Drobniewski. 1998. Antituberculosis drug resistance surveillance in Kenya, 1995. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 2:499505.
51. Glynn, J. R.,, J. Whiteley,, P. J. Bifani,, K. Kremer,, and D. van Soolingen. 2001. Worldwide occurrence of Beijing/W strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a systematic review. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:843849.
52. Godfrey-Faussett, P.,, P. Sonnenberg,, S. C. Shearer,, M. C. Bruce,, C. Mee,, L. Morris,, and J. Murray. 2000. Tuberculosis control and molecular epidemiology in a South African goldmining community. Lancet 356:10661071.
53. Gupta, R.,, J. Y. Kim,, M. A. Espinal,, J. M. Caudron,, B. Pecoul,, P. E. Farmer,, and M. C. Raviglione. 2001. Responding to market failures in tuberculosis control. Science 293:10491051.
54. Gupta, R.,, J. P. Gegielski,, M. A. Espinal,, M. Henkens,, J. Y. Kim,, C. S. B. Lambregts-van Weezenbeek,, J. W. Lee,, M. C. Raviglione,, P. G. Suarez,, and F. Varaine. 2002. Increasing transparency for health—introducing the Green Light Committee. Trop. Med. Int. Health 7:970976.
55.Harries A. D., J. Michongwe, T. E. Nyirenda, J. R. Kemp, S. B. Squire, A. R. Ramsay, P. Godfrey-Faussett, and F. M. Salaniponi. 2004. The use of a bus service for transporting sputum specimens to the central reference laboratory: effect on the routine tuberculosis culture service in Malawi. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 8:17.
56. Heifets, L. B. 1991. Drug Susceptibility Tests in the Management of Chemotherapy of Tuberculosis, p. 89121. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla..
57.. Helbling P.,, P. A. Altpeter,, G. E. Pfyffer,, and J. P. Zellweger. 2000. Surveillance of antituberculosis drug resistance in Switzerland 1995-1997: the central link. Eur. Respir. J. 16:200202.
58. Hirano, K.,, Y. Kazumi,, C. Abe,, T. Mori,, M. Aoki,, and T. Aoyagi. 1996. Resistance to antituberculosis drugs in Japan. Tubercle Lung Dis. 77:130135.
59. Hobby, G. L.,, P. M. Johnson,, T. F. Lenert,, L. Crawford- Gagliardi,, L. Greetham,, T. Ivaska,, A. Lapin,, J. Maier,, P. O’Malley,, and C. Trembley. 1964. A continuing study of primary drug resistance in tuberculosis in a veteran population within the United States. I. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 89:337341.
60. Horne, N. W. 1969. Drug-resistant tuberculosis: a review of the world situation. Tubercle 50(Suppl):S212.
61. Howells, G. 1969. Primary drug resistance in Australia in 1968. Tubercle 50:344349.
62.Institute of Medicine. 2000. Ending Neglect: the Elimination of Tuberculosis in the United States. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C..
63.Institute of Medicine. 2000. To Err Is Human—Building a Safer Health System ( L. T. Kohn,, J. M. Corrigan,, and M. S. Donaldson, ed.) National Academy Press, Washington, D.C..
64. Iseman, M. D. 1993. Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 329:784791.
65. Iseman, M. D. 2000. A Clinician’s Guide to Tuberculosis. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa..
66. Kam, K. M.,, C. W. Yip,, L. W. Tse,, O. C. Leung,, L. P. Sin,, M. Y. Chan,, and W. S. Wong. 2002. Trends in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in relation to sputum smear positivity in Hong Kong, 1989-1999. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:324329.
67. Keers, R.Y. 1978. Pulmonary Tuberculosis: a Journey down the Centuries. Balliere-Tindall, London, United Kingdom.
68. Kenyon, T. A.,, M. J. Mwasekaga,, R. Huebner,, D. Rumisha,, N. Binkin,, and E. Maganu. 1999. Low levels of drug resistance amidst rapidly increasing tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-epidemics in Botswana. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 3:411.
69. Kim, S. J.,, G. H. Bai,, and Y. P. Hong. 1997. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in Korea, 1994. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 1:302308.
70. Kim, S. J. 2002. Current problems of drug-resistant tuberculosis and its control. Kekkaku 77:735740.
71. Kleeberg, H. H.,, and M. S. Boshoff. 1980. A World Atlas of Initial Drug Resistance. Scientific Committee on Bacteriology and Immunology of the International Union against Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis Research Institute of the South African Medical Research Council, Pretoria.
72. Kleeberg, H. H.,, and M. S. Olivier. 1984. A World Atlas of Initial Drug Resistance, 2nd ed. Tuberculosis Research Institute of the South African Medical Research Council, Pretoria.
73. Kopanoff, D. E.,, J. O. Kilburn,, J. L. Classroth,, D. E. Snider,, L. S. Farer,, and R. C. Good. 1978. A continuing survey of tuberculosis primary drug resistance in the United States: March 1975 to November 1977. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 118:835842.
74. Krunner, A.,, S. E. Hoffner,, H. Sillastu,, M. Danilovits,, K. Levina,, S. B. Svenson,, S. Ghebremichael,, T. Koivula,, and G. Kallenius. 2001. Spread of drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in Estonia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:33393345.
75. Kwon, H. H.,, H. Tomioka,, and H. Saito. 1995. Distribution and characterization of beta-lactamases of mycobacteria and related organisms. Tubercle Lung Dis. 76:141148.
76. Lambregts-van Weezenbeek, C. S. B.,, H. M. Jansen,, J. Veen,, N. J. D. Nagelkerke,, M. M. G. G. Sebek,, and D. van Soolingen. 1998. Origin and management of primary and acquired drug-resistant tuberculosis in The Netherlands: the truth behind the rates. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 2:296302.
77.Lan N. T. N., C. D. Wells, N. J. Binkin, J. E. Becerra, P. D. Linh, and N. V. Co. 1999. Quality control of smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli: the case for blinded re-reading. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 3:5561.
78. Laszlo, A.,, M. Rahman,, M. Espinal,, and M. Raviglione. 2002. Quality assurance programme for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the WHO/IUATLD Supranational Reference Laboratory Network: five rounds of proficiency testing, 1994-1998. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 6:748756.
79. Leape, L. L. 1994. Error in medicine. JAMA 272:18511857.
80. Lehmann, J. 1946. Para-aminosalicylic acid in the treatment of tuberculosis. Lancet i:1516.
81. Lumb, R.,, I. Bastian,, D. Dawson,, C. Gilpin,, F. Havekort,, P. Howard,, and A. Sievers. 2002. Tuberculosis in Australia: bacteriologically confirmed cases and drug resistance, 2000. Commun. Dis. Intell. 26:226233.
81.a. Lumb, R.,, I. Bastian,, W. Chew,, C. Gilpin,, F. Haverkort,, and A. Sievers. 2003. Tuberculosis in Australia: bacteriologically confirmed cases and drug resistance, 2002. Commun. Dis. Intell. 27:459465.
82. Madison, B.,, B. Robinson-Dunn,, I. George,, W. Gross,, H. Lipman,, B. Metchock,, A. Sloutsky,, G. Washabaugh,, G. Mazurek,, and J. Ridderhof. 2002. Multicenter evaluation of ethambutol susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by agar proportion and radiometric methods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:39763979.
83. Maggi, N.,, C. Pasqualucci,, R. Ballotta,, and P. Sensi. 1966. Rifampicin: a new orally active rifamycin. Chemoterapia 11:285292.
84. Mahmoudi, A.,, and M. D. Iseman. 1993. Pitfalls in the care of patients with tuberculosis: common errors and their association with the acquisition of drug resistance. JAMA 270:6568.
85. Middlebrook, G.,, and M. L. Cohn. 1954. Some observations on the pathogenicity of isoniazid-resistant variants of tubercle bacilli. Science 118:297299.
86. Miller, A. B.,, R. Tall,, W. Fox,, M. J. Lefford,, and D. A. Mitchison. 1966. Primary drug resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis in Great Britain: second national survey. Tubercle 47:92108.
87. Mitnick, C.,, J. Bayona,, E. Palacios,, S. Shin,, J. Furin,, F. Alcántara,, E. Sánchez,, M. Sarria,, M. Becerra,, M. C. Smith- Fawzi,, S. Kapiga,, D. Neuberg,, J. H. Maguire,, J. Y. Kim,, and P. Farmer. 2003. Community-based therapy for multidrugresistant tuberculosis in Lima, Peru. N. Engl. J. Med. 348:119128.
88. Moore, M.,, E. McCray,, and I. M. Onorato,. 2000. The epidemiology of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the United States and other established market economies, p. 1728. In I. Bastian, and F. Portaels (ed.), Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
89. Moore-Gillon, J. 2001. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: this is the cost. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 953:233240.
90. Moro, M. L.,, A. Gori,, I. Errante,, A. Infuso,, F. Franzetti,, L. Sodano,, and E. Lemoli. 1998. An outbreak of multidrugresistant tuberculosis involving HIV-infected patients of two hospitals in Milan, Italy. AIDS 12:10951102.
91. Nitta, A. T.,, P. T. Davidson,, M. L. de Koning,, and R. J. Kilman. 1996. Misdiagnosis of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis possibly due to laboratory-related errors. JAMA 276:1980 1983.
92. Ormerod, L. P.,, R. M. Green,, N. Horsfield,, and R. White. 2001. Drug resistance trends in M. tuberculosis: Blackburn 1990-1999. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 5:903905.
93. Pablos-Mendez, A.,, M. C. Raviglione,, A. Laszlo,, N. Binkin,, H. L. Rieder,, F. Bustreo,, D. L. Cohn,, C. S. B. Lambregts-van Weezenbeek,, S. J. Kim,, P. Chaulet,, and P. Nunn. 1998. Global surveillance for antituberculosis-drug resistance, 1994-1997. N. Engl. J. Med. 338:16411649.
94. Parsons, L. M.,, A. Somoskovi,, R. Urbanczik,, and M. Salfinger. 2004. Laboratory diagnostic aspects of drug resistant tuberculosis. Front. Biosci. 9:20862105.
95.Public Health Laboratory Service/Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre. 1995. Outbreak of hospital-acquired multidrug resistant tuberculosis. Commun. Dis. Rep. Wkly. 5:161.
96. Rist, N.,, and J. Crofton. 1960. Drug resistance in hospitals and sanatoria. A report to the committee on laboratory methods and to the committee on antibiotics and chemotherapy of the International Union against Tuberculosis. Bull. Int. Union Tuberc. 30:339.
97. Robert, J.,, D. Trystram,, C. Pernot-Truffot,, and V. Jarlier. 2002. Surveillance de la tuberculose à bacilles multirésistants en France en 1998. Bull. Epidemiol. Hebdom. 1617: 7172.
98. Robitzek, E. H.,, and I. J. Selikoff. 1952. Hydrazine derivative of isonicotinic acid in the treatment of acute progressive caseous-pneumonic tuberculosis. A preliminary report. Am. Rev. Tuberc. 65:402428.
99. Salfinger M.,, and G. E. Pfyffer. 1994. The new diagnostic mycobacteriology laboratory. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.13:961979.
100. Saraiya, M.,, and N. J. Binkin,. 2000. Tuberculosis among immigrants, p. 661693. In L. B. Reichman, and E. S. Hershfield (ed.), Tuberculosis, a Comprehensive International Approach, 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y..
101. Schatz, A.,, E. Bugie,, and S. A. Waksman. 1944. Streptomycin, a substance exhibiting antibiotic activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 55:6669.
102. Seaworth, B. 2002. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis. Inf. Dis. Clin. North. Am. 16:73105.
103.Selvakumar N., E. Prabhakaran, F. Rahman, N. A. Chandu, S. Srinivasan, T. Santha, L. S. Chauhan, and P. R. Narayanan. 2003. Blinded rechecking of sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli to ensure the quality and usefulness of restaining smears to assess fals-positive errors. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 7:10771082.
104. Snider, D. E.,, and J. R. La Montagne. 1994. The neglected global toberculosis problem: a report of the 1992 World Congress on Tuberculosis J. Infect. Dis. 169:11891196.
105. Suarez, P. G.,, K. Floyd,, J. Portocarrero,, E. Alarcón,, E. Rapiti,, G. Ramos,, C. Bonilla,, I. Sabogal,, I. Aranda,, C. Dye,, M. Raviglione,, and M. A. Espinal. 2002. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of standardised second-line drug treatment for chronic tuberculosis patients: a national cohort study in Peru. Lancet 359:19801989.
106. Telenti, A.,, and F. C. Tenover,. 2002. Genetic methods for detecting bacterial resistance genes, p. 239264. In K. Lewis,, A. A. Salyers,, H. W. Taber,, and R. G. Wax (ed.), Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobials, p. 239264. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y..
107. Tenover F. C.,, J. T. Crawford,, R. E. Huebner,, L. J. Geiter,, C. R. Horsburgh, Jr.,, R. C. Good. 1993. The resurgence of tuberculosis: is your laboratory ready? J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:767770.
108. Texeira, L.,, M. D. Perkins,, J. L. Johnson,, R. Keller,, M. Palaci,, V. do Valle Dettoni,, L. M. Canedo Rocha,, S. Debanne,, E. Talbot,, and R. Dietze. 2001. Infection and disease among household contacts of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 5:321328.
109. Thomsen, V. Ø., J. Bauer, T. Lillebaek, and S. Glismann. 2000. Results from 8 years of susceptibility testing of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Denmark. Eur. Respir. J. 15:203208.
110. Toungoussova, O. S.,, D. A. Caugant,, P. Sandven,, A. O. Mariandyshev,, and G. Bjune. 2002. Drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Archangels, Russia. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 6:406414.
111..Tuberculosis Research Committee. 1975. A study on prevalence of resistance to major drugs among newly admitted pulmonary tuberculosis patients in 1972: comparison of results in 1972 with those in 1957, 1959, 1961, 1963, 1966, and 1969. Kekkaku 50:18.
112.Tuberculosis Research Committee. 1991. A study on drug resistance of newly admitted pulmonary tuberculosis patients: prevalence of drug resistance according to the sensitivity test at local laboratories, and its trend over twenty-five years in Japan. Kekkaku 66:367373.
113.U.S. Public Health Service Cooperative Investigation. 1964. Prevalence of drug resistance in previously untreated patients. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 89:327331.
114. Valenzuela, M. T.,, P. Garcia,, J. Ponce,, R. Lepe,, M. Velasco,, and S. Piffardi. 1989. Drug resistance of M. tuberculosis in Chile: rates of initial resistance for 1986 and acquired resistance for 1985. Bull. Int. Union Tuberc. Lung Dis. 64:1314.
115. Van Rie, A. R.,, M. Warren,, M. Richardson,, R. P. Gie,, D. A. Enarson,, N. Beyers,, and P. D. Van Helden. 2000. Classification of drug-resistant tuberculosis in an epidemic area. Lancet 356:2225.
116. Van Soolingen, D.,, M. W. Borgdorff,, P. E. W. de Haas,, M. M. G. G. Sebek,, J. Veen,, M. Dessens,, K. Kremer,, and J. D. A. van Embden. 1999. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Netherlands: a nationwide study from 1993 through 1997. J. Infect. Dis. 180:726736.
117. Van Soolingen, D.,, P. E. W. de Haas,, H. R. van Door,, E. Kuijper,, H. Rinder,, and M. W. Borgdorff. 2000. Muations at amino acid position 315 of the katG gene are associated with high-level resistance to isoniazid, other drug resistance, and successful transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in The Netherlands. J. Infect. Dis. 182:17881790.
118.World Health Organization. 1997. Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance in the World. WHO/TB/97.229. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
119..World Health Organization. 2000. Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance in the World: Prevalence and Trends. Report no. 2. WHO/CDS/TB/2000.278. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
120..World Health Organization. 2003. Global Tuberculosis Control: Surveillance, Planning, Financing. WHO report 2002. WHO/CDS/TB/2003.316. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
121. Youmans, G. P.,, E. H. Williston,, W. H. Feldman,, and H. C. Hinshaw. 1946. Increase in resistance of tubercle bacilli to streptomycin: a preliminary report. Proc. Staff Meet. Mayo Clin. 21:126127.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Green Light Committee—approved projects for MDRTB management

Citation: Espinal M, Salfinger M. 2005. Global Impact of Multidrug Resistance, p 99-114. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch7

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error