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Chapter 3 : Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes

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Abstract:

This section includes cases of infection with the helminths (worms) known as cestodes (tapeworms), trematodes (flukes), and intestinal nematodes (roundworms). Humans may be infected with the larval or adult form of cestodes, flatworms found in the phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematodes (flukes) are also flatworms in the phylum Platyhelminthes. Fluke infections are also diagnosed by detection of the eggs of these parasites, although larvae and adult flukes are occasionally seen. Trematodes infecting humans include the sheep liver fluke, , and the giant intestinal fluke, . Most nematode infections are diagnosed by the detection of eggs or larvae in fecal specimens; adults are not usually found. Transmission of nematode infections may occur via the fecal-oral route by ingestion of eggs in food or water (for , and ) or by penetration of the skin by larval forms (for hookworms and ). In addition to microbiological tests, other laboratory tests, including assays for liver enzyme levels, urinalysis, and hematology tests (including an eosinophil count), may aid in the diagnosis of infections with intestinal helminths. Radiology studies, such as computed tomography scans, might be helpful in the diagnosis of some of the cases described in this section. Prevention of infection requires adherence to good personal hygiene practices and avoidance of contaminated food or water. A variety of procedures, including surgery and the administration of drugs, is available to treat patients infected with cestodes, trematodes, or intestinal nematodes.

Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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Citation: Heelan J. 2004. Cestodes, Trematodes, and Intestional Nematodes, p 115-169. In Cases in Human Parasitology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817664.ch3
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817664.chap3
1. Garcia, L. S.2001. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 4th ed., p. 265295. ASM Press,Washington, D.C.
2. Heelan, J. S.,, and F. W. Ingersoll. 2002. Essentials of Human Parasitology, p. 138149. Thomson Delmar Learning, Albany, N.Y.
3. Markell, E. K.,, D. T. John,, and W. A. Krotoski. 1999. Markell and Voge's Medical Parasitology, 8th ed., p. 269303. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
4. Zeibig, E. A. 1997. Clinical Parasitology, p. 128163. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa.

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