1887

Chapter 17 : Antimicrobial Peptides: Effectors of Innate Immunity

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Antimicrobial Peptides: Effectors of Innate Immunity, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817671/9781555812911_Chap17-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817671/9781555812911_Chap17-2.gif

Abstract:

Antimicrobial peptides are evolutionarily ancient weapons, which along with regulatory proteins such as the Toll receptor families have provided complex multicellular organisms with the defenses needed to effectively compete in a world dominated by microbes. Antimicrobial peptides from plants and animals have been discussed in the chapter. The amphipathic property of antimicrobial peptides permits them to achieve high concentrations both in the aqueous solution through which they must travel to reach their targets and in the fatty membranes of microbes into which they must penetrate. The discovery that Toll and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) played a role in antimicrobial peptide gene expression in insects and mammals led to a search for additional human homologues, driven by the hypothesis that the innate immune system utilizes specially tuned receptors to recognize specific and unique microbial chemical constituent patterns presented when microbes attack a multicellular organism. Antimicrobial peptides provide epithelial surfaces with protective agents that permit an animal to construct a physical barrier out of materials that could otherwise serve as a source of nutrients for microbes. Antimicrobial peptides, including both α- and β-defensins, are widely expressed in the male reproductive tracts of rats, mice, and humans. Antimicrobial peptides, released from circulating cells or induced in epithelia, can alert the adaptive immune system to trouble brewing. Over the past several years the functional categorization of antimicrobial peptides has been blurred somewhat by the discovery that numerous peptide hormones and cytokines exhibit potent antimicrobial activity in vitro.

Citation: Zasloff M. 2004. Antimicrobial Peptides: Effectors of Innate Immunity, p 313-344. In Kaufmann S, Medzhitov R, Gordon S (ed), The Innate Immune Response to Infection. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817671.ch17

Key Concept Ranking

Type III Secretion System
0.4099118
0.4099118
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817671.chap17
1. Aarbiou, J.,, M. Ertmann,, S. Van Wetering,, P. van Noort,, D. Rook,, K. F. Rabe,, S.V. Litvinov,, J. H. van Krieken,, W. I. de Boer,, and P. S. Hiemstra. 2002. Human neutrophil defensins induce lung epithelial proliferation in vitro. J. Leukoc. Biol. 72: 167 174.
2. Agerberth, B.,, J.Y. Lee,, T. Berman,, M. Carlquist,, H. G. Boman,, V. Mutt,, and H. Jornvall. 1991. Amino acid sequence of PR39. Isolation of pig intestine of a new member of the family of proline arginine rich antibacterial peptides. Eur. J. Biochem. 202: 849 854.
3. Albrect, M. T.,, W. Wang,, O. Shamova,, R. I. Lehrer,, and N. L. Schiller. 2002. Binding of protegrin- 1 to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia. Respir. Res. 3: 18.
4. Andersson, E.,, O. E. Sorensen,, B. Frohm,, N. Borregaard,, A. Egesten,, and J. Malm. 2002. Isolation of human cationic antimicrobial protein-18 from seminal plasma and its association with prostasomes. Hum. Reprod. 17: 2529 2534.
5. Andra, J.,, R. Herbst,, and M. Leippe. 2003. Ameobapores, archaic effectors of protozoan origin, are discharged into phagosomes and kill bacteria by permeabilizing their membranes. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 27: 291 304.
6. Arrighi, R. B.,, C. Nakamura,, J. Miyake,, H. Hurd,, and J. G. Burgess. 2002. Design and activity of antimicrobial peptides against sporoponic stage parasites causing murine malarias. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 2104 2110.
7. Avrahami, D.,, and Y. Shai. 2002. Conjugation of a magainin analogue with lipophilic acids controls hydrophobicity, solution assembly, and cell selectivity. Biochemistry 41: 2254 2263.
8. Ayabe, T.,, D. P. Satchell,, C. L. Wilson,, W. C. Parks,, M. E. Selsted,, and A. J. Ouellette. 2000. Secretion of microbicidal α-defensins by intestinal Paneth cells in response to bacteria. Nat. Immunol. 1: 113 118.
9. Bajaj-Elliot, M.,, P. Fedeli,, G. V. Smith,, P. Domizio,, L. Maher,, R. S. Ali,, A. G. Quinn,, and M. J. Farthing. 2002. Modulation of host antimicrobial peptide (beta defensin 1 and 2) expression during gastritis. Gut 51: 356 361.
10. Bals, R.,, D. J. Weiner,, A. D. Moscioni,, R. L. Meegalla,, and J. M. Wilson. 1999. Augmentation of innate host defense by expression of a cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide. Infect. Immun. 67: 6084 6089.
11. Bechinger, B.,, M. Zasloff,, and S. J. Opella. 1993. Structure and orientation of the antibiotic peptide magainin in membranes by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Protein Sci. 2: 2077 2084.
12. Becker, M. N.,, G. Diamond,, M.W. Verghese,, and S. H. Randell. 2000. CD14-dependent lipopolysaccharide- induced β-defensin-2 expression in human tracheobronchial epithelium. J. Biol. Chem. 275: 29731 29736.
13. Bera, A.,, S. Singh,, R. Nagaraj,, and T. Vaidya. 2003. Induction of autophagic cell-death in Leishmania donovani by antimicrobial peptides. Mol. Biochem. Parisitol. 127: 23 35.
14. Berrocal-Lobo, M.,, A. Segura,, M. Moreno,, G. Lopez,, F. Garcia-Olmedo,, and A. Molina. 2002. Snakin-2, an antimicrobial peptide from potato whose gene is locally induced by wounding and responds to pathogen infection. Plant Physiol. 128: 951 961.
15. Bierbaum, G.,, and H.-G. Sahl. 1985. Induction of autolysis of staphylococci by the basic peptide antibiotics pep5 and nisin and their influence on the activity of autolytic enzymes. Arch. Microbiol. 141: 249 254.
16. Biragyn, A.,, P. A. Ruffini,, C. A. Leifer,, E. Klyushnenkova,, A. Shakhov,, O. Chertov,, A. K. Shirakawa,, J. M. Farber,, D. M. Segal,, J. J. Oppenheim,, and L. W. Kwak. 2002. Toll-like receptor 4-dependent activation of dendritic cells by beta-defensin 2. Science 298: 1025 1029.
17. Birchler, T.,, R. Seibl,, K. Buchner,, S. Loeliger,, R. Seger,, J. P. Hossle,, A. Aguzzi,, and R. P. Lauener. 2001. Human Toll-like receptor 2 mediates induction of the antimicrobial peptide human beta-defensin 2 in response to bacterial lipoprotein. Eur. J. Immunol. 31: 3131 3137.
18. Boman, H. G. 2000. Innate immunity and the normal microflora. Immunol. Rev. 173: 5 16.
19. Boulanger, N.,, R. Brun,, L. Ehret-Sabatier,, C. Kunz,, and P. Bulet. 2002. Immunopeptides in the defense reactions of Glossina morsitans to bacterial and Trypanosoma brucei brucei infections. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 32: 369 375.
20. Brey, P.T.,, W. J. Lee,, M. Yamakawa,, Y. Koizumi,, S. Perrot,, M. Franquis,, and M. Ashida. 1993. Role of the integument in insect immunity: epicuticular abrasion and induction of cecropin synthesis in cuticular epithelial cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 6275 6279.
21. Brotz, H.,, M. Josten,, L. Wiedeman,, U. Schneider,, F. Gotz,, G. Bierbaum,, and H.-G. Sahl. 1998. Role of lipid-bound peptidoglycan precursors in the formation of pores by nisin, epidermin and other lantibiotics. Mol. Microbiol. 30: 317 327.
22. Bulet, P.,, J. Dimarcq,, C. Hetru,, M. Lageux,, M. Charlet,, G. Hegy,, A. Van Dorsselaer,, and J. A. Hoffmann. 1993. A novel inducible antibacterial peptide of Drosophila carries an O-glycosylated substitution. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 14893 14897.
23. Chakrabarti, A.,, T. R. Ganapathi,, P. K. Mukherjee,, and V. A. Bapat. 2003. MSI-99, a mag- ainin analogue, imparts enhanced disease resistance in transgenic tobacco and banana. Planta 216: 587 596.
24. Chen, J.,, T. J. Falla,, H. Liu,, M. A. Hurst,, C. A. Fujii,, D. A. Mosca,, J. R. Embree,, D. J. Loury,, P. A. Radel,, C. Cheng Chang,, L. Gu,, and J. C. Fiddes. 2000. Development of protegrins for the treatment and prevention of oral mucositis: structureactivity relationships of synthetic protegrin analogues. Biopolymers 55: 88 98.
25. Chertov, O.,, D. Yang,, O. M. Howard,, and J. J. Oppenheim. 2000. Leukocyte granule proteins mobilize innate host defenses and adaptive immune responses. Immunol. Rev. 177: 68 78.
26. Cho, J. H.,, I.Y. Park,, M. S. Kim,, and S. C. Kim. 2002. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 is involved in the regulation of antimicrobial peptide parasin I production in catfish skin mucosa. FEBS Lett. 531: 459 463.
27. Choe, K. M.,, T. Werner,, S. Stoven,, D. Hultmark,, and K.V. Anderson. 2002. Requirement for a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Relish activation and antibacterial immune responses in Drosophila. Science 296: 359 362.
28. Circo, R.,, B. Skerlavaj,, R. Gennaro,, A. Amoroso,, and M. Zanetti. 2002. Structural and functional characterization of hBD-1(ser35) peptide deduced from a DEFB1 polymorphism. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 293: 586 592.
29. Cole, A. M.,, H. I. Liao,, O. Stuchlik,, J. Tilan,, J. Pohl,, and T. Ganz. 2002. Cationic polypeptides are required for antibacterial activity of human airway fluid. J. Immunol. 169: 6985 6991.
30. Com, E.,, F. Bourgeon,, B. Evrard,, T. Ganz,, D. Colleu,, B. Jegou,, and C. Pineau. 2003. Expression of antimicrobial defensins in the male reproductive tract of rats, mice, and humans. Biol. Reprod. 68: 95 104.
31. Corzo, G.,, E. Villegas,, F. Gomez-Lagunas,, L. D. Possani,, O. S. Belokoneva,, and T. Nakajima. 2002. Oxyopinin, large amphipathic peptides isolated from the venom of the wolf spider Oxyopes kitabensis with cytolytic properties and positive insecticidal cooperativity with spider neurotoxins. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 23627 23637.
32. Cudic, M.,, and L. Otvos, Jr. 2002. Intracellular targets of antibacterial peptides. Curr. Drug Targets 3: 101 106.
33. Cunliffe, R. N.,, M. Kamal,, F. R. Rose,, P. D. James,, and Y. R. Mahida. 2002. Expression of antimicrobial neutrophil defensins in epithelial cells of active inflammatory bowel disease mucosa. J. Clin. Pathol. 55: 298 304.
34. Cuthbertson, B. J.,, E. F. Shepard,, R. W. Chapman,, and P. S. Gross. 2002. Diversity of the penaeidin antimicrobial peptides in two shrimp species. Immunogenetics 54: 442 445.
35. Dagan, A.,, L. Efron,, L. Gaidukov,, A. Mor,, and H. Ginsburg. 2002. In vitro antiplasmodium effects of dermaseptin S4 derivatives. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 1059 1066.
36. Dangl, J. L.,, and J. D. Jones. 2001. Plant pathogens and integrated defence responses to infection. Nature 411: 826 833.
37. Darveau, R. P.,, M. D. Cunningham,, C. L. Seachord,, L. Cassiano-Clough,, W. L. Cosand,, J. Blake,, and C. S. Watkins. 1991. β-Lactam antibiotics potentiate Magainin 2 antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35: 1153 1159.
38. Del Pero, M.,, M. Boniotto,, D. Zuccon,, P. Cervella,, A. Spano,, A. Amoroso,, and S. Crovella. 2002. Beta defensin 1 gene variability among nonhuman primates. Immunogenetics 53: 907 913.
39. Diamond, G.,, M. Zasloff,, H. Eck,, M. Brasseur,, W. L. Maloy,, and C. L. Bevins. 1991. Tracheal antimicrobial peptide, a novel cysteine-rich peptide from mammalian tracheal mucosa: peptide isolation and cloning of a cDNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 3952 3956.
40. Di Nardo, A.,, A. Vitiello,, and R. L. Gallo. 2003. Cutting edge: mast cell antimicrobial activity is mediated by expression of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide. J. Immunol. 170: 2274 2278.
41. Droemann, D.,, T. Goldmann,, D. Branscheid,, R. Clark,, K. Dalhoff,, P. Zabel,, and E. Vollmer. 2003. Toll like receptor 2 is expressed by alveolar epithelial cells type II and macrophages in the human lung. Histochem. Cell Biol. 119: 103 108.
42. Duda, T. F., Jr.,, D. Vanhoye,, and P. Nicholas. 2002. Roles of diversifying selection and coordinated evolution in the evolution of amphibian antimicrobial peptides. Mol. Biol. Evol. 19: 858 864.
43. Efron, L.,, A. Dagan,, L. Gaidukov,, H. Ginsburg,, and A. Mor. 2002. Direct inactivation of dermaseptin S4 aminoheptanoyl derivative with intraerythrocytic malaria parasite leading to increased specific antiparasitic activity in culture. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 24067 24072.
44. Engström, Y.,, L. Kadalayil,, S.-C. Sun,, C. Samakovlis,, D. Hultmark,, and I. Faye. 1993. κB like motifs regulate the induction of immune genes in Drosophila. J. Mol. Biol. 232: 327 333.
45. Epand, R. F.,, N. Umezawa,, E. A. Porter,, S. H. Gellman,, and R. M. Epand. 2003. Interactions of the antimicrobial beta-peptide beta-17 with phospholipids vesicles differ from membrane interactions of magainins. Eur. J. Biochem. 270: 1240 1248.
46. Ernst, R. K.,, E. C. Yi,, L. Guo,, K. B. Lim,, J. L. Burns,, M. Hackett,, and S. I. Miller. 1999. Specific lipopolysaccharide found in cystic fibrosis airway Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Science 286: 1561 1565.
47. Fahlgren, A.,, S. Hammarstrom,, A. Danielsson,, and M. L. Hammarstrom. 2003. Increased expression of antimicrobial peptides and lysozyme in colonic epithelial cells of patients with ulcerative colitis. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 131: 90 101.
48. Fehlbaum, P.,, M. Rao,, M. Zasloff,, and G. M. Anderson. 2000. An essential amino acid induces epithelial α-defensin expression. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 12723 12728.
49. Fernandez-Lopez, S.,, H.-S. Kim,, E. C. Choi,, M. Delgado,, J. R. Granja,, A. Khasanov,, K. Kraehenbuel,, G. Long,, D. A. Weinberger,, K. Wilcoxen,, and M. R. Ghadziri. 2001. Antibacterial agents based on the cyclic D,L-α peptide architecture. Nature 412: 452 455.
50. Ge, Y.,, D. L. MacDonald,, K. J. Holroyd,, C. Thornsberry,, H. Wexler,, and M. Zasloff. 1999. In vitro antibacterial properties of Pexiganan, an analog of Magainin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43: 782 788.
51. Ghiselli, R.,, A. Giacometti,, O. Cirioni,, F. Mocchegiani,, C. Viticchi,, G. Scalise,, and V. Saba. 2002. Cationic peptides combined with beta lactams reduce mortality from peritonitis in experimental rat model. J. Surg. Res. 108: 107 111.
52. Ghosh, D.,, E. Porter,, B. Shen,, S. K. Lee,, D. Wilk,, J. Drazba,, S. P. Yadav,, J.W. Crabb,, T. Ganz,, and C. L. Bevins. 2002. Paneth cell trypsin is the processing enzyme for human defensin-5. Nat. Immunol. 3: 583 590.
53. Ghosh, J. K.,, D. Shaool,, P. Guillaud,, L. Ciceron,, D. Mazier,, I. Kustanovich,, Y. Shai,, and A. Mor. 1997. Selective cytotoxicity of dermaseptin S3 toward intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum and the underlying molecular basis. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 31609 31616.
54. Giacometti, A.,, O. Cirioni,, F. Barchiesi,, and G. Scalise. 2000. In-vitro activity and killing effect of polycationic peptides on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and interactions with clinically used antibiotics. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 8: 115 118.
55. Giacometti, A.,, O. Cirioni,, R. Ghiselli,, F. Mocchegiani,, M. S. Del Prete,, C. Viticchi,, W. Kamysz,, E. Lempicka,, V. Saba,, and G. Scalise. 2002. Potential therapeutic role of cationic peptides in three experimental models of septic shock. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 2132 2136.
56. Goldman, M. J.,, G. M. Anderson,, E. D. Stolzenberg,, U. P. Kari,, M. Zasloff,, and J. M. Wilson. 1997. Human β-defensin-1 is a salt-sensitive antibiotic in lung that is inactivated in cystic fibrosis. Cell 88: 553 560.
57. Gottar, M.,, V. Gobert,, T. Michel,, M. Belvin,, G. Duyk,, J. A. Hoffmann,, D. Ferrandon,, and J. Royet. 2002. The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition protein. Nature 416: 640 644.
58. Grieco, P.,, C. Rossi,, G. Colombo,, S. Gatti,, E. Novellino,, J. M. Lipton,, and A. Catania. 2003. Novel alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide analogue with high candidacidal activity. J. Med. Chem. 46: 850 855.
59. Groisman, E. A. 1995. How bacteria resist killing by host defense peptides. Trends Microbiol. 2: 444 449.
60. Groisman, E. A. 1998. The ins and outs of virulence gene expression: Mg 2+ as a regulatory signal. Bioessays 20: 96 101.
61. Gunn, J. S.,, S. S. Ryan,, J. C. Van Velkinburgh,, R. K. Ernst,, and S. I. Miller. 2000. Genetic and functional analysis of a PmrA-PmrB-regulated locus necessary for lipopolysaccharide modification, antimicrobial peptide resistance, and oral virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. Infect. Immun. 68: 6139 6146.
62. Hamamoto, K.,, Y. Kida,, Y. Zhang,, T. Shimizu,, and K. Kuwano. 2002. Antimicrobial activity and stability to proteolysis of small linear cationic peptides with D-amino acid substitutions. Microbiol. Immunol. 46: 741 749.
63. Hampe, J.,, J. Grebe,, S. Nikolaus,, C. Solberg,, P. J. Croucher,, S. Mascheretti,, J. Jahnsen,, B. Moum,, B. Klump,, M. Krawczak,, M. M. Mirza,, U. R. Foelsch,, M. Vatn,, and S. Schreiber. 2002. Association of NOD2 (CARD 15) genotype with clinical course of Crohn's disease: a cohort study. Lancet 359: 1661 1665.
64. Hamuro, Y.,, J. P. Schneider,, and W. F. DeGrado. 1999. De novo design of antibacterial β-peptides. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121: 12200 12201.
65. Hancock, R. E.W.,, T. Falla,, and M. Brown. 1995. Cationic bactericidal peptides. Adv. Microb. Physiol. 37: 135 175.
66. Harder, J.,, J. Bartels,, J. Christophers,, and J. M. Schroder. 1997. A peptide antibiotic from human skin. Nature 387: 861.
67. Harder, J.,, U. Meyer-Hoffert,, L. M. Teran,, L. Schwichtenberg,, J. Bartels,, S. Maune,, and J. M. Schroder. 2000. Mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa, TNF-α, and IL-1β, but not IL-6, induce human β defensin-2 in respiratory epithelia. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 22: 714 721.
68. Haynie, S. L.,, G.A. Crum,, and B.A. Doele. 1995. Antimicrobial activities of amphiphilic peptides covalently bonded to a water-insoluble resin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39: 301 307.
69. Hein, M.,, E. V. Valore,, R. B. Helmig,, N. Uldbjerg,, and T. Ganz. 2002. Antimicrobial factors in the cervical mucous plug. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 187: 137 144.
70. Helmerhorst, E. J.,, W. van't Hoft,, P. Breeuwer,, E. C. Veerman,, T. Abee,, R. F. Troxler,, A. V. Amerongen,, and F. G. Oppenheim. 2001. Characterization of histatin 5 with respect to amphipathicity, hydrophobicity, and effects on cell and mitochondrial membrane integrity excludes a candidacidal mechanism of pore formation. J. Biol. Chem. 276: 5643 5649.
71. Hendengren, M.,, B. Åsling,, M. S. Dushay,, L. Ando,, S. Ekengren,, M. Wihlborg,, and D. Hultmark. 1999. Relish, a central factor in the control of humoral but not cellular immunity in Drosophila. Mol. Cell 4: 1 20.
72. Hieshima, K.,, H. Ohtani,, M. Shibano,, D. Izawa,, T. Nakayama,, Y. Kawasaki,, F. Shiba,, M. Shiota,, F. Katou,, T. Saito,, and O. Yoshie. 2003. CCL28 has dual roles in mucosal immunity as a chemokine with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. J. Immunol. 170: 1452 1461.
73. Hirakura, Y.,, S. Kobayashi,, and K. Matsuzaki. 2002. Specific interactions of the antimicrobial peptide cyclic beta-sheet tachyplesin I with lipopolysaccharides. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1562: 32 36.
74. Hoffmann, J. A.,, and J. M. Reichhart. 2002. Drosophila innate immunity: an evolutionary perspective. Nat. Immunol. 3: 121 126.
75. Hong, R. W.,, M. Shchepetov,, J. N. Weiser,, and P. H. Axelsen. 2003. Transcriptional profile of the E. coli response to the antimicrobial insect peptide Cecropin A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 1 6.
76. Hoover, D. M.,, C. Boulegue,, D. Yang,, J. J. Oppenheim,, K. Tucker,, W. Lu,, and J. Lubkowski. 2002. The structure of human macrophage inflammatory protein-3 alpha/CCL20. Linking antimicrobial and CC chemokine receptor 6 binding activities with human beta defensins. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 37647 37654.
77. Huh, W. K.,, T. Oono,, Y. Shirafuji,, H. Akiyama,, J. Arata,, M. Sakaguchi,, N. H. Huh,, and K. Iwatsuki. 2002. Dynamic alteration of human betadefensin 2 localization from cytoplasm to intercellular space in psoriatic skin. J. Mol. Med. 80: 678 684.
78. Hui, L.,, K. Leung,, and H. M. Chen. 2002. The combined effects of antimicrobial peptide cecropin A and anti-cancer agents on leukemia cells. Anticancer Res. 22: 2811 2816.
79. Iijima, N.,, N. Tanimoto,, Y. Emoto,, Y. Morita,, K. Uematsu,, T. Murakami,, and T. Nakai. 2003. Purification and characterization of three isoforms of chrysophsin, a novel antimicrobial peptide in the gills of the sea bream, Chrysophrys major. Eur. J. Biochem. 270: 675 686.
80. Imler, J. L.,, and J. A. Hoffmann. 2000. Signaling mechanisms in the antimicrobial host defense of Drosophila. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 3: 16 22.
81. Imler, J. L.,, and J. A. Hoffmann. 2002. Toll receptors in Drosophila: a family of molecules regulating development and immunity. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 270: 63 79.
82. Isaacson, T.,, A. Soto,, S. Iwamuro,, F. C. Knoop,, and J. M. Conlon. 2002. Antimicrobial peptides with atypical structural features from the skin of the Japanese brown frog Rana japonica. Peptides 23: 419 425.
83. Islam, D.,, L. Bandholtz,, J. Nilsson,, H. Wigzell,, B. Christensson,, B. Agerberth,, and G. Gudmundsson. 2001. Down-regulation of bactericidal peptides in enteric infections: a novel immune escape mechanism with bacterial DNA as a potential regulator. Nat. Med. 7: 180 185.
84. Iwanaga, S. 2002. The molecular basis of innate immunity in the horseshoe crab. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 14: 87 95.
85. Iwanaga, S.,, and S. Kawabata. 1998. Evolution and phylogeny of defense molecules associated with innate immunity in horseshoe crab. Front. Biosci. 3: D973 D984.
86. Jacob, L.,, and M. Zasloff. 1994. Potential therapeutic applications of magainins and other antimicrobial agents of animal origin. Ciba Found. Symp. 186: 197 216.
87. Jacobs, T.,, H. Bruhn,, I. Gaworski,, B. Fleischer,, and M. Leippe. 2003. NK-lysin and its shortened analog NK-2 exhibit potent activities against Trypanosoma cruzi. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 607 613.
88. Jaynes, J. M.,, P. Nagpala,, I. Destafano-Beltran,, J. H. Huang,, J. H. Kim,, T. Denny,, and S. Centiner. 1993. Expression of a cecropin β-lytic peptide analog in transgenic tobacco confers enhanced resistance to bacterial wilt caused by Ps. solanacearium. Plant Sci. 85: 43 54.
89. Jennings, C.,, J. West,, C. Waine,, D. Craik,, and M. Anderson. 2001. Biosynthesis and insecticidal properties of plant cyclotides: the cyclic knotted proteins from Oldenlandia affinis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 10614 10619.
90. Jurevic, R. J.,, P. Chrisman,, L. Mancl,, R. Livingston,, and B. A. Dale. 2002. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype analysis in betadefensin genes in different ethnic populations. Genet. Test. 6: 261 269.
91. Jurevic, R. J.,, M. Bai,, R. B. Chadwick,, T. C. White,, and B. A. Dale. 2003. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in human beta-defensin 1: high throughput SNP assays and association with Candida carriage in Type I diabetics and non-diabetic controls. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 90 96.
92. Kao, C.Y.,, Y. Chen,, Y. H. Zhao,, and R. Wu. 2003. Orfeome based search of airway epithelial cell-specific novel human beta-defensins. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.(Epub ahead of print)
93. Kappler, C.,, M. Meister,, M. Lagueux,, E. Gateff,, J. A. Hoffmann,, and J. M. Reichhart. 1993. Insect immunity.Two 17 bp repeats nesting a kappa β-related sequence confer inducibility to the diptericin gene and bind a polypeptide in bacteria-challenged Drosophila. EMBO J. 12: 1561 1568.
94. Kieffer, A. E.,, Y. Goumon,, O. Ruh,, S. Chasserot- Golaz,, G. Nullans,, C. Gasnier,, D. Aunis,, and M. H. Metz-Boutigue. 2003. The N and C-terminal fragments of ubiquitin are important for the antimicrobial activities. FASEB J. 17: 776 778.
95. Kim, H. S.,, H. Yoon,, C. B. Park,, W. T. Lee,, M. Zasloff,, and S. C. Kim. 2000. Pepsin mediated processing of the cytoplasmic histone 2A to the strong antimicrobial peptide Buforin I. J.Immunol. 165: 3268 3274.
96. Kim, H. S.,, J. H. Cho,, H.W. Park,, H. Yoon,, M. S. Kim,, and D. S. C. Kim. 2002. Endotoxin neutralizing antimicrobial proteins of the human placenta. J. Immunol. 168: 2356 2364.
97. Kim, S.T.,, H. E. Cha,, D.Y. Kim,, G. C. Han,, Y. S. Chung,, Y. J. Lee,, Y. J. Hwang,, and H. M. Lee. 2003. Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is upregulated in chronic nasal inflammatory disease. Acta Otolaryngol. 123: 81 85.
98. Kimbrell, D. A.,, and B. Beutler. 2001. The evolution and genetics of innate immunity. Nat. Rev. Genet. 2: 256 267.
99. King, A. E.,, D. C. Fleming,, H. O. Critchley,, and R. W. Kelly. 2002. Regulation of natural antibiotic expression by inflammatory mediators and mimics of infection in human endometrial epithelial cells. Mol. Hum. Reprod. 4: 341 349.
100. Kisich, K. O.,, L. Heifets,, M. Higgins,, and G. Diamond. 2001. Antimycobacterial agent based on mRNA encoding human β-Defensin 2 enables primary macrophages to restrict growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect. Immun. 69: 2692 2699.
101. Konovalov, O.,, I. Myagkov,, B. Struth,, and K. Lohner. 2002. Lipid discrimination in phospholipid monolayers by the antimicrobial frog skin peptide PGLa. A synchrotron X-ray grazing incidence and reflectivity study. Eur. Biophys. J. 31: 428 437.
102. Kowalska, K.,, D. B. Carr,, and A.W. Lipkowski. 2002. Direct antimicrobial properties of substance P. Life Sci. 71: 747 750.
103. Kragol, G.,, S. Lovas,, G. Varadi,, B. A. Condie,, R. Hoffmann,, and L. Otvos, Jr. 2001. The antibacterial peptide pyrrhocoricin inhibits the ATPase actions of DnaK and prevents chaperone-assisted protein folding. Biochemistry 40: 3016 3026.
104. Kragol, G.,, R. Hoffmann,, M. A. Chattergoon,, S. Lovas,, M. Cudic,, P. Bulet,, B. A. Condie,, K. J. Rosengren,, L. J. Montaner,, and L. Otvos, Jr. 2002. Identification of crucial residues for the antibacterial activity of the proline-rich peptide, pyrrhocoricin. Eur. J. Biochem. 269: 4226 4237.
105. Krijgsveld, J.,, S. A. Zaat,, J. Meeldijk,, P. A. van Vellan,, G. Fang,, B. Poolman,, E. Brandt,, J. E. Ehlert,, A. J. Kuijpers,, G. H. M. Engbers,, J. Feijen,, and J. Dankert. 2000. Thrombocidins, microbiocidal proteins from human blood platelets are C-terminal delection products of CXC chemokines. J. Biol. Chem. 275: 20374 20381.
106. Krisanaprakornkit, S.,, J. R. Kimball,, A. Weinberg,, R. P. Darveau,, B.W. Bainbridge,, and B. A. Dale. 2000. Inducible expression of human α- defensin 2 by Fusobacterium nucleatum in oral epithelial cells: multiple signaling pathways and role of commensal bacteria in innate immunity and the epithelial barrier. Infect. Immun. 68: 2907 2915.
107. Kuhn-Nentwig, L.,, J. Muller,, J. Schaller,, A. Walz,, M. Dathe,, and W. J. Nentwig. 2002. Cupiennin I, a new family of highly basic antimicrobial peptides in the venom of the spider Cupiennius saliei (Ctenidae). J. Biol. Chem. 277: 11208 11216.
108. Kutta, H.,, P. Steven,, G. Kohla,, B. Tillmann,, and F. Paulsen. 2002. The human false vocal folds—an analysis of antimicrobial defense mechanisms. Anat. Embryol. 205: 315 332.
109. Kylsten, P.,, C. Samakovlis,, and D. Hultmark. 1990. The cecropin locus in Drosophila: a compact gene cluster involved in response to infection. EMBO J. 9: 217 224.
110. Laederbach, A.,, A. H. Andreotti,, and D. B. Fulton. 2002. Solution and micelle bound structures of tachyplesin I and its aromatic linear derivatives. Biochemistry 41: 12359 12368.
111. Lai, J. R.,, B. R. Huck,, B. Weisblum,, and S. H. Gellman. 2002. Design of non-cysteine containing antimicrobial beta-hairpins: structure-activity relationship studies with linear protegrin-1 analogues. Biochemistry 41: 12835 12842.
112. Lambert, R. W.,, K. Campton,, W. Ding,, H. Ozawa,, and R. D. Granstein. 2002. Langerhans cell expression of neuropeptide Y and peptide YY. Neuropeptides 36: 246 251.
113. Lee, S. H.,, J. E. Kim,, H. H. Lim,, H. M. Lee,, and J. O. Choi. 2002. Antimicrobial defensin peptides of the human nasal mucosa. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 111: 135 141.
114. Lehmann, J.,, M. Retz,, J. Hader,, M. Krams,, U. Kellner,, J. Hartmann,, K. Hohgrawe,, U. Raffenberg,, M. Gerber,, T. Loch,, K. Weichert- Jacobsen,, and M. Stockle. 2002. Expression of human beta-defensins 1 and 2 in kidneys with chronic bacterial infection. BMC Infect. Dis. 18: 20.
115. Lemaitre, B.,, E. Nicholas,, L. Michaut,, J. M. Reichert,, and J. A. Hoffmann. 1996. The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults. Cell 86: 973 983.
116. Levashina, E. A.,, E. Langley,, C. Green,, D. Gubb,, M. Ashburner,, J. A. Hoffmann,, and J. M. Reichhart. 1999. Constitutive activation of tollmediated antifungal defenses in serpin-deficient Drosophila. Science 285: 1917 1919.
117. Li, J.,, M. Post,, R. Volk,, Y. Gao,, M. Li,, C. Metais,, K. Sato,, J. Tsai,, W. Aird,, R. D. Rosenberg,, T. G. Hampton,, F. Sellke,, P. Carmeliet,, and M. Simons. 2000. PR39, a peptide regulator of angiogenesis. Nat. Med. 6: 49 55.
118. Ligoxygakis, P.,, N. Pelte,, J. A. Hoffmann,, and J. M. Reichhart. 2002. Activation of Drosophila Toll during fungal infection by a blood serine protease. Science 297: 114 116.
119. Liu, A. Y.,, D. Destoumieux,, A. V. Wong,, C. H. Park,, E. V. Valore,, L. Liu,, and T. Ganz. 2002. Human beta-defensin 2 production in keratinocytes is regulated by interleukin-1, bacteria, and the state of differentiation. Invest. Dermatol. 118: 275 281.
120. Liu, L.,, L. Wang,, C. Zhao,, H. H. Q. Heng,, B. C. Schutte,, and P. B. McCray, Jr. 1998. Structure and mapping of the human β-defensin 2 gene and its expression at sites of inflammation. Gene 222: 237 244.
121. Liu, L.,, A. A. Roberts,, and T. Ganz. 2003. By IL-1 signalling, monocytes cderived cells dramatically enhance the epidermal antimicrobial response to lipopolysaccharide. J. Immunol. 170: 575 580.
122. Luders, T.,, G.A. Birkemo,, G. Fimland,, J. Nissen- Mayer,, and I. F. Nes. 2003. Strong synergy between a eukaryotic antimicrobial peptide and bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 1797 1799.
123. Lupetti, A.,, P. H. Nibbering,, M. M. Welling,, and E. K. Pauwels. 2003. Radiopharmaceuticals: new antimicrobial agents. Trends Biotechnol. 21: 70 73.
124. Lysenko, E. S.,, J. Gould,, R. Bals,, J. M. Wilson,, and J. N. Weiser. 2000. Bacterial phosphorylcholine decreases susceptibility to the antimicrobial peptide LL-37/hCAP18 expressed in the upper respiratory tract. Infect. Immun. 68: 1664 1671.
125. Mak, P.,, J. Pohl,, A. Dubin,, M. S. Reed,, S. E. Bowers,, M.T. Fallon,, and W. M. Shafer. 2003. The increased bactericidal activity of a fatty acid modified synthetic antimicrobial peptide of human cathepsin G correlates with its enhanced capacity to interact with model membranes. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 21: 13 19.
126. Maloy, W. L.,, and U. P. Kari. 1995. Structure-activity studies on Magainins and other host defense peptides. Biopolymers 37: 105 122.
127. Mandal, M.,, and R. Nagaraj. 2002. Antibacterial activities and conformations of synthetic alphadefensin HNP-1 and analogs with one, two, and three disulfide bridges. J. Pept. Res. 59: 95 104.
128. Mangoni, M. L.,, R. Miele,, T. G. Renda,, D. Barra,, and M. Simmaco. 2001. The synthesis of antimicrobial peptides in the skin of Rana esculenta is stimulated by microorganisms. FASEB J. 8: 1431 1432.
129. Mannis, M. J. 2002. The use of antimicrobial peptides in ophthalmology: an experimental study in corneal preservation and the management of bacterial keratitis. Trans.Am. Opthalmol. Soc. 100: 243 271.
130. Matsushita, I.,, K. Hasegawa,, K. Nakata,, K. Yasuda,, K. Tokunaga,, and N. Keicho. 2002. Genetic variants of human beta-defensin 1 and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 15: 17 22.
131. Matsuzaki, K. 1999. Why and how are peptide-lipid interactions utilized for self-defense? Magainins and tachyplesins as archetypes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1462: 1 10.
132. Melmed, G.,, L. S. Thomas,, N. Lee,, S.Y. Tesfay,, K. Lukasek,, K. S. Michelsen,, Y. Zhou,, B. Hu,, M. Arditi,, and M. T. Abreu. 2003. Human intestinal epithelial cells are broadly unresponsive to Toll-like receptor 2-dependent bacterial ligands: implications for host-microbial interactions in the gut. J. Immunol. 170: 1406 1415.
133. Michel, T.,, J. M. Reichhart,, J. A. Hoffmann,, and J. Royet. 2001. Drosophila Toll is activated by Grampositive bacteria through a circulating peptidoglycan recognition protein. Nature 414: 756 759.
134. Morrison, G.,, F. Kilanowski,, D. Davidson,, and J. Dorin. 2002a. Characterization of the mouse defensin 1, Defb1,mutant mouse model. Infect. Immun. 70: 3053 3060.
135. Morrison, G. M.,, M. Rolfe,, F. M. Kilanowski,, S. H. Cross,, and J. R. Dorin. 2002b. Identification and characterization of a novel murine beta-defensin related gene. Mamm. Genome 13: 445 451.
136. Morrison, G. M.,, C.A. Semple,, F. M. Kilanowski,, R. E. Hill,, and J. R. Dorin. 2003. Signal sequence conservations and mature peptide divergence within subgroups of the murine beta-defensin gene family. Mol. Biol. Evol. 20: 460 470.
137. Moser, C.,, D. J. Weinder,, E. Lysenko,, R. Bals,, J. N. Weiser,, and J. M. Wilson. 2002. Beta-defensin 1 contributes to pulmonary innate immunity in mice. Infect. Immun. 70: 3068 3072.
138. Muhle, S. A.,, and J. P. Tam. 2001. Design of gramnegative selective antimicrobial peptides. Biochemistry 40: 5777 5785.
139. Munoz, M.,, F. Vandenbulcke,, Y. Gueguen,, and E. Bachere. 2003. Expression of penaedin antimicrobial peptides in early larval stages of the shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 27: 283 289.
140. Murakami, M.,, T. Ohtake,, R. A. Dorschner,, and R. L. Gallo. 2002a. Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides are expressed in salivary glands and saliva. J. Dent. Res. 81: 845 850.
141. Murakami, M.,, T. Ohtake,, R. A. Dorschner,, B. Schittek,, C. Garbe,, and R. L. Gallo. 2002b. Cathelicidin anti-microbial peptide expression in sweat, an innate defense system for the skin. J. Invest. Dermatol. 119: 1090 1095.
142. Murphy, J. E.,, C. Robert,, and T. S. Kupper. 2000. Interleukin-1 and cutaneous inflammation: a crucial link between innate and acquired immunity J. Invest. Dermatol. 114: 602 608.
143. Nagaoka, I.,, S. Hirota,, F. Niyonsaba,, M. Hirata,, Y. Adachi,, H. Tamura,, S. Tanaka,, and D. Heumann. 2002. Augmentation of the lipopolysaccharide- neutralizing activities of human cathelicidin CAP18/LL37 derived antimicrobial peptides by replacement with hydrophobic and cationic amino acid residues. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 9: 972 982.
144. Nagpal, S.,, K. J. Kaur,, D. Jain,, and D. M. Salunke. 2002. Plasticity in structure and interactions is critical for the action of indolicidin, an antibacterial peptide of innate immune origin. Protein Sci. 11: 2158 2167.
145. Naitza, S.,, C. Rosse,, C. Kappler,, P. Georgel,, M. Belvin,, D. Gubb,, J. Camojnis,, J. A. Hoffmann,, and J. M. Reichhart. 2002. The Drosophila immune defense against gram-negative infection requires the death protein dFADD. Immunity 17: 575 581.
146. Nakajima, Y.,, K. Ogihara,, D. Taylor,, and M. J. Yamakawa. 2003. Antibacterial hemoglobin fragments from the midgut of the soft tick, Ornithodoros moubata (Acari:Argasidae). Med. Entomol. 40: 78 81.
147. Nicolas, G.,, M. Bennoun,, I. Devaux,, C. Beaumont,, B. Grandchamp,, A. Kahn,, and S. Vaulont. 2001. Lack of hepcidin gene expression and severe tissue iron overload in upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2) knockout mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 8780 8785.
148. Niyonsaba, F.,, K. Iwabuchi,, A. Someya,, M. Hirata,, H. Matsuda,, H. Ogawa,, and I. Nagaoka. 2002. A cathelicidin family of human antibacterial peptide LL-37 induces mast cell chemotaxis. Immunology 106: 20 26.
149. Nizet, V.,, X. Ohtake,, J. Trowbridge,, J. Rudisill,, R. A. Dorschner,, V. Pestonjamasp,, J. Piraino,, K. Huttner,, and R. L. Gallo. 2001. An antimicrobial peptide protects mice from invasive bacterial infection. Nature 414: 454 457.
150. Noland, B. W.,, J. M. Newman,, J. Hendle,, J. Badger,, J. A. Christopher,, J. Tresser,, M. D. Buchanan,, T. A. Wright,, M. E. Rutter,, W. E. Sanderson,, H. J. Muller-Dieckmann,, K. S. Gajiwala,, and S. G. Buchanan. 2002. Structural studies of Salmonella typhimurium ArnB(PmrH) aminotransferase: a 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose lipopolysaccharide- modifying enzyme. Structure 10: 1569 1580.
151. O'Neil, D. A.,, E. M. Porter,, D. Elewaut,, G. M. Anderson,, L. Eckmann,, T. Ganz,, and M. F. Kagnoff. 1999. Expression and regulation of the human beta-defensins HBD-1 and HBD-2 in intestinal epithelium. J. Immunol. 163: 6718 6724.
152. Ong, P.,, T. Ohtake,, C. Brandt,, I. Strickland,, M. Boguniewicz,, T. Ganz,, R. L. Gallo,, and D.Y. M. Leung. 2002. Endogeneous antimicrobial peptides and skin infections in atopic dermatitis. New Engl. J. Med. 347: 1151 1160.
153. Oren, Z.,, and Y. Shai. 2000. Cyclization of a cytolytic amphipathic α-helical peptide and its diastereomer: effect on structure, interaction with model membranes, and biological function. Biochemistry 39: 6103 6114.
154. Orlov, D. S.,, T. Nguyen,, and R. I. Lehrer. 2002. Potassium release, a useful tool for studying antimicrobial peptides. J. Microbiol. Methods 49: 325 328.
155. Osusky, M.,, G. Zhou,, L. Osuska,, R. E. Hancock,, W. W. Kay,, and S. Misra. 2000. Transgenic plants expressing cationic peptide chimeras exhibit broadspectrum resistance to phytopathogens. Nat. Biotechnol. 18: 1162 1166.
156. Oulette, A. J.,, and C. L. Bevins. 2001. Paneth cell defensins and innate immunity of the small bowel. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 7: 43 50.
157. Pacor, S.,, A. Giangaspero,, M. Bacac,, G. Sava,, and A. Tossi. 2002. Analysis of the cytotoxicity of synthetic antimicrobial peptides on mouse leukocytes: implications for systemic use. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 50: 339 348.
158. Palladino, M. A.,, A. Mallonga,, and M. S. Mishra. 2003. mRNA expression for the antimicrobial peptides beta-defensin 1 and beta defensin 2 in the male rat reproductive tract: beta defensin 1 mRNA in initial segment and caput epididymidis is regulated by androgens and not bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Biol. Reprod. 68: 509 515.
159. Paone, G.,, A. Wada,, L. A. Stevens,, A. Matin,, T. Hirayama,, R. L. Levine,, and J. Moss. 2002. ADP ribosylation of human neutrophil peptide 1 regulates its biological properties. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 8231 8235.
160. Papo, N.,, Z. Oren,, U. Pag,, H. G. Sahl,, and Y. Shai. 2002. The consequence of sequence alteration of an amphipathic alpha-helical antimicrobial peptide and its diasteriomers. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 33913 33921.
161. Park, C. H.,, E. V. Valore,, A. J. Waring,, and T. Ganz. 2001. Hepcidin, a urinary antimicrobial peptide synthesized in the liver. J. Biol. Chem. 276: 7806 7810.
162. Park, H. C.,, Y. H. Kang,, H. J. Chun,, and J. C. Koo. 2002. Characterization of a stamen-specific cDNA encoding a novel plant defensin in Chinese cabbage. Plant Mol. Biol. 50: 59 69.
163. Patrzykat, A.,, C. L. Friedrich,, L. Zhang,, V. Mendoza,, and R. E. Hancock. 2002. Sublethal concentrations of pleurocidin derived antimicrobial peptides inhibit macromolecular synthesis in E. coli. Antimicro. Agents Chemother. 46: 605 614.
164. Perregaux, D. G.,, K. Bhavsar,, L. Contillo,, J. Shi,, and C. A. Gabel. 2002. Antimicrobial peptides initiate IL-1 beta posttranslational processing: a novel role beyond innate immunity. J. Immunol. 168: 3024 3032.
165. Peschel, A. 2002. How do bacteria resist human antimicrobial peptides? Trends Microbiol. 10: 179 186.
166. Peschel, A.,, R.W. Jack,, M. Otto,, L.V. Collins,, P. Staubitz,, G. Nicholson,, H. Kalbacher,, W. F. Nieuwenhuizen,, G. Jung,, A. Tarkowski,, K. P. van Kessel,, and J. A. van Strijp. 2001. Staphylococcus aureus resistance to human defensins and evasion of neutrophil killing via the novel virulence factor MprF is based on modification of membrane lipids with l-lysine. J. Exp. Med. 193: 1067 1076.
167. Phadke, S. M.,, V. Lazarevic,, C. C. Bahr,, K. Islam,, D. B. Stolz,, S. Watkins,, S. B. Tencza,, H. J. Vogel,, R. C. Montelaro,, and T. A. Mietzner. 2002. Lentivirus lytic peptide 1 perturbs both outer and inner membranes of Serratia marcescens. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 2041 2045.
168. Ponti, D.,, M. L. Mamgoni,, G. Mignongna,, M. Simmaco,, and D. Barra. 2003. An amphibian antimicrobial peptide variant expressed in Nictiana tabacum confers resistance to phytopathogens. Biochem. J. 370: 121 127.
169. Porter, E. A.,, X. Wang,, H. S. Lee,, B. Weisblum,, and S. H. Gellman. 2000. Non-haemolytic β-amino acid oligomers. Nature 404: 565.
170. Putsep, K. G. Carlsson, H. G. Boman, and M. Andersson. 2002. Deficiency of antibacterial peptides in patients with Morbus Kostmann: an observation study. Lancet 360: 1144 1149.
171. Rinaldi, A. C. 2002. Antimicrobial peptides from amphibian skin: an expanding scenario. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 6: 799 804.
172. Risso, A.,, E. Braidot,, M. C. Sordano,, A. Vianello,, F. Macri,, B. Skerlavaj,, M. Zanetti,, R. Gennaro,, and P. Bernardi. 2002. BMAP-28 an antibiotic peptide of innate immunity, induces cell death through opening of the mitochondrial permeability pore. Mol. Cell. Biol. 22: 1926 1935.
173. Rodig, S. J.,, D. Jones,, A. Shahsafaei,, and D. M. Dorfman. 2002. CCR6 is a functional chemokine receptor that serves to identify select B-cell non- Hodgkin's lymphomas. Hum. Pathol. 33: 1227 1233.
174. Roetto, A.,, G. Papanikolaou,, M. Politou,, F. Alberti,, D. Girelli,, J. Christakis,, D. Loukopoulos,, and C. Camaschella. 2003. Mutant antimicrobial peptide hepcidin is associated with severe juvenile hemochromatosis. Nat. Genet. 33: 21 22.
175. Rollins-Smith, L. A.,, C. Carey,, J. Longcore,, J. K. Doersam,, A. Boutte,, J. E. Bruzgal,, and J. M. Conlon. 2002a. Activity of antimicrobial skin peptides from ranid frogs against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the chytrid fungus associated with global amphibian declines. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 26: 471 479.
176. Rollins-Smith, L. A.,, J. K. Doersam,, J. E. Longcore,, S. K. Taylor,, J. C. Shamblin,, and M. Zasloff. 2002b. Antimicrobial peptide defenses against pathogens associated with global amphibian declines. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 26: 63 72.
177. Rollins-Smith, L. A.,, L. K. Reinert,, V. Miera,, and J. M. Conlon. 2002c. Antimicrobial peptide defenses of the Tarahumara frog, Rana tarahumarae. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 297: 361 367.
178. Romeo, D.,, B. Skerlavaj,, M. Bolognesi,, and R. Gennaro. 1988. Structure and bactericidal activity of an antibiotic dodecapeptide purified from bovine neutrophils. J. Biol. Chem. 263: 9573 9575.
179. Russell, J. P.,, G. Diamond,, A. P. Tarver,, T. F. Scanlin,, and C. L. Bevins. 1996. Coordinate induction of two antibiotic genes in tracheal epithelial cells exposed to the inflammatory mediators LPS and tumor necrosis factor α. Infect. Immun. 64: 1565 1568.
180. Sadler, K.,, K. D. Eom,, J. L. Yang,, Y. Dimitrova,, and J. P. Tam. 2002. Translocating proline-rich peptides from the antimicrobial peptide bactenecin 7. Biochemistry 41: 150 157.
181. Salzman, N. H.,, M. M. Chou,, H. deJong,, L. Liu,, E. M. Porter,, and Y. Paterson. 2003a. Enteric salmonella infection inhibits Paneth cell antimicrobial peptide expression. Infect. Immun. 3: 1109 1115.
182. Salzman, N. H.,, D. Ghosh,, K. M. Huttner,, Y. Paterson,, and C. L. Bevins. 2003b. Protection against enteric salmonellosis in transgenic mice expressing a human intestinal defensin. Nature 422: 522 526.
183. Sawai, M. V.,, A. J. Waring,, W. R. Kearney,, P. McRay, Jr.,, W. R. Forsyth,, R. I. Lehrer,, and B. F. Tack. 2002. Impact of single residue mutations on the structure and function of ovispirin/novispirin antimicrobial peptides. Protein Eng. 15: 225 232.
184. Schaller-Bals, S.,, A. Schulze,, and R. Bals. 2002. Increased levels of antimicrobial peptides in tracheal aspirates of newborn infants during infection. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 165: 992 995.
185. Schauber, J.,, C. Svanholm,, S. Termen,, K. Iffland,, T. Menzel,, W. Scheppach,, R. Melcher,, B. Agerberth,, H. Lührs,, and G. H. Gudmundsson. 2003. Expression of the cathelicidin LL-37 is modulated by short chain fatty acids in colonocytes: relevance of signalling pathways. Gut 52: 735 741.
186. Scheetz, T.,, J. A. Bartlett,, J. D. Walters,, B. C. Schutte,, T. L. Casavant,, and P. B. McCray, Jr. 2002. Genomics based approaches to gene discovery in innate immunity. Immunol. Rev. 190: 137 145.
187. Schibili, D. J.,, H. N. Hunter,, V. Aseyez,, T. D. Starner,, J. M. Wiencek,, P. B. McCray, Jr.,, B. F. Tack,, and H. J. Vogel. 2002a. The solution structures of the human beta-defensins lead to a better understanding of the potent bactericidal activity of HBD3 against Staphylococcus aureus. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 8279 8289.
188. Schibili, D. J.,, R. F. Epand,, H. J. Vogel,, and R. M. Epand. 2002b. Tryptophan-rich antimicrobial peptides: comparative properties and membrane interactions. Biochem. Cell Biol. 80: 667 677.
189. Schmidtchen, A.,, I. M. Frick,, E. Andersson,, H. Tapper,, and L. Bjorck. 2002. Proteinase of common pathogenic bacteria degrade and inactivate the antibacterial peptide LL-37. Mol. Microbiol. 46: 157 168.
190. Schonwetter, B. S.,, E. D. Stolzenberg,, and M. Zasloff. 1995. Epithelial antibiotics induced at sites of inflammation. Science 267: 1645 1648.
191. Scott, M. G.,, D. J. Davidson,, M. R. Gold,, D. Bowdish,, and R. E. Hancock. 2002. The human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is a multifunctional modulator of innate immune responses. J. Immunol. 169: 3883 3891.
192. Selsted, M. E.,, S. S. L. Harwig,, T. Ganz,, J. W. Schilling,, and R. I. Lehrer. 1985. Primary structure of three human neutrophil defensins. J. Clin. Invest. 76: 1436 1439.
193. Selsted, M. E.,, M. J. Novotny,, W. L. Morris,, Y. Q. Tang,, W. Smith,, and J. S. Cullor. 1992. Indolicidin, a novel bactericidal tridecapeptide amide from neutrophils. J. Biol. Chem. 267: 4292 4295.
194. Shai, Y. 1999. Mechanism of the binding, insertion and destabilization of phospholipid bilayer membranes by α-helical antimicrobial and cell non-selective membrane-lytic peptides. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1462: 55 70.
195. Shanahan, F. 2002. Crohn's disease. Lancet 359: 62 69.
196. Shepherd, C. M.,, H. J. Vogel,, and D. P. Tieleman. 2003. Interactions of the designed antimicrobial peptide MB21 and truncated dermaseptin S3 with lipid bilayers: molecular-dynamics simulations. Biochem. J. 370: 233 243.
197. Shike, H.,, X. Lauth,, M. E. Westerman,, V. E. Ostland,, J. M. Carlberg,, J. C. Van Olst,, C. Shimizu,, P. Bulet,, and J. C. Burns. 2002. Bass hepcidin is a novel antimicrobial peptide induced by bacterial challenge. Eur. J. Biochem. 269: 2232 2237.
198. Shin, S. W.,, V. Kokoza,, I. Lobkov,, and A. S. Rakiel. 2003. Relish mediated immune deficiency in the transgenic mosquito Aedes aegypt. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100: 2616 2621.
199. Shinnar, A. E.,, T. Uzzell,, M. N. Rao,, E. Spooner,, W. S. Lane,, and M. Zasloff,. 1996. New family of linear antimicrobial peptides from hagfish intestine contains bromotryptophan as novel amino acid, p. 189 191. In P. Kaumaya, and R. Hodges (ed.), Peptides: Chemistry and Biology. Proceedings of the 14th American Peptide Symposium. Mayflower Scientific Ltd., Leiden, The Netherlands.
200. Simmaco, M.,, G. Mignogna,, and D. Barra. 1998. Antimicrobial peptides from amphibian skin: what do they tell us? Biopolymers 47: 35 50.
201. Singh, P. K.,, H. P. Jia,, K. Wiles,, J. Hesselberth,, L. Liu,, B. A. Conway,, E. P. Greenberg,, E.V. Valore,, M. J. Welsh,, T. Ganz,, B. F. Tack,, and P. B. McCray, Jr. 1998. Production of β-defensins by human airway epithelia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 14961 14966.
202. Smith, J. J.,, S. M. Travis,, E. P. Greenberg,, and M. J. Welsh. 1996. Cystic fibrosis airway epithelia fail to kill bacteria because of abnormal airway surface fluid. Cell 85: 229 236.
203. Steiner, H.,, D. Hultmark,, A. Engstrom,, H. Bennich,, and H. G. Boman. 1981. Sequence and specificity of two antibacterial proteins involved in insect immunity. Nature 292: 246 268.
204. Stoven, S.,, I. Ando,, L. Kadalayil,, Y. Engstrom,, and D. Hultmark. 2000. Activation of the Drosophila NF-κB factor relish by rapid endoproteolytic cleavage. EMBO Rep. 1: 347 352.
205. Strom, M. B.,, B. E. Haug,, O. Rekdal,, M. L. Skar,, W. Stensen,, and J. S. Svendsen. 2002. Important structural features of 15 residue lactoferricin derivatives and methods for improvement of antimicrobial activity. Biochem. Cell Biol. 80: 65 74.
206. Takeshima, K.,, A. Chikushi,, K. K. Lee,, S. Yonehara,, and K. Matsuzaki. 2003. Translocation of analogues of the antimicrobial peptides magainin and buforin across human cell membranes. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 1310 1315.
207. Tam, J. P.,, Y. A. Lu,, J. L. Yang,, and K.W. Chiu. 1999. An unusual structural motif of antimicrobial peptides containing end-to-end macrocycle and cys- tine-knot disulfides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 8913 8918.
208. Tam, J. P.,, Y. A. Lu,, and J. L. Yang. 2002. Antimicrobial dendrimeric peptides. Eur. J. Biochem. 269: 923 932.
209. Tamayo, R.,, S. S. Ryan,, A. J. McCoy,, and J. S. Gunn. 2002. Identification and genetic characteristics of PmrA regulated genes and genes involved in polymyxin B resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. Infect. Immun. 70: 6770 6778.
210. Tang, Y. Q.,, J. Yuan,, G. Osapay,, K. Osapay,, D. Tran,, C. J. Miller,, A. J. Ouellette,, and M. E. Selsted. 1999. A cyclic antimicrobial peptide produced in primate leukocytes by the ligation of two truncated α-defensins. Science 286: 498 502.
211. Tang, Y. Q.,, M. R. Yeaman,, and M. E. Selsted. 2002. Antimicrobial peptides from human platelets. Infect. Immun. 70: 6524 6533.
212. Tarver, A. P.,, D. P. Clark,, G. Diamond,, J. P. Russell,, H. Erdjument-Bromage,, P. Tempst,, K. S. Cohen,, D. E. Jones,, R. W. Sweeney,, M. Wines,, S. Hwang,, and C. L. Bevins. 1998. Enteric β-defensin: molecular cloning and characterization of a gene with inducible intestinal epithelial cell expression associated with Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Infect. Immun. 66: 1045 1056.
213. Tasiemki, A.,, H. Hammad,, F. Vandenbulcke,, C. Breton,, T. J. Bilfinger,, J. Pestel,, and M. Salzet. 2002. Presence of Chromogranin derived antimicrobial peptides in plasma during coronary artery bypass surgery and evidence of an immune origin of these peptides. Blood 100: 553 559.
214. Termen, S.,, M. Tollin,, B. Olsson,, T. Svenberg,, B. Agerberth,, and G. H. Gudmundsson. 2003. Phylogeny, processing and expression of the rat cathelicidin rCRAMP: a model for innate antimicrobial peptides. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 60: 536 549.
215. Terras, F. R.,, H. M. Schoofs,, M. F. De Bolle,, F. Van Leuven,, S. B. Rees,, J. Vanderleyden,, B. P. Cammue,, and W. F. Broekaert. 1992. Analysis of two novel classes of plant antifungal proteins from radish ( Raphanus sativus L.) seeds. J. Biol. Chem. 267: 15301 15309.
216. Tew, G. N.,, D. Liu,, B. Chen,, R. J. Doerksen,, J. Kaplan,, P. J. Carroll,, M. L. Klein,, and W. F. DeGrado. 2002. De novo design of biomimetic antimicrobial polymers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 5110 5114.
217. Thevissen, K.,, B. P. Cammue,, K. Lemaire,, J. Winderickx,, R. C. Dickson,, R. L. Lester,, K. K. Ferket,, F. Van Even,, A. H. Parret,, and W. F. Broekaert. 2000. A gene encoding a sphingolipid biosynthesis enzyme determines the sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to an antifungal plant defensin from dahlia ( Dahlia merckii ). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 9531 9536.
218. Thomma, B. P.,, B. P. Cammue,, and K. Thevissen. 2003. Mode of action of plant defensins suggests therapeutic potential. Curr. Drug Targets Infect. Disord. 3: 1 8.
219. Tincu, J. A.,, L. P. Menzel,, R. Azimov,, J. Sands,, T. Hong,, A. J. Waring,, S.W. Taylor,, and R. I. Lehrer. 2003. Plictamide, an antimicrobial octapeptide from Styela plicata hemocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 13546 13553.
220. Tomasinsig, L.,, M. Scocchi,, C. Di Loreto,, D. Artico,, and M. Zanetti. 2002. Inducible expression of an antimicrobial peptide of the innate immunity in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J. Leukoc. Biol. 72: 1003 1010.
221. Tossi, A.,, L. Sandri,, and A. Giangaspero. 2000. Amphipathic, alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides. Biopolymers 55: 4 30.
222. Tzou, P.,, J.M. Reichhart,, and B. Lemaitre. 2002. Constitutive expression of a single antimicrobial peptide can restore wild-type resistance to infection in immunodeficient Drosophila mutants. Proc. Natl.Acad. Sci. USA 99: 2152 2157.
223. Uehara, N.,, A. Yagihashi,, K. Kondoh,, N. Tsuji,, T. Fujita,, H. Hamada,, and N. Watanabe. 2003. Human beta-defensin-2 induction in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosal tissues: antimicrobial effect of overexpression. J. Med. Microbiol. 52: 41 45.
224. Ulvatne, H.,, and L. H. Vorland. 2001. Bactericidal kinetics of three lactoferricins against S. aureus and E. coli. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 33: 507 511.
225. Van Heusden, H. E.,, B. de Kruijff,, and E. Breukink. 2002. Lipid II induces a transmembrane orientation of the pore-forming peptide lantibiotic, Nisin. Biochemistry 41: 12171 12178.
226. Vila-Perello, M.,, A. Sanchez-Vallet,, F. Garcia- Olmedo,, A. Molina,, and D. Andreu. 2003. Synthetic and structural studies on Pyrularia pubera thionin: a single residue mutation enhances activity against Gram-negative bacteria. FEBS Lett. 536: 215 219.
227. Vizioli, J.,, and M. Salzet. 2002. Antimicrobial peptides versus parasitic infections? Trends Parasitol. 18: 475 476.
228. Vogel, H. J.,, D. J. Schibli,, W. Jing,, E. M. Lohmeier-Vogel,, R. F. Epand,, and R. M. Epand. 2002. Towards a structure-function analysis of bovine lactoferricin and related tryptophan and arginine containing peptides. Biochem. Cell Biol. 80: 49 63.
229. VonHorsten, H. H.,, A. Derr,, and C. Kirchoff. 2002. Novel antimicrobial peptide of human epididymal duct origin. Biol. Reprod. 67: 804 813.
230. Wang, H.,, M. Yu,, M. Ochani,, C. A. Amella,, M. Tanovic,, S. Susarla,, J. H. Li,, H. Wang,, H. Yang,, L. Ulloa,, Y. Al-Abed,, C. J. Czura,, and K. J. Tracey. 2003. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit is an essential regulator of inflammation. Nature 421: 384 388.
231. Wang, X.,, C. Moser,, J. P. Louboutin,, E. S. Lysenko,, D. J. Weiner,, J. N. Weiser,, and J. N. Wilson. 2002. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates immune responses to Haemophilius influenzae infection in mouse lung. J. Immunol. 168: 810 815.
232. Wehkamp, J.,, K. Fellermann,, K. R. Herrlinger,, S. Baxmann,, K. Schmidt,, B. Schwind,, M. Duchrow,, C. Wohlschlager,, A. C. Feller,, and E. F. Stange. 2002. Human beta-defensin 2 but not betadefensin 1 is expressed preferentially in colonic mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 14: 745 752.
233. Weiner, D. J.,, R. Bucki,, and P. A. Janmey. 2003. The antimicrobial activity of cathelicidin LL37 is inhibited by F-actin and restored by gelsolin. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 28: 738 745.
234. Welling, M. M.,, A. Paulusma-Annema,, H. S. Balter,, E. K. Pauwels,, and P. H. Nibbering. 2000. Technetium-99m labeled antimicrobial peptides discriminate between bacterial infections and sterile inflammations. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 27: 292 301.
235. Westerhoff, H.V.,, D. Juretic,, R.W. Hendler,, and M. Zasloff. 1989. Magainins and the disruption of membrane-linked free-energy transduction. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 6597 6601.
236. Wilson, C. L.,, A. J. Ouellette,, D. P. Satchell,, T. Ayabe,, Y. S. Lopez-Boado,, J. L. Stratman,, S. J. Hultgren,, L. M. Matrisian,, and W. C. Parks. 1999. Regulation of intestinal α-defensin activation by the metalloproteinase matrilysin in innate host defense. Science 286: 113 117.
237. Wu, T.,, M. R. Yeaman,, and A. S. Bayer. 1994. In vitro resistance to platelet microbicidal protein correlates with endocarditis source among staphylococcal isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38: 729 732.
238. Xu, Y.,, H. Tamamura,, R. Arakaki,, H. Nakashima,, X. Zhang,, N. Fujii,, T. Uchiyama,, and T. Hattori. 1999. Marked increase in anti-HIV activity as well as inhibitory activity against HIV entry mediated by CXCR4, linked to enhancement of the binding ability of tachyplesin analogs to CXCR4. AIDS Res. Hum. Retrov. 15: 419 427.
239. Yamaguchi, Y.,, T. Nagase,, R. Makita,, S. Fukuhara,, T. Tomita,, T. Tominaga,, H. Kurihara,, and Y. Ouchi. 2002. Identification of multiple novel epididymis-specific beta-defensin isoforms in humans and mice. J. Immunol. 169: 2516 2523.
240. Yang, D.,, Q. Chen,, A. P. Schmidt,, G. M. Anderson,, J. M. Wang,, J. Wooters,, J. J. Oppenheim,, and O. Chertov. 2000a. LL-37, the neutrophil granule and epithelial cell-derived cathelicidin, utilizes formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FRPL1) as a receptor to chemoattract human peripheral blood neutrophils, monocytes and T cells. J. Exp. Med. 192: 1069 1074.