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Chapter 22 : Role of Innate Immunity in Bacterial Infection

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on innate immunity against bacterial pathogens with emphasis on the local response at the two major sites of entry, lung and gut. Infection of a number of experimental animal species with provides suitable models for in vivo studies. In terms of the host response, most has been learned from the immunologically well-established mouse model employing the physiological route of infection via aerosols. Recently, angiogenins (ANGs), RNases released from Paneth cells, have been identified to discriminate between commensal and exogenous bacteria in the intestine. In mammalian cells, activation via toll-like receptors (TLRs) results in stimulation of the innate immune system, including upregulation of cytokines, chemokines, costimulatory molecules, and oxidative burst. Listeriosis is characterized by bacterial dissemination from the gut lumen to the central nervous system via the blood-brain barrier and to the fetus via the fetoplacental barrier. The highly organized microarchitecture of secondary lymphoid organs forms the basis for antigen trapping. The spleen is responsible for filtering blood-borne particles. Kupffer cells, the resident tissue macrophages of the liver, adhere to the endothelial cells of the liver sinusoids and are most densely accumulated in the periportal region. Chemokines are critical mediators of leukocyte trafficking, including attraction to sites of inflammation. Mycobacteria-specific antibodies are produced by type 2 B cells abundantly during active tuberculosis. Tuberculosis patients exhibit elevated levels of pleural neutrophil defensins.

Citation: Seiler P, Steinhoff U, Kaufmann S. 2004. Role of Innate Immunity in Bacterial Infection, p 433-454. In Kaufmann S, Medzhitov R, Gordon S (ed), The Innate Immune Response to Infection. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817671.ch22

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Secreted effector molecules in innate immune response against

Citation: Seiler P, Steinhoff U, Kaufmann S. 2004. Role of Innate Immunity in Bacterial Infection, p 433-454. In Kaufmann S, Medzhitov R, Gordon S (ed), The Innate Immune Response to Infection. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817671.ch22
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Surface effector molecules in innate immune response against

Citation: Seiler P, Steinhoff U, Kaufmann S. 2004. Role of Innate Immunity in Bacterial Infection, p 433-454. In Kaufmann S, Medzhitov R, Gordon S (ed), The Innate Immune Response to Infection. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817671.ch22

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