Chapter 10 : Hospital Infections: Staphylococcus aureus

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This chapter covers one gram-positive organism represented by . Although has recently emerged as an important cause of community-acquired drug-resistant infections, it continues to be a major cause of hospital infections, and hence, it is discussed as one paradigm of nosocomial infections caused by gram-positive organisms. Asymptomatic colonization of the skin, nasopharynx, and perineum is more common than diseases caused by . Most commonly, causes acute, pyogenic infections. Skin infections include furuncles (boils, or infection of the hair follicles), carbuncles (aggregates of furuncles), and impetigo (a superficial skin infection), which most commonly occur in children, and cellulitis (infection involving the dermis and subcutaneous tissue). The rapid emergence of penicillin-resistant strains of led to the development of semisynthetic penicillin derivatives (e.g., methicillin and oxacillin) with a β-lactam ring modified to be more stable against penicillinase. Genotype analysis on a small sample size, especially of nasal carriage isolates, can greatly affect the results. The small sample size of nares isolates from different geographic sites in the study by Booth et al. could have contributed to the differences observed in the proportion of different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types. While comparative genome analyses have been limited to a small number of clinically important strains, they already reveal that there are substantial differences, especially among genes that encode putative virulence traits.

Citation: Riley L. 2004. Hospital Infections: Staphylococcus aureus, p 249-280. In Molecular Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817688.ch10

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Table 10.1

Representative multicenter studies that examined clonal composition of isolates

NI, not indicated.

Citation: Riley L. 2004. Hospital Infections: Staphylococcus aureus, p 249-280. In Molecular Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817688.ch10

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