1887

Chapter 6 : Stratification and Refinement of Data in Epidemiologic Investigations

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Stratification and Refinement of Data in Epidemiologic Investigations, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817688/9781555812683_Chap06-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817688/9781555812683_Chap06-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter discusses the molecular epidemiologic approaches used to identify determinants of infectious disease distribution and transmission. Several examples from reported studies are used to illustrate this concept. In particular, the examples focus on epidemiologic investigations that (i) describe the dynamics of infectious disease transmission in community settings, (ii) identify and quantify attributable risk in a community, (iii) refine analytical study designs to make inferences, and (iv) create opportunities to identify new intervention options.

Citation: Riley L. 2004. Stratification and Refinement of Data in Epidemiologic Investigations, p 149-173. In Molecular Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817688.ch6

Key Concept Ranking

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.42277288
0.42277288
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817688.chap6
1. Agerton, T. B.,, S. E. Valway,, R. J. Blinkhorn,, K. L. Shilkret,, R. Reves,, W. W. Schluter,, B. Gore,, C. J. Pozsik,, B. B. Plikaytis,, C. Woodley,, and I. M. Onorato. 1999. Spread of strain W, a highly drug-resistant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis across the United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29: 85 92.
2. Alland, D.,, G. E. Lakkut,, A. R. Moss,, R. A. McAdam,, J. A. Hahn,, W. Bosworth,, E. Drucker,, and B. R. Bloom. 1994. Transmission of tuberculosis in New York City: an analysis by DNA fingerprinting and conventional methods. N. Engl. J. Med. 330: 1710 1716.
3.Anonymous. 2003. Annual Report on zoonosis in Denmark 2002. Ministry of Food, Agriculture, and Fisheries, Copenhagen, Denmark.
4. Barnes, P. F.,, H. El-Hajj,, S. Preston-Martin,, M. D. Cave,, B. E. Jones,, M. Otaya,, J. Pogoda,, and K. D. Eisenach. 1996. Transmission of tuberculosis among the urban homeless. JAMA 275: 305 307.
5. Bauer, J.,, Y. Zhenhua,, S. Poulsen,, and A. B. Andersen. 1998. Results from 5 years of nationwide DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in a country with a low incidence of M. tuberculosis infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 305 308.
6. Bender, J. B.,, C. W. Hedberg,, D. J. Boxrud,, J. M. Besser,, J. H. Wicklund,, K. E. Smith,, and M. T. Osterholm. 2001. Use of molecular subtyping in surveillance for Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. N. Engl. J. Med. 344: 189 195.
7. Bifani, P. J.,, B. Mathema,, Z. Liu,, S. L. Moghazeh,, B. Shopsin,, B. Tempalski,, J. Driscoll,, R. Frothingham,, J. M. Musser,, P. Alcabes,, and B. N. Kreiswirth. 1999. Identification of a W variant outbreak of Mycobacterium tuberculosis via populationbased molecular epidemiology. JAMA 282: 2321 2327.
8. Braden, C. R.,, G. L. Templeton,, M. D. Cave,, S. Valway,, I. M. Onorato,, K. G. Castro,, D. Moers,, Z. Yang,, W. W. Stead,, and J. H. Bates. 1997. Interpretation of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a state with a large rural population. J. Infect. Dis. 175: 1446 1457.
9. Brudney, K.,, and J. Dobkin. 1991. Resurgent tuberculosis in New York City: human immunodeficiency virus, homelessness, and the decline of tuberculosis control programs. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 144: 745 749.
9a.. Bureau of Tuberculosis Control. 1992. Tuberculosis in New York City, 1992. Information Summary. New York City Department of Health, New York, N.Y.
10. Bureau of Tuberculosis Control. 1994. Information Summary, New York. New York City Department of Health, New York, N.Y.
11. Casper, C.,, S. P. Singh,, S. Rane,, C. R. Daley,, G. S. Schecter,, L. W. Riley,, and P. M. Small. 1996. Transcontinental transmission of tuberculosis? A molecular and epidemiologic assessment. Am. J. Public Health 86: 551 553.
12. Cave, M. D.,, K. D. Eisenach,, G. Templeton,, M. Salfinger,, G. Mazurek,, J. H. Bates,, and J. T. Crawford. 1994. Stability of DNA fingerprint pattern produced with IS6110 in strains of M. tuberculosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 262 266.
13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1981. Multistate outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with precooked roast beef. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 30: 391392.
14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1991. Transmission of multidrugresistant tuberculosis among immunocompromised persons in a correctional system— New York, 1991. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 41: 507509.
15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Standardized Molecular Subtyping of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis: a Manual. National Center for Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, Ga.
16. Chow, J. W.,, A. Kuritza,, D. M. Shlaes,, M. Green,, D. F. Sahm,, and M. J. Zervos. 1993. Clonal spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium between patients in three hospitals in two states. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 1609 1611.
17. Cohen, M. L.,, and R. V. Tauxe. 1986. Drug-resistant Salmonella infections in the United States: an epidemiologic perspective. Science 234: 964 969.
18. Coronado, V. G.,, C. M. Beck-Sague,, M. D. Hutton,, B. J. Davis,, P. Nicholas,, C. Villareal,, C. L. Woodley,, J. O. Kilburn,, and J. T. Crawford. 1993. Transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis among persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection in an urban hospital: epidemiologic and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. J. Infect. Dis. 168: 1052 1055.
19. D’Agata, E. M. C.,, L. Hanjing,, C. Gouldin,, and Y. W. Tang. 2001. Clinical and molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains during establishment of endemicity. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33: 511 516.
20. Ehrt, S.,, M. U. Shiloh,, J. Ruan,, M. Choi,, S. Gunzburg,, C. Nathan,, Q. W. Xie,, and L. W. Riley. 1997. A novel antioxidant gene from M. tuberculosis. J. Exp. Med. 186: 1885 1896.
21. Ena, J.,, R. W. Dick,, R. N. Jones,, and R. P. Wenzel. 1993. The epidemiology of intravenous vancomycin usage in a university hospital. JAMA 269: 598 602.
22. Farer, L. 1986. The current status of tuberculosis control efforts. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 134: 402 407.
23. Ferrazoli, L.,, M. Palaci,, R. M. Marques,, L. F. Jamal,, J. B. Aifune,, E. Chimara,, M. C. Martins,, M. A. S. Telles,, C. A. F. Oliveira,, M. C. Palhares,, D. T. A. Spada,, and L. W. Riley. 2000. Transmission of tuberculosis in an endemic urban setting in Brazil. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 4: 18 25.
24. Frieden, T. R.,, L. F. Sherman,, K. L. Maw,, F. I. Fujiwara,, J. T. Crawford,, B. Nivin,, V. Sharp,, D. Hewlett,, K. Brudney,, D. Alland,, and B. N. Kreiswirth. 1996. A multi-institutional outbreak of highly drug-resistant tuberculosis: epidemiology and clinical outcomes. JAMA 276: 1229 1235.
25. Frieden, T. R.,, P. I. Fujiwara,, R. M. Washko,, and M. A. Hamburg. 1995. Tuberculosis in New York City—turning the tide. N. Engl. J. Med. 333: 229 233.
26. Frieden, T. R.,, T. Sterling,, A. Pablo-Mendez,, J. O. Kilburn,, G. M. Cauthen,, and S. W. Dooley. 1993. The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis in New York City. N. Engl. J. Med. 328: 521 526.
27.Reference deleted.
28. Friedman, C. R.,, G. C. Quinn,, B. N. Kreiswirth,, D. C. Perlman,, N. Salomon,, N. Schluger,, M. Lutfey,, J. Berger,, N. Poltoratskaia,, and L. W. Riley. 1997. Widespread dissemination of a drug-susceptible strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Infect. Dis. 176: 478 484.
29. Friedman, C. R.,, M. Y. Stoeckel,, B. N. Kreiswirth,, W. D. Johnson,, S. M. Manoach,, J. Berber,, K. Sathianathan,, A. Hafner,, and L. W. Riley. 1995. Transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a large urban setting. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 152: 355 359.
30. Genewein, A.,, A. Telenti,, C. Bernasconi,, C. Mordasini,, S. Weiss,, A. M. Maurer,, H. L. Rieder,, K. Schopfer,, and T. Bodmer. 1993. Molecular approach to identifying route of transmission of tuberculosis in the community. Lancet 342: 841 844.
31. Glynn, J. R.,, J. Bauer,, A. S. de Boer,, M. W. Borgdorff,, P. E. M. Fine,, P. Godfrey- Faussett,, E. Vynnycky, and European Concerted Action on Molecular Epidemiology and Control of Tuberculosis. 1999. Interpreting DNA fingerprint clusters of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 3: 1055 1060.
32. Holm, J. 1969. Development from Tuberculosis Infection to Tuberculosis Disease. Royal Dutch Tuberculosis Association, The Hague, The Netherlands.
33. Hospital Infection Control Practice Advisory Committee. 1995. Recommendations for preventing the spread of vancomycin resistance. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 16: 105113.
34. Kim, W. J.,, R. A. Weinstein,, and M. K. Hayden. 1999. The changing molecular epidemiology and establishment of endemicity of vancomycin resistance in enterococci at one hospital over a 6-year period. J. Infect. Dis. 179: 163 171.
35. Leclercq, R.,, E. Derlot,, M. Weber,, J. Duval,, and P. Courvalin. 1989. Transferable vancomycin and teicoplan resistance in Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33: 10 15.
36. Lee, L. A.,, N. D. Puhr,, E. K. Maloney,, N. H. Bean,, and R. V. Tauxe. 1994. Increase in antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella infections in the United States, 1989-1990. J. Infect. Dis. 170: 128 134.
37.. Lillebaek, T.,, A. Dirksen,, E. Vynnycky,, I. Baess,, V. O. Thomsen,, and A. B. Andersen. 2003. Stability of DNA patterns and evidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reactivation occurring decades after the initial infection. J. Infect. Dis. 188: 1032 1039.
38. Maguire, H.,, J. W. Dale,, T. D. McHugh,, P. D. Butcher,, S. H. Gillespsie,, A. Costetsos,, H. Al-Ghusein,, R. Holland,, A. Dickens,, L. Maston,, P. Wilson,, R. Pitman,, D. Strachan,, F. A. Drobniewski,, and D. K. Banerjee. 2002. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in London 1995-7 showing low rate of active transmission. Thorax 57: 617 622.
39. Mato, R.,, H. de Lencastre,, R. B. Roberts,, and A. Tomasz. 1996. Multiplicity of genetic backgrounds among vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates recovered from an outbreak in a New York City hospital. Microb. Drug Resist. 2: 309 317.
40. McDonald, K. L.,, M. L. Cohen,, N. Hargrett-Bean,, J. G. Wells,, N. D. Puhr,, S. F. Collin,, and P. A. Blake. 1987. Changes in antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from humans in the United States. JAMA 258: 1496 1499.
41. Molbak, K.,, D. L. Baggesen,, F. M. Aarestrup,, J. M. Ebbesen,, J. Engberg,, K. Frydendahl,, P. Gernier-Smidt,, A. M. Petersen,, and H. C. Wegener. 1999. An outbreak of multidrug-resistant, quinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104. N. Engl. J. Med. 341: 1420 1425.
42. Moreno, F.,, P. Grota,, C. Crisp,, K. Magnon,, G. P. Melcher,, J. H. Jorgensen,, and J. E. Patterson. 1995. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium during its emergence in a city in southern Texas. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21: 1234 1237.
43. Morris, J. G.,, D. K. Shay,, J. N. Hebden,, R. J. McCarter,, B. E. Perdue,, W. Jarvis,, J. A. Johnson,, T. C. Dowling,, L. B. Polish,, and R. S. Schwalbe. 1995. Enterococci resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, including vancomycin: establishment of endemicity in a university medical center. Ann. Intern. Med. 123: 250 259.
44. Moss, A. R.,, D. Alland,, E. Telzak,, D. Hewlett, Jr.,, V. Sharp,, P. Chiliade,, V. LaBombardi,, D. Kabus,, B. Hanna,, L. Palumbo,, K. Brudney,, A. Weltman,, K. Stoeckle,, K. Chirgwin,, M. Simberkoff,, S. Moghazeh,, W. Eisner,, M. Lutfey,, and B. Kreiswirth. 1997. A city-wide outbreak of a multiple-drug-resistant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in New York. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 1: 115 121.
45. Olsen, S. J.,, L. C. MacKinnon,, J. S. Goulding,, N. H. Bean,, and L. Slutsker. 2000. Surveillance for foodborne-disease outbreaks—United States, 1993-1997. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49: SS 1.
46. Pablos-Mendez, A,, M. C. Raviglione,, A. Laszlo,, N. Binkin,, H. L. Rieder,, F. Bustreo,, D. L. Cohin,, C. S. B. Lambregts-van Weezenbeek,, S. J. Kim,, P. Chaulet,, and P. Nunn. 1998. Global surveillance for antituberculosis-drug resistance, 1994-1997. N. Engl. J. Med. 338: 1641 1649.
47. Pessoa, G. V. A.,, K. Irino,, C. E. A. Melles,, C. T. Calzada,, M. Raskin,, and E. Kano. 1978. Ocorrencia de bacterias enteropathogenicas em São Paulo no Septenio 1970-76. II. O surto epidemico de Salmonella typhimurium em São Paulo. Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz 38: 107 127.
48. Riley, L. W.,, G. T. DiFerdinando,, T. M. DeMelfi,, and M. L. Cohen. 1983. Evaluation of isolated cases of salmonellosis by plasmid profile analysis: introduction and transmission of a bacterial clone by precooked roast beef. J. Infect. Dis. 148: 12 17.
49. Riley, L. W.,, B. S. O. Ceballos,, L. R. Trabulsi,, M. R. F. Toledo,, and P. A. Blake. 1984. The significance of hospitals as reservoirs for endemic multiresistant Salmonella typhimurium causing infection in urban Brazilian children. J. Infect. Dis. 150: 236 241.
50. Riley, L. W.,, M. L. Cohen,, J. E. Seals,, M. J. Blaser,, K. A. Birkness,, N. T. Hargrett,, S. M. Martin,, and R. A. Feldman. 1984. Importance of host factors in human salmonellosis caused by multiresistant strains of Salmonella. J. Infect. Dis. 149: 878 883.
51. Small, P. M.,, P. C. Hopewell,, S. P. Singh,, A. Paz,, J. Parsonnet,, D. C. Ruston,, G. F. Schecter,, C. L. Daley,, and G. K. Schoolnik. 1994. The epidemiology of tuberculosis in San Francisco: a population-based study using conventional and molecular methods. N. Engl. J. Med. 330: 1703 1709.
52. Sutherland, I.,, E. Svandova,, and S. E. Radhakrishna. 1982. The development of clinical tuberculosis following infection with tubercle bacilli. Tubercle 63: 255 268.
53. Swaminathan, B.,, T. J. Barrett,, S. B. Hunter,, R. V. Tauxe, and the CDC PulseNet Task Force. 2001. PulseNet: the molecular subtyping network for foodborne bacterial disease surveillance, United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7: 382 389.
54. Thal, L.,, S. Donabedian,, B. Robinson-Dunn,, J. W. Chow,, L. Dembry,, D. B. Clewell,, D. Alshab,, and M. J. Zervos. 1998. Molecular analysis of glycopeptideresistant Enterococcus faecium isolates collected from Michigan hospitals over a 6-year period. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 3303 3308.
55. Valway, S. E.,, R. B. Greifinger,, M. Papania,, J. O. Kilburn,, C. Woodley,, G. T. Diferdinando,, and S. D. Dooley. 1994. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in New York State prison system, 1990-1991. J. Infect. Dis. 170: 151 156.
56. van Deutekom, H.,, J. J. J. Gerritsen,, D. van Soolingen,, E. J. C. van Ameijden,, J. D. A. van Embden,, and R. A. Coutinho. 1997. A molecular epidemiological approach to studying transmission of tuberculosis in Amsterdam. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25: 1071 1077.
57. Van Soolingen, D.,, P. W. M. Hermans,, P. E. W. De Haas,, D. R. Soll,, and J. D. A. van Embden. 1991. Occurrence and stability of insertion sequences in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains: evaluation of an insertion sequence-dependent DNA polymorphism as a tool in epidemiology of tuberculosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 2578 2586.
58. Vukovic, D.,, S. Rusch-Gerdes,, B. Savic,, and S. Niemann. 2003. Molecular epidemiology of pulmonary tuberculosis in Belgrade, Central Serbia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 4372 4377.
59. Vynnycky, E.,, M. W. Borgdorff,, D. van Soolingen,, and P. E. M. Fine. 2003. Annual Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection risk and interpretation of clustering statistics. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9: 176 183.
60. Woodford, N.,, A. P. Johnson,, D. Morrison,, and D. C. E. Speller. 1995. Current perspectives on glycopeptide resistance. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 8: 585 615.
61. Yeh, R. W.,, A. P. De Leon,, C. B. Agasino,, J. A. Hahn,, C. L. Daley,, P. C. Hopewell,, and P. M. Small. 1998. Stability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA genotypes. J. Infect. Dis. 177: 1107 1111.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error