1887

Chapter 8 : Distinguishing Pathovars from Nonpathovars:

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Distinguishing Pathovars from Nonpathovars: , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817688/9781555812683_Chap08-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817688/9781555812683_Chap08-2.gif

Abstract:

One defining feature of a pathovar is that, in a human host, it colonizes the same nonsterile ecologic niche in which nonpathovars establish themselves as commensals. This chapter talks about a bacterial organism, , that colonizes the oro- and naso-pharynx of the human host in similar proportions worldwide. The major current epidemiologic concerns regarding pneumococcal infections include the determinants of the emergence and spread in the community of drug-resistant strains of the pneumococcus and the relationship between asymptomatic carriage and disease. The latter addresses the issue of whether or not any strain that asymptomatically colonizes a host is also capable of causing invasive disease. Molecular epidemiologic approaches to these issues are discussed.

Citation: Riley L. 2004. Distinguishing Pathovars from Nonpathovars: , p 209-227. In Molecular Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817688.ch8

Key Concept Ranking

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.4707162
0.4707162
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817688.chap8
1. Berchieri, A.,, and P. A. Barrow. 1990. Further studies on the inhibition of colonization of the chicken alimentary tract with Salmonella typhimurium by precolonization with an avirulent mutant. Epidemiol. Infect. 194: 427 441.
2. Bogaert, D.,, N. T. Ha,, M. Sluijter,, N. Lemmens,, R. De Groot,, and P. W. Hermans. 2003. Molecular epidemiology of pneumococcal carriage among children with upper respiratory tract infections in Hanoi, Vietnam. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 3903 3908.
3. Bogaerts, J.,, P. Lepage,, H. Taelman,, D. Rouvroy,, J. Batungwanayo,, P. Kestelyn,, D. G. Hitimana,, P. Van de Perre,, J. Vandepitte,, L. Verbist,, and J. Verhaegen. 1993. Antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Rwanda, 1984-1990. J. Infect. 27: 157 168.
4. Breiman, R. F.,, J. C. Butler,, F. C. Tenover,, J. A. Elliott,, and R. R. Facklam. 1994. Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States. JAMA 271: 1831 1835.
5. Brueggemann, A. B.,, D. T. Griffiths,, E. Meats,, T. Peto,, D. W. Crook,, and B. G. Spratt. 2003. Clonal relationships between invasive and carriage Streptococcus pneumoniae and serotype- and clone-specific differences in invasive disease potential. J. Infect. Dis. 187: 1424 1432.
6. Bruyn, G. A. W.,, B. J. M. Zegers,, and R. von Furth. 1992. Mechanism of host defense against infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14: 251 262.
7. Chen, H. C.,, and N. J. Stern. 2001. Competitive exclusion of heterologous Campylobacter spp. in chicks. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 848 851.
8. Coffey, T. J.,, C. G. Dowson,, M. Daniels,, and B. G. Spratt. 1995. Genetics and molecular biology of β-lactam-resistant pneumococci. Microb. Drug Resist. 1: 29 34.
9. Coffey, T. J.,, C. G. Dowson,, M. Daniels,, J. Zhou,, C. Martin,, B. G. Spratt,, and J. M. Musser. 1991. Horizontal transfer of multiple penicillin-binding protein genes, and capsular biosynthetic genes, in natural populations of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol. Microbiol. 5: 2255 2260.
10. Coffey, T. J.,, S. Berron,, M. Daniels,, E. Garcia-Leoni,, E. Cercenado,, E. Bouza,, A. Fenoll,, and B. G. Spratt. 1996. Multiply antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from Spanish hospitals (1988-1994): novel major clones of serotypes 14, 19F, and 15F. Microbiology 142: 2747 2757.
11. Davies, T.,, R. V. Goering,, M. Lovgren,, J. A. Talbot,, M. R. Jacobs,, and P. C. Applebaum. 1999. Molecular epidemiological survey of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae from Asia, Europe, and North America. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 34: 7 12.
12. de Andrade, A. L.,, F. C. Pimenta,, M. C. Brandileone,, C. A. Laval,, M. L. Guerra,, J. G. de Andrade,, and J. L. Di Fabio. 2003. Genetic relationship between Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from nasopharyngeal and cerebrospinal fluid of two infants with pneumococcal meningitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 4: 3970 3972.
13. Dillard, J. P.,, M. W. Vandersea,, and J. Yother. 1995. Characterization of the cassette containing genes for type 3 capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae. J. Exp. Med. 181: 973 983.
14. Doyle, M. G.,, A. L. Morrow,, R. Van,, and L. K. Pickering. 1992. Intermediate resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin in children in day-care centers. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 11: 831 835.
15. Dunne, W. M., Jr.,, K. S. Kehl,, C. A. Holland-Staley,, A. B. Brueggemann,, M. A. Pfaller,, and G. V. Doern. 2001 Comparison of results generated by serotyping, pulsed-field restriction analysis, ribotyping, and repetitive-sequence PCR used to characterize penicillin-resistant pneumococci from the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 1791 1795.
16. Duval-Iflah, Y.,, J. P. Chappuis,, R. Ducluzeau,, and P. Raibaud. 1983. Intraspecific interactions between Escherichia coli strains in human newborns and gnotobiotic mice and piglets. Prog. Food Nutr. Sci. 7: 107 116.
17. Enright, M. C.,, and B. G. Spratt. 1998. A multilocus sequence typing for Streptococcus pneumoniae: identification of clones associated with serious invasive disease. Microbiology 144: 3049 3060.
18. Fenoll, A.,, I. Jado,, D. Vicioso,, A. Pérez,, and J. Casal. 1998. Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes and antibiotic resistance in Spain: update (1990 to 1996). J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 3447 3454.
19. Fenoll, A.,, M. Bourgon,, R. Munoz,, D. Vicioso,, and J. Casal. 1991. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates causing systemic infections in Spain, 1979-1989. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13: 56 60.
20. Figueiredo, A. M.,, R. Austrain,, P. Urgaskova,, L. A. Teixeira,, and A. Tomasz. 1995. Novel penicillin-resistant clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Microb. Drug Resist. 1: 71 78.
21. Gray, B. M.,, G. M. Converse III,, and H. C. Dillon. 1980. Epidemiologic studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae in infants: acquisition, carriage, and infection during the first 24 months of life. J. Infect. Dis. 142: 923 933.
22. Hall, L. M.,, R. A. Whiley,, B. Duke,, R. C. George,, and E. Efstratiou. 1996. Genetic relatedness within and between serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae from the United Kingdom: analysis of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and antimicrobial resistance patterns. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 853 859.
23. Hansman, D.,, and M. M. Bullen. 1967. A resistant pneumococcus. Lancet ii: 264 265.
24. Hermans, P. W. M.,, M. Sluijter,, T. Hoogenboezem,, H. Heersma,, A. van Belkum,, and R. de Groot. 1995. Comparative study of five different DNA fingerprint techniques for molecular typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 1606 1612.
25. Janoff, E. N.,, R. F. Breiman,, C. L. Daley,, and P. C. Hopewell. 1992. Pneumococcal disease during HIV infection: epidemiologic, clinical, and immunologic perspectives. Ann. Intern. Med. 117: 314 324.
26. John, T. J.,, R. Pai,, M. K. Lalitha,, M. V. Jesudason,, K. N. Brahmandathan,, G. Sridharan,, and M. C. Steinhoff. 1996. Prevalence of pneumococcal serotypes in invasive diseases in southern India. Indian J. Med. Res. 104: 205 207.
27. Kalin, M. 1998. Pneumococcal serotypes and their clinical relevance. Thorax 53: 159 162.
28. Kam, K. M.,, K. Y. Luey,, S. M. Fung,, P. P. Yiu,, T. J. Harden,, and M. M. Cheung. 1995. Emergence of multiple-antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Hong Kong. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39: 2667 2670.
29. Kellner, J. D.,, A. McGeer,, M. S. Cetron,, D. E. Low,, J. C. Butler,, A. Matlo,, J. Talbot,, and E. L. Ford-Jones. 1998. The use of Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal isolates from healthy children to predict features of invasive disease. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 17: 279 286.
30. Klein, J. O. 1981. The epidemiology of pneumococcal disease in infants and children. Rev. Infect. Dis. 3: 246 253.
31. Klugman, K. P. 1990. Pneumococcal resistance to antibiotics. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 3: 171 196.
32. Leach, A. J.,, J. B. Boswell,, V. Asche,, T. G. Nienhuys,, and J. D. Mathews. 1994. Bacterial colonization of the nasopharynx predicts very early onset and persistence of otitis media in Australian Aboriginal infants. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 13: 983 989.
33. Lefevre, J. C.,, M. A. Bertrand,, and G. Faucon. 1995. Molecular analysis by pulsed field gel electrophoresis of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae from Toulouse, France. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 14: 491 497.
34. Levin, B. R.,, and R. Antia. 2001. Why we don’t get sick: the within-host population dynamics of bacterial infections. Science 292: 1112 1115.
35. Liu, P. Y.-F.,, B.-S. Hu,, C.-P. Fung,, Y.-J. Lau,, Z.-Y. Shi,, and Y.-H. Lin. 1998. Molecular epidemiology of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in Central Taiwan. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 31: 511 515.
36. Lloyd-Evans, N.,, T. J. D. O’Dempsey,, I. Baldeh,, O. Secka,, E. Dernda,, J. E. Todd,, T. F. McArdle,, W. S. Banya,, and B. M. Greenwood. 1996. Nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococci in Gambian children and in their families. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 15: 866 871.
37. Loda, F. A.,, A. M. Collier,, W. P. Glezen,, K. Strangert,, W. A. Clyde,, and F. W. Denny. 1975. Occurrence of Diplococcus pneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract of children. J. Pediatr. 87: 1087 1093.
38. Maiden, M. C. J.,, J. A. Bygraves,, E. Feil,, J. E. Russell,, R. Urwin,, Q. Zhang,, J. Zhou,, K. Zurth,, D. A. Caugant,, I. M. Feavers,, M. Achtman,, and B. G. Spratt. 1998. Multilocus sequence typing: a portable approach to the identification of clones within populations of pathogenic microorganisms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 3140 3145.
39. Manges, A. R.,, J. R. Johnson,, B. Foxman,, T. T. O’Bryan,, K. R. Fullerton,, and L. W. Riley. 2001. Widespread distribution of urinary tract infections caused by a multidrug resistant Escherichia coli clonal group. N. Engl. J. Med. 345: 1007 1013.
40. Marton, A.,, M. Gulyas,, R. Munoz,, and A. Tomasz. 1991. Extremely high incidence of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Hungary. J. Infect. Dis. 163: 542 548.
41. Mastro, T. D.,, N. K. Nomani,, Z. Ishaq,, A. Ghafoor,, N. F. Shaukat,, E. Esko,, M. Leinonen,, J. Henrichsen,, R. F. Breiman,, B. Schwartz et al. 1993. Use of nasopharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae from children in Pakistan for surveillance for antimicrobial resistance. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 12: 824 830.
42. McDougal, L. K.,, J. K. Rasheed,, J. W. Biddle,, and F. C. Tenover. 1995. Identification of multiple clones of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae from the United States. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39: 2282 2288.
43. McDougal, L. K.,, R. Facklam,, M. Reeves,, S. Hunter,, J. M. Swenson,, B. C. Hill,, and F. C. Tenover. 1992. Analysis of multiply antimicrobial-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from the United States. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36: 2176 2184.
44. McGee, L.,, L. McDougal,, J. Zhou,, B. G. Spratt,, F. C. Tenover,, R. George,, R. Hakenbeck,, W. Hryniewicz,, J. C. Lefévre,, A. Tomasz,, and K. P. Klugman. 2001. Nomenclature of major antimicrobial-resistant clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae defined by the Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 2565 2571.
45. Montgomery, J. M.,, D. Lehmann,, T. Smith,, A. Michael,, B. Joseph,, T. Lupiwa,, C. Coakley,, V. Spooner,, B. Best,, and I. D. Riley. 1990 Bacterial colonization of the upper respiratory tract and its association with acute lower respiratory infections in highland children of Papua New Guinea. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12( Suppl. 8): S1006 S1016.
46. Monto, A. S. 1989. Acute respiratory infection in children of developing countries: challenge of the 1990s. Rev. Infect. Dis. 11: 498 505.
47. Müller-Graf, C. D. M.,, A. M. Whatmore,, S. J. King,, K. Trzcinski,, A. P. Pickerill,, N. Doherty,, J. Paul,, D. Griffiths,, D. Crook,, and C. G. Dowson. 1999. Population biology of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from oropharyngeal carriage and invasive disease. Microbiology 145: 3283 3293.
48. Munoz, R.,, T. J. Coffey,, M. Daniels,, C. G. Dowson,, G. Laible,, J. Casal,, R. Hakenbeck,, M. Jacobs,, J. M. Musser,, B. G. Spratt,, and A. Tomasz. 1991. Intercontinental spread of a multiresitant clone of serotype 23F Streptococcus pneumoniae. J. Infect. Dis. 164: 302 306.
49. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. 1994. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Villanova, Pa.
50. Nisbet, D. 2002. Defined competitive exclusion cultures in the prevention of enteropathogen colonisation in poultry and swine. Antonie Leeuwenhoek 81: 481 486.
51. Onderdonk, A.,, B. Marshall,, R. Cisneros,, and S. B. Levy. 1981. Competition between congenic Escherichia coli K-12 strains in vivo. Infect. Immun. 32: 74 79.
52. Overweg, K.,, P. W. M. Hermans,, K. Trzcinski,, M. Sluijter,, R. de Groot,, and W. Hryniewicz. 1999. Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Poland: identification of emerging clones. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 1739 1745.
53. Perez-Trallero, E.,, J. M. Marimon,, A. Gonzalez,, and L. Iglesias. 2003. Spain (14)-5 international multiresistant Streptococcus pneumoniae clone resistant to fluoroquinolones and other families of antibiotics. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51: 715 719.
54. Porat, N.,, R. Trefler,, and R. Dagan. 2001. Persistence of two invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae clones of serotype 1 and 5 in comparison to that of multiple clones of serotypes 6B and 23F among children in southern Israel. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 1827 1832.
55. Read, A. F.,, and L. H. Taylor,. 2000. Within-host ecology of infectious diseases: patterns and consequences, p. 59 75. In R. C. A. Thompson (ed.), Molecular Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases. Oxford University Press, New York, N.Y.
56. Read, A. F.,, and L. H. Taylor. 2001. The ecology of genetically diverse infections. Science 292: 1099 1102.
57. Reichler, M. R.,, A. A. Allphin,, R. F. Breiman,, J. R. Schreiber,, J. E. Arnold,, L. K. McDougal,, R. R. Facklam,, B. Boxerbaum,, D. May,, R. O. Walton, et al. 1992. The spread of multiply-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae at a day care center in Ohio. J. Infect. Dis. 166: 1346 1353.
58. Richter, S. S.,, K. P. Heilmann,, S. L. Coffman,, H. K. Huynh,, A. B. Brueggemann,, M. A. Pfaller,, and G. V. Doern. 2002. The molecular epidemiology of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States, 1994-2000. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34: 330 339.
59. Robinson, D. A.,, D. E. Briles,, M. J. Crain,, and S. K. Hollingshead. 2002. Evolution and virulence of serogroup 6 pneumococci on a global scale. J. Bacteriol. 184: 6367 6375.
60. Robinson, D. A.,, J. S. Turner,, R. R. Facklam,, A. J. Parkinson,, R. F. Breiman,, M. Gratten,, M. C. Steinhoff,, S. K. Hollingshead,, D. E. Briles,, and M. J. Crain. 1999. Molecular characterization of a globally distributed lineage of serotype 12F Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive disease. J. Infect. Dis. 179: 414 422.
61. Robinson, D. A.,, K. M. Edwards,, K. B. Waites,, D. E. Briles,, M. J. Crain,, and S. K. Hollingshead. 2001. Clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from nasopharyngeal carriage and invasive disease in young children in Central Tennessee. J. Infect. Dis. 183: 1501 1507.
62. Robinson, D. A.,, S. K. Hollingshead,, J. M. Musser,, A. J. Parkinson,, D. E. Briles,, and M. J. Crain. 1998. The IS1167 insertion sequence is a phylogenetically informative marker among isolates of serotype 6B Streptococcus pneumoniae. J. Mol. Evol. 47: 222 229.
63. Robinson, K. A.,, W. Baughman,, G. Rothrock,, N. L. Barrett,, M. Pass,, C. Lexau,, B. Damaske,, K. Stefonek,, B. Barnes,, J. Patterson,, E. R. Zell,, A. Schuchat,, C. G. Whitney, and Active Bacterial Core Surveillance (ABCs)/Emerging Infections Program Network. 2001. Epidemiology of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in the United States, 1995-1998: opportunities for prevention in the conjugate vaccine era. JAMA 285: 1729 1735.
64. Scott, J. A. G.,, A. J. Hall,, R. Dagan,, J. M. S. Dixon,, S. J. Eykyn,, A. Fenoll,, M. Hortal,, L. P. Jette,, J. H. Jorgensen,, F. Lamothe,, C. Latorre,, J. T. Macfarlane,, D. M. Shlaes,, L. E. Smart,, and A. Taunay. 1996. Serotype specific epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae: association with age, sex, and geography in 7,000 episodes of invasive disease. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22: 973 981.
65. Shi, Z.-Y.,, M. C. Enright,, P. Wilkinson,, D. Griffiths,, and B. G. Spratt. 1998. Identification of the three major clones of multiply antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Taiwanese hospitals by multilocus sequence typing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 3514 3519.
66. Sibold, C.,, J. Wang,, J. Henrichsen,, and R. Hakenbeck. 1992. Genetic relationships of penicillin-susceptible and -resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated on different continents. Infect. Immun. 60: 4119 4126.
67. Smith, A. M.,, and K. P. Klugman. 1995. Alterations in penicillin-binding protein 2B from penicillin-resistant wild-type strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39: 859 867.
68. Smith, A. M.,, and K. P. Klugman. 1997. Three predominant clones identified within penicillin-resistant South African isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Microb. Drug Resist. 3: 385 389.
69. Soares, S.,, K. G. Kristinsson,, J. M. Musser,, and A. Tomasz. 1993. Evidence for the introduction of a multiresistant clone of serotype 6B Streptococcus pneumoniae from Spain to Iceland in the late 1980s. J. Infect. Dis. 168: 158 163.
70. Song, J.-H.,, N. Y. Lee,, S. Ichiyama,, R. Yoshida,, Y. Hirakata,, W. Fu,, A. Chongthaleong,, N. Aswapokee,, C.-H. Chium,, M. K. Lalitha,, K. Thomas,, J. Perera,, T. T. Yee,, F. Jamal,, U. C. Warsa,, B. X. Vinh,, M. R. Jacobs,, P. C. Applebaum,, C. H. Pai, and the ANSORP Study Group. 1999. Spread of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Asian countries: Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 28: 1206 1211.
71. Stern, N. J.,, N. A. Cox,, J. S. Bailey,, M. E. Berrang,, and M. T. Musgrove. 2001. Comparison of mucosal competitive exclusion and competitive exclusion treatment to reduce Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. colonization in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 80: 156 160.
72. Swiatlo, E.,, M. J. Crain,, L. S. McDaniel,, A. Brooks-Walter,, T. J. Coffey,, B. G. Spratt,, D. A. Morrison,, and D. E. Briles. 1996. DNA polymorphisms and variant penicillin-binding proteins as evidence that relatively penicillin-resistant pneumococci in western Canada are clonally related. J. Infect. Dis. 174: 884 888.
73. Takala, A. K.,, J. Vuopio-Varkila,, E. Tarkka,, M. Leinonen,, and J. M. Musser. 1996. Subtyping of common pediatric pneumococcal serotypes from invasive disease and pharyngeal carriage in Finland. J. Infect. Dis. 173: 128 135.
74. Tamayo, M.,, R. Sá-Leão,, I. Santos Sanches,, E. Castañeda,, and H. De Lencastre. 1999. Dissemination of a chloramphenicol- and tetracycline-resistant but penicillin-susceptible invasive clone of serotype 5 Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2337 2342.
75. Zangwill, K. M.,, C. M. Vadheim,, A. M. Vannier,, L. S. Hemenway,, D. P. Greenberg,, and J. I. Ward. 1996. Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Southern California: implications for the design and conduct of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine efficacy trial. J. Infect. Dis. 174: 752 759.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 8.1

International pneumococcal clones recognized to have contributed to the increase in antimicrobial resistance worldwide

Adapted from reference .

ATCC, American Type Culture Collection.

Citation: Riley L. 2004. Distinguishing Pathovars from Nonpathovars: , p 209-227. In Molecular Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817688.ch8

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error