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Chapter 1 : Principles of Management

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Abstract:

This chapter begins with the consideration of leadership versus management. It covers the history of management thought, to illustrate that as society and organizations have become more complex, the theories to explain group behaviors have become similarly complex, and focuses on the issues surrounding decision making and decision theory. It devotes itself to ethics and questions managers now face on deciding what is appropriate behavior, not just on the shop floor but also in the boardroom. Leadership is modeling the behavior, attitudes, and values that inspire others to work together enthusiastically. Most leaders use a combination of the various types of power, depending upon their leadership style or what is needed at that moment. The section on decision making begins with a definition and review of the leadership role in decision making. Different types of decisions are described and contrasted, followed by a discussion of group involvement in decision making. Steps in the decision-making/problem-solving process are dissected to avoid pitfalls and improve skills. Finally, the element of risk in decision making is explored. All decisions have some element of risk involved. Some elements of risk lie in the behavioral factors of risk makers. Most discussions of ethics and morals are couched in philosophical or sociological terms. Many studies have been completed and articles written describing what managerial behavior works best and what does not. The best managers remain thoughtful about their avocation, always seeking new answers to the questions they face.

Citation: Casterline J, Snyder J. 2004. Principles of Management, p 3-21. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch1

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Figures

Image of Figure 1.1
Figure 1.1

The Managerial Grid. Adapted from R. R. Blake and J. S. Mouton, (Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Tex., 1974), and J. R. Snyder and D. S.Wilkinson, 3rd ed. (Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, Pa., 1998).

Citation: Casterline J, Snyder J. 2004. Principles of Management, p 3-21. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.2
Figure 1.2

Decision making: integral to management functions.

Citation: Casterline J, Snyder J. 2004. Principles of Management, p 3-21. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.3
Figure 1.3

Continuum of decision styles. AI, you solve the problem or make the decision yourself, using information available to you. AII, you solve the problem or make the decision yourself, using information from subordinates. They may or may not be aware of the decision-making process and their role in it. CI, you share the problem with relevant subordinates individually, getting their ideas. Then you make the decision yourself, accepting or rejecting advice from subordinates. CII, you share the problem with relevant subordinates at a group meeting, getting their ideas. Then you make the decision yourself, accepting or rejecting advice from subordinates. GI, you share the problem with subordinates individually, and together you analyze the problem and arrive at a mutual solution. You both contribute. GII, you share the problem with relevant subordinates at a group meeting, and together you analyze the problem and arrive at a group decision. You do not try to influence the group, and you are willing to accept and implement what the group recommends. DI (not shown), you delegate the problem to a subordinate, providing him relevant information and giving him responsibility for the problem alone.

Citation: Casterline J, Snyder J. 2004. Principles of Management, p 3-21. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.4
Figure 1.4

Problem-solving/decision-making process.

Citation: Casterline J, Snyder J. 2004. Principles of Management, p 3-21. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch1
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.1

Decision-making differences between leaders and managers

Adapted from Pickett ( )

Citation: Casterline J, Snyder J. 2004. Principles of Management, p 3-21. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 1.2

Concerns in decision making ( )

Citation: Casterline J, Snyder J. 2004. Principles of Management, p 3-21. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch1

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