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Chapter 16 : Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment

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Abstract:

This chapter aims at providing tools for developing and executing a successful formal performance appraisal process and competency assessment program. It also provides an appreciation for the performance appraisal as a powerful motivating tool. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) initially required employers to use criteria-based performance appraisals and later replaced the requirements with competency-based appraisals. The behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) focuses on employee behaviors and avoids any evaluation of attitudes. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments'88 (CLIA'88) charges both the laboratory director and the technical consultant or technical supervisor with specific responsibilities for the competency assessment program of the laboratory. It is the intent of CLIA '88 and JCAHO that competency assessment programs be grounded in staff development and efforts towards quality improvement. The laboratory's competency assessment plan should include procedures to address employees who fail the assessment. Current practices of employee competency assessment are reflected in data from a recent interlaboratory survey. In this study, employee competency was evaluated through the use of test and quality control results (77.4%), direct observations (87.5%), instrument preventive maintenance (60.0%), and written testing (52.2%). Delegation of competency assessment may be necessary to execute the plan. The most important reason for doing appraisals is to motivate the employees positively, not to punish. Providing performance appraisals will show employees that the employer and the organization are interested in their work and in their development. Performance appraisals are powerful motivating tools that are closely integrated with compensation, training, and career planning.

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16

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Image of APPENDIX 16.1 Medical Technologist Job Description
APPENDIX 16.1 Medical Technologist Job Description

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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Image of APPENDIX 16.2a Medical Technologist Performance Standards
APPENDIX 16.2a Medical Technologist Performance Standards

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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Image of APPENDIX 16.2b Medical Technologist Performance Standards
APPENDIX 16.2b Medical Technologist Performance Standards

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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Image of APPENDIX 16.2c Medical Technologist Performance Standards
APPENDIX 16.2c Medical Technologist Performance Standards

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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Image of APPENDIX 16.3 Medical Technologist Job-Specific Competencies
APPENDIX 16.3 Medical Technologist Job-Specific Competencies

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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Image of APPENDIX 16.3a Medical Technologist Job-Specific Competencies
APPENDIX 16.3a Medical Technologist Job-Specific Competencies

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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Image of APPENDIX 16.3b Medical Technologist Job-Specific Competencies
APPENDIX 16.3b Medical Technologist Job-Specific Competencies

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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Image of APPENDIX 16.3c Medical Technologist Job-Specific Competencies
APPENDIX 16.3c Medical Technologist Job-Specific Competencies

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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Image of APPENDIX 16.3d Medical Technologist Job-Specific Competencies
APPENDIX 16.3d Medical Technologist Job-Specific Competencies

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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Image of APPENDIX 16.4a Annual Performance Evaluation and Planning
APPENDIX 16.4a Annual Performance Evaluation and Planning

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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Image of APPENDIX 16.4b Annual Performance Evaluation and Planning
APPENDIX 16.4b Annual Performance Evaluation and Planning

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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Image of APPENDIX 16.6a Training Checklist for Microbiology Medical Technologist
APPENDIX 16.6a Training Checklist for Microbiology Medical Technologist

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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Image of APPENDIX 16.6b Training Checklist for Microbiology Medical Technologist
APPENDIX 16.6b Training Checklist for Microbiology Medical Technologist

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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Image of APPENDIX 16.6c Training Checklist for Microbiology Medical Technologist
APPENDIX 16.6c Training Checklist for Microbiology Medical Technologist

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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Image of APPENDIX 16.6d Training Checklist for Microbiology Medical Technologist
APPENDIX 16.6d Training Checklist for Microbiology Medical Technologist

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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Image of APPENDIX 16.7 Training Checklist for Third-Shift Microbiology
APPENDIX 16.7 Training Checklist for Third-Shift Microbiology

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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Image of APPENDIX 16.8a Training Checklist for Microbiology Medical Laboratory Technician
APPENDIX 16.8a Training Checklist for Microbiology Medical Laboratory Technician

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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Image of APPENDIX 16.8b Training Checklist for Microbiology Medical Laboratory Technician
APPENDIX 16.8b Training Checklist for Microbiology Medical Laboratory Technician

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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Image of APPENDIX 16.9 Competency Assessment Form: Microbiology Specimen Processing
APPENDIX 16.9 Competency Assessment Form: Microbiology Specimen Processing

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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Image of APPENDIX 16.10 Competency Assessment Form: Blood Culture Procedures - Bactec® 9240
APPENDIX 16.10 Competency Assessment Form: Blood Culture Procedures - Bactec® 9240

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 16.1

Do's and don'ts when conducting a performance appraisal

From reference 27.

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 16.2

Responsibilities for competency assessment mandated by CLIA

Available at http://www.phppo.cdc.gov/clia/default.asp.

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 16.3

CAP checklist questions pertaining to competency

From reference 6. Reprinted by permission.

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 16.4

Employee skills required for competency

Available at http://www.phppo.cdc.gov/clia/default.asp.

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16
Generic image for table
Table 16.5

Methods to assess competency

Available at http://www.phppo.cdc.gov/clia/default.asp.

Citation: Halstead D, Oblack D. 2004. Performance Appraisals and Competency Assessment, p 291-325. In Garcia L, Baselski V, Burke M, Schwab D, Sewell D, Steele J, Weissfeld A, Wilkinson D, Winn W (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817695.ch16

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