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Chapter 3 : Fungal Biofilms

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Abstract:

The recent realization that indwelling medical devices could act as a substrate for fungal biofilms has fueled the need for detailed investigation into biofilm formation by fungi. Fungi most commonly associated with such diseases are in the genus , most notably , which cause both superficial, i.e., oral candidiasis, and invasive diseases. Catheter-related infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients, and microbial biofilms formed on catheter surfaces are associated with 90% of these infections. Biofilm formation is critical in the development of denture stomatitis. This disease is characterized by chronic erythema and edema of the palatal mucosa beneath an upper denture. Proliferation of yeasts in the mixed bacterial and fungal biofilms colonizing silicone rubber voice prostheses in laryngectomized patients causes malfunctioning of the valve mechanism, necessitating the removal of these indwelling devices every 3 to 4 months. Various parameters involved in the formation of candidal biofilms were optimized by different groups to obtain reproducible biofilms in different in vitro models. Various microscopic techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy (FM), and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM), have been used to monitor the structure of fungal biofilms. Although research into fungal biofilms was initiated recently, optimal biofilm models were rapidly developed and used to shed light into their detailed architecture and developmental phases. The availability of this knowledge is invaluable in the quest to understand the biology of candidal biofilms at the genomic and proteomic levels.

Citation: Chandra J, Ghannoum M. 2004. Fungal Biofilms, p 30-42. In Ghannoum M, O'Toole G (ed), Microbial Biofilms. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817718.ch3
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

(A) SEM of a monospecies biofilm showing fungal cells covered with biofilm matrix. Some hyphal forms are seen. Magnification, ×3,300. (B) cells observed embedded in extracellular polymeric material that had an amorphous granular appearance. Magnification, ×9,500.

Citation: Chandra J, Ghannoum M. 2004. Fungal Biofilms, p 30-42. In Ghannoum M, O'Toole G (ed), Microbial Biofilms. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817718.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Development of biofilm on polymethylmethacrylate strips. Fluorescence microscopy images show the three distinct developmental phases of biofilms over a 48-h period: early (a), intermediate (b), and maturation (c) phases. Magnification, ×10.

Citation: Chandra J, Ghannoum M. 2004. Fungal Biofilms, p 30-42. In Ghannoum M, O'Toole G (ed), Microbial Biofilms. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817718.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Schematic representation of biofilm development in . (a and b) Biofilm grown on PMA strips. (c and d) Biofilm grown on SE disks. Panels a and c represent the substrate seen from the top, while panels b and d show the view from the sides of the PMA strips and SE disks, respectively.

Citation: Chandra J, Ghannoum M. 2004. Fungal Biofilms, p 30-42. In Ghannoum M, O'Toole G (ed), Microbial Biofilms. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817718.ch3
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Effect of carbohydrate supplementation and saliva on biofilm formation by strains GDH-2346 and OY-2-76 using dry weight measurement and XTT reduction assay

Citation: Chandra J, Ghannoum M. 2004. Fungal Biofilms, p 30-42. In Ghannoum M, O'Toole G (ed), Microbial Biofilms. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817718.ch3

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