Chapter 7 : DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817732/9781555812652_Chap07-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817732/9781555812652_Chap07-2.gif


Resolution of multimeric forms of circular plasmids and chromosomes is mediated by site-specific recombination, an efficient and tightly controlled DNA breakage and joining reaction occurring at the level of determined DNA sequences. Site-specific recombinases, the enzymes that catalyze this type of reaction, fall into two families of proteins: the serine-recombinase and tyrosine-recombinase families. The chapter discusses the mechanisms that generate DNA multimers and their consequence on the segregational stability of bacterial replicons, and also provides an overview of the variety of site-specific resolution systems found on circular plasmids and chromosomes and their relationship to other recombination systems. It focuses on site-specific resolution systems of the serine-recombinase family, and plasmid and chromosome resolution systems of the tyrosine recombinase family. The topology of the recombination reaction catalyzed by other resolvases of the serine-recombinase family, such as the ParA protein of RP4/RK2, the resolvase of ISXc5, the Sin recombinase of , and the β recombinase of pSM19035, was found to be identical to that reported for the cointegrate resolution system of Tn3-family transposons. Studies on plasmid and transposon resolution systems provide fascinating examples of convergent evolution, in which structurally and biochemically unrelated molecular machines have been adapted to bring about functionally similar DNA rearrangements in an exquisitely controlled manner.

Citation: Hallet B, Vanhooff V, Cornet F. 2004. DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, p 145-180. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch7

Key Concept Ranking

Mobile Genetic Elements
Periplasmic Space
DNA Polymerase I
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Formation and resolution of circular replicon dimers. Homologous recombination (HR) occurring during or after replication of a circular plasmid or chromosome produces a dimeric DNA molecule in which the two copies of the replicon are fused in a head-to-tail configuration. The dimer is converted to monomers by site-specific recombination between the duplicated copies of the replicon resolution site (colored in black and gray). The core recombination sites where the recombinase catalyzes the strand-exchange reaction are represented by squares. The adjacent colored regions are regulatory sequences that are often associated with the recombination site to control the recombination reaction. Circles represent the plasmid or chromosome replication origin.

Citation: Hallet B, Vanhooff V, Cornet F. 2004. DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, p 145-180. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Formation and resolution of chromosome dimers in E. coli. In 10 to 15% of dividing cells, recombinational repair of stalled replication forks (arrowheads) results in the formation of a chromosome dimer by HR between the sister chromatids (represented by solid and dotted black lines). When replication is completed, the chromosome dimer is resolved by XerCD-mediated recombination at (inverted arrows). Recombination takes place at the closing septum and is assisted by the cell division protein FtsK. is the chromosome replication origin.

Citation: Hallet B, Vanhooff V, Cornet F. 2004. DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, p 145-180. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

The effect of multimerization on randomly inherited multicopy plasmids. The figure illustrates a theoretical situation in which the plasmid reaches four monomeric copies before cell division. The replication origin is shown as a black circle, and the plasmid resolution site is represented by a triangle. If segregation occurs at random, the probability of producing a plasmid- free cell is given by the relation =2, where n is the number of independently inheritable units ( ). For a plasmid that has four monomeric copies, this probability is 0.125. If a plasmid dimer forms (HR) and is not resolved by site-specific recombination (SSR), and if the number of replication origins per cell is kept constant, the number of segregation units falls to 2 and the probability of plasmid loss increases to 0.5.

Citation: Hallet B, Vanhooff V, Cornet F. 2004. DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, p 145-180. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Phylogenetic tree of plasmid and transposon resolvases of the serine-recombinase family. Plasmid resolvases that have been characterized at a genetic or biochemical level are in bold. Asterisks indicate unusually large proteins of the family. Mu-like transposons are underlined. Accession numbers of the protein sequences are listed on the right.

Citation: Hallet B, Vanhooff V, Cornet F. 2004. DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, p 145-180. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Replicative transposition pathway of resolvase-encoding transposons. The transposon DNA strands are shown in bold, donor backbone sequences as dotted lines, and the target molecule as thin lines. L and R designate the transposon left and right ends, respectively. The resolution site is represented by a square. During intermolecular transposition, DNA strand transfer mediated by the transposase followed by replication by the host machinery results in the formation of a cointegrate in which the donor and target DNA molecules are fused by directly repeated copies of the transposon. The cointegrate is resolved by resolvase-mediated recombination between the duplicated copies of .

Citation: Hallet B, Vanhooff V, Cornet F. 2004. DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, p 145-180. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

Recombination site organization of resolvases of the serine-recombinase family. Arrows represent 12-bp resolvase-binding motifs. Shaded arrows are for sequences that have a poorer match to the consensus. Cylinders show the end of the recombinase coding sequence. Boxed triangles indicate the position of the Hbsu binding sites in the resolution site of Sin. The organization ofTn and IS resolution sites was revised by Rowland et al. ( ).

Citation: Hallet B, Vanhooff V, Cornet F. 2004. DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, p 145-180. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 7
Figure 7

Phylogenetic tree of selected chromosome, plasmid, and transposon resolvases from the tyrosine-rccombinase family. Plasmid recombinases for which functional data are available are in bold. Accession numbers of the protein sequences are listed on the right. The Tn resolvase sequence is according to that of De Mot et al. ( ). .

Citation: Hallet B, Vanhooff V, Cornet F. 2004. DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, p 145-180. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 8
Figure 8

Resolution site organization of tyrosine recombinases. Arrows and open boxes (in the case of ResD) indicate the position of recombinase-binding elements. The recombination core sites are aligned on the left. Shaded boxes represent additional motifs and accessory sequences that are bound by auxiliary proteins as indicated. Cylinders show the end of the recombinase gene when present in the same locus. The length and the distance (in base pairs) that separate the different sequence elements are indicated below each recombination site.

Citation: Hallet B, Vanhooff V, Cornet F. 2004. DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, p 145-180. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9
Figure 9

Structural diversity among serine recombinases. The conserved catalytic domain (∼120 amino acid residues) is colored in dark gray. Brackets show the position of five conserved motifs (a to e) in the protein sequence ( ). The position of residues thought to be directly involved in catalysis ( ) is indicated, and the active site serine is circled. DNA-binding domains are colored in medium gray. White cylinders indicate the presence of additional extensions of unknown function at the N or C terminus of the proteins.

Citation: Hallet B, Vanhooff V, Cornet F. 2004. DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, p 145-180. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 10
Figure 10

Concerted DNA breakage and rejoining reactions catalyzed by serine recombinases. The DNA strands of the recombination partners are shown in black and gray. Inverted arrows represent the recombinase recognition motifs in the core recombination sites. Vertical bars are the central dinuclcotides that are exchanged between the two DNA duplexes during recombination. The core site-bound recombinase molecules (shaded ovals) cleave all four DNA strands, using their active site serine as a nucleophile. DNA strands are exchanged by 180° rotation of the cleaved half-sites. The 3′ OH of the cleaved DNA ends attack the phosphoseryl DNA-protein bond in the partner to reseal the DNA strands in the recombinant configuration.

Citation: Hallet B, Vanhooff V, Cornet F. 2004. DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, p 145-180. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 11
Figure 11

Structure of the γδ resolvase dimer bound to core recombination site I ( ). Two orthogonal views of the complex are shown: a lateral view on the left, and a section view across the DNA on the right. The DNA strands are shown in a black and white space-fill representation. The scissile phosphates (P) are highlighted. The resolvase dimer is represented in ribbon diagrams, with one monomer colored in white and the other in dark gray. The active site serine side chains (S) are highlighted in a ball-and-stick configuration. The position of the kink in α-helix E of one resolvase monomer is indicated.

Citation: Hallet B, Vanhooff V, Cornet F. 2004. DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, p 145-180. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 12
Figure 12

Current models for strand exchange by serine recombinases. Only the subunit rotation (A) and domain-swapping (B) models are shown. The half-site-bound recombinase is drawn based on gd resolvase crystal structure. The DNA is represented by cylinders. For both models, the complex containing the recombinase tetramer bound onto the two recombination core sites is shown after cleavage (left) and before rejoining (right) the four DNA strands. The recombinase catalytic domains lie inside the complex and the DNA-binding domains outside. In the subunit rotation model (A) the DNA strands are exchanged by 180° rotation of one pair of half-site-bound recombinase subunits with respect to the other. This requires the complete dissociation and reassociation of recombinase dimers within the complex. In the domain-swapping model (B), only the portions of the catalytic domain that are covalently linked to the DNA exchange position, leaving the initial dimer interface unchanged.

Citation: Hallet B, Vanhooff V, Cornet F. 2004. DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, p 145-180. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 13
Figure 13

Domain structure of tyrosine recombinases and eukaryotic type IB topoisomerases. The C-terminal catalytic domain of the proteins is shaded in dark gray. Brackets show the position of three conserved regions of the catalytic domain: boxes I, II, and III. Residues of the catalytic signature of the family arc indicated, and the tyrosine nucleophile is circled. Other protein regions are colored in different shades of gray to indicate that they are structurally unrelated. Integrases, such as λ Int, have an additional DNA-binding domain at the C terminus to bind the arm-site sequences of the recombination site ( ). In the human type IB topoisomerasc core enzyme (Hum. Topo IB, residues 215 to 765), the catalytic domain is interrupted by a linker region spanning between the active-site histidine and the tyrosine nucleophile ( ). Vac. Topo IB, type IB topoisomerase of vaccinia virus.

Citation: Hallet B, Vanhooff V, Cornet F. 2004. DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, p 145-180. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14
Figure 14

The strand-swapping-isomerization model for the site-specific recombination reaction catalyzed by tyrosine recombinases. The different reaction intermediates are drawn based on the Cre/DNA complex structures. The catalytic domain of each recombinase molecule is represented by an oval. The stem-and-ball extensions depict the cyclical donor-acceptor interactions that interconnect the four active sites in the recombinase tetramer. The rccombining DNA segments are colored in black and gray, with inverted arrows representing the recombinase-binding motifs. In the initial synapse, the recombination sites are aligned antiparallel, and the DNA is bent to expose one specific strand of each duplex in the central cavity of the complex. In this configuration of the synapse the light gray subunits have an extended C-terminal tail, which orients the catalytic tyrosine (circled Y) and possibily other active-site residues for nucleophilic attack of the target phosphate (arrowhead). After cleavage, three to four nucleotides from the central region are swapped between the partner duplexes to orient the cleaved -OH ends for the rejoining step. Nucleophilic attack of the DNA-recombinase phosphotyrosyl bonds by the invading -OH DNA ends releases the protein and generates a twofold symmetric HJ junction intermediate in which one pair of DNA strands is exchanged. Coupled conformational changes in DNA and protein interfaces lead to synchronized inactivation of the light gray recombinase subunits and concomitant activation of the dark gray subunits for the exchange of the second pair of strands.

Citation: Hallet B, Vanhooff V, Cornet F. 2004. DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, p 145-180. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 15
Figure 15

Structure of a Cre dimer hound to the site ( ). A space-filling model of the DNA shows one strand in white and the other in black. Scissile phosphates are circled. The Cre protein is shown in a ribbon-cylinder representation, with the active-site tyrosine highlighted in a ball-and-stick configuration. The white Cre monomer is activated for cleavage, and its C-terminal α-helix N (α-N) is donated to the acceptor pocket of the adjacent subunit. The linker peptide that connects α-helix N to α-helix M (α-M) is in an extended conformation, which positions the active-site tyrosine for nucleophilic attack of the phosphate.

Citation: Hallet B, Vanhooff V, Cornet F. 2004. DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, p 145-180. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16
Figure 16

Synapse topology of different site-specific resolution systems. The recombination complexes are shown before and after strand exchange (black arrow). The topology of the recombination products is shown to the right. The initial DNA substrates contain directly repeated copies of the recombination sites colored in white and gray. The two sites divide the substrate into two domains shown as thick and thin lines. Arrows represent the core recombination sites, whereas boxes and ribbons are regulatory recombinase-binding sites or accessory sequences. The Hbsu-binding site of the Sin resolution site is represented by a diamond. For further details on recombination site organization, see Fig. 6 and 8 .

Citation: Hallet B, Vanhooff V, Cornet F. 2004. DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, p 145-180. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 17
Figure 17

Models for the structural organization of topologically defined synaptic complexes. Each complex is modeled based on the crystal structure of the participating proteins. DNA is represented by tubes, with one recombination site shaded and the other colored in white. (A) The Tn/γδ resolvase synaptosome ( ). DNA is wrapped around a pair of interlocked protein filaments constituted of the catalytic domains of the six resolvase dimers bound to the two sites. Adjacent dimers interact through the so-called 2–3′ interface (white double-arrow). Each resolvase dimer contacts its partner of the opposite site using the same synaptic interface (black double-arrow). The resolvase DNA-binding domains, represented as cup-like structures, grasp the DNA at the outer surface of the complex. (B) The synaptic complex of Sin and β recombinases ( ). Recombinase dimers form the same tetrameric arrangement as the resolvase dimers bound to sites I and III in the synaptosome. The DNA-bending activity of Hbsu replaces the architectural role of the site III-bound resolvase subunits. (C) Architecture of Xer recombination complex at ( ). The ArgR hexamer is sandwiched between two PepA hexamers. The accessory sequences wrap around the complex by running across three large grooves at the surface of PepA. The XerCD-core complex is represented with the recombinase C-terminal domains oriented toward the accessory proteins, in a configuration that activates XerC for the first strand exchange ( ).

Citation: Hallet B, Vanhooff V, Cornet F. 2004. DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, p 145-180. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 18
Figure 18

The relocation model for Xer-mediated chromosome dimer resolution at The top panel represents a dividing cell with two monomeric sister chromosomes (shaded areas). Cylinders represent hypothetical nucleoid organizing elements. Each chromosome is shown with an Ori domain containing the replication origin oriC at the cell poles and a Ter domain located close to the septum ( ). The Ter domain contains the recombination site (black and white square) bound by the XerCD recombinase (open circles). An oligomer of FtsK forms as a pore through the septum. Chromosome segregation is completed and the sites do not interact with FtsK. The two lower panels represent enlargements of the central part of the dividing cell when a chromosome dimer has formed. Two DNA stretches link the sister chromosomes through the FtsK pore. FtsK (alone or with help of other factors) tracks along the DNA following hypothetical polar sequence elements of the Ter domain (black arrows). DNA tracking stops when FtsK raises the /XerCDcomplexes, or an oppositely polarized region. FtsK-dependent recombination between the sites resolves the chromosome dimer and segregation can proceed.

Citation: Hallet B, Vanhooff V, Cornet F. 2004. DNA Site-Specific Resolution Systems, p 145-180. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abremski, K.,, R. Hoess,, and N. Sternberg. 1983. Studies on the properties of P1 site-specific recombination: evidence for topologically unlinked products following recombination. Cell 32:13011311.
2. Abremski, K.,, A. Wierzbicki,, B. Frommer,, and R. H. Hoess. 1986. Bacteriophage PI Cre-loxP site-specific recombination: site-specific DNA topoisomerase activity of the Cre recombination protein. J. Biol. Chem. 261:391396.
3. Adams, D. E.,, J. B. Bliska,, and N. R. Cozzarelli. 1992. Cre-lox recombination in Escherichia coli cells: mechanistic differences from the in vitro reaction. J. Mol. Biol. 226:661673.
4. Alèn, C.,, D. J. Sherratt,, and S. D. Colloms. 1997. Direct interaction of aminopeptidase A with recombination site DNA in Xer site-specific recombination. EMBO J. 16:51885197.
5. Allignet, J.,, and N. El Solh. 1999. Comparative analysis of staphylococcal plasmids carrying three streptogramin-resistance genes: vat-vgb-vga. Plasmid 42:134138.
6. Alonso, J. C.,, S. Ayora,, I. Canosa,, F. Weise,, and F. Rojo. 1996. Site-specific recombination in gram-positive theta-replicating plasmids. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 142:110.
7. Alonso, J. C.,, C. Gutierrez,, and F. Rojo. 1995. The role of chromatin-associated protein Hbsu β-mediated DNA recombination is to facilitate the joining of distant recombination sites. Mol. Microbiol. 18:471478.
8. Alonso, J. C.,, F. Weise,, and F. Rojo. 1995. The Bacillus subtilis histone-like protein Hbsu is required for DNA resolution and DNA inversion mediated by the ? recombinase of pSM 19035. J. Biol. Chem. 270:29382945.
9. Arciszewska, L. K.,, R. A. Baker,, B. Hallet,, and D. J. Sherratt. 2000. Coordinated control of XerC and XerD catalytic activities during Holliday junction resolution. J. Mol. Biol. 299:391403.
10. Arciszewska, L. K.,, I. Grainge,, and D. J. Sherratt. 1997. Action of site-specific recombinases XerC and XerD on tethered Holliday junctions. EMBO J. 16:101113.
11. Argos, P.,, A. Landy,, K. Abremski,, J. B. Egan,, E. H. Ljungquist,, R. H. Hoess,, M. L. Kahn,, B. Kalionis,, S. V. L. Narayana,, L. S. Pierson,, N. Sternberg,, and J . M. Leong. 1986. The integrase family of site-specific recombinases: regional similarities and global diversity. EMBO J. 5:433440.
12. Arnold, P. H.,, D. G. Blake,, N. D. F. Grindley,, M. R. Boocock,, and W. M. Stark. 1999. Mutants of Tn3 resolvase which do not require accessory binding sites for recombination activity. EMBO J. 18:14071414.
13. Aussel, L.,, F. X . Barre,, M. Aroyo,, A. Stasiak,, A. Z. Stasiak,, and D. J. Sherratt. 2002. FtsK is a DNA motor protein that activates chromosome dimer resolution by switching the catalytic state of the XerC and XerD recombinases. Cell 108:195205.
14. Austin, S.,, M. Ziese,, and N. Sternberg. 1981. A novel role for site-specific recombination in maintenance of bacterial replicons. Cell 25:729736.
15. Azaro, M. A.,, and A. Landy. 1997. The isomeric preference of Holliday junctions influences resolution bias by λ integrase. EMBO J. 16:37443755.
16. Azaro, M. A.,, and A. Landy,. 2002. λ Integrase and the λ Int family, p. 118148. In N. L. Craig,, R. Craigie,, M. Gellert,, and A. M. Lambowitz (ed.), Mobile DNA II. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
17. Bannam, T. L.,, P. K. Crelli,, and J. I. Rood. 1995. Molecular genetics of the chloramphenicol transposon Tn4451 from Clostridium perfringensi the TnpX site-specific recombinase excise a circular transposon molecule. Mol. Microbiol. 16:535551.
18. Barre, F. X.,, M. Aroyo,, S. D. Colloms,, A. Helfrich,, F. Cornet,, and D. J. Sherratt. 2000. FtsK functions in the processing of a Holliday junction intermediate during bacterial chromosome segregation. Genes Dev. 14:29762988.
19. Barre, F. X.,, B. Soballe,, B. Michelle,, M. Aroyo,, M. Robertson,, and D. Sherratt. 2001. Circles; the replication-recombination- chromosome segregation connection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:81898195.
20. Barre, F. X.,, and D. J., Sherratt,. 2002. Xer site-specific recombination: promoting chromosome segregation, p. 149161. In N. L. Craig,, R. Craigie,, M. Gellert,, and A. M. Lambowitz (ed.), Mobile DNA II. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
21. Bath, J.,, D. J. Sherratt,, and S. D, Colloms. 1999. Topology of Xer recombination on catenanes produced by lambda integrase.J. Mol. Biol. 289:873883.
22. Baum, J. A. 1994. Tn5401, a new class II transposable element from Bacillus thuringiensis.J. Bacteriol. 176:28352845.
23. Baum, J. A. 1995. Tnpl recombinase: identification of sites within Tn5401 required for Tnpl binding and site-specific recombination.J. Bacteriol. 177:40364042.
24. Baum, J. A.,, A. J. Gilmer,, and A. M. Light Menus. 1999. Multiple roles for Tnpl recombinase in regulation of Tn5401 transposition in Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Bacteriol. 181:62716277.
25. Berg, T.,, S. Firth,, S. Apisiridej,, A. Hettiaratchi,, A. Leelaporn,, and R. A. Skurray. 1998. Complete nucleotide sequence of pSK41: evolution of staphylococcal conjugative multircsistance plasmids.J. Bacteriol. 180:43504359.
26. Blakely, G.,, S. Colloms,, G. May,, M. Burke,, and D. Sherratt. 1991. Escherichia coli XerC recombinase is required for chromosomal segregation at cell division. New Biol. 3:789798.
27. Blakely, G.,, G. May,, R. McCulloch,, L. K. Arciszewska,, M. Burke,, S. T. Lovett,, and D. J. Sherratt. 1993. Two related recombinases are required for site-specific recombination at dif and cer in E. coli KM. Cell 75:351361.
28.. Boocock, M. R.,, X. Zhu,, and N. D. F. Grindley. 1995. Catalytic residues of γλ resolvase act in cis. EMBO J. 14:51295140.
29. Bregu, M.,, D. J. Sherratt,, and S. D. Colloms. 2002. Accessory factors determine the order of strand exchange in Xer recombination at psi. EMBO J. 21:38883897.
30. Brown, J. L.,, J. He,, D. J. Sherratt,, W. M. Stark,, and M. R. Boocock. 2002. Interactions of protein complexes on supercoiled DNA: the mechanism of selective synapsis by Tn3 resolvase.J. Mol. Biol. 319:371383.
31. Bruand, C.,, S. D. Ehrlich,, and L. Jannière. 1995. Primosome assembly site in Bacillus subtilis. EMBO J. 14:26422650.
32. Buddelmeijer, N.,, and J. Beckwith. 2002. Assembly of cell division proteins at the E. coli cell center. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 5:553557.
33. Burgin, A. B.,, and H. A. Nash. 1995. Suicide substrates reveal properties of the homology-dependent steps during integrative recombination of bacteriophage λ. Curr. Biol. 5:13121321.
34. Burke, M. E.,, P. H. Arnold,, J. He,, S. V. C. T. Wenwieser,, S.-J Rowland,, M. R. Boocock,, and W. M. Stark. Activating mutations of Tn3 resolvase marking interfaces important in recombination catalysis and its regulation. Mol. Microbiol., in press.
35. Burke, M.,, A. F. Merican,, and D. J . Sherratt. 1994. Mutant Escherichia coli arginine repressor proteins that fail to bind Larginine, yet retain the ability to bind their normal DNA-binding sites. Mol. Microbiol. 13:609618.
36. Burland, V.,, Y. Shao,, N. T. Perna,, G. Plunkett,, H. J. Sofia,, and F. R. Blattner. 1998. The complete DNA sequence and analysis of the large virulence plasmid of Escherischia coli 0157:H7. Nucleic Acids Res. 26:41964204.
37. Canosa, I.,, S. Ayora,, F. Rojo,, and J. C. Alonso. 1997. Mutational analysis of a site-specific recombinase: characterization of the catalytic and dimerization domains of the β recombinase of pSM 1935. Mol. Gen. Genet. 255:467476.
38. Canosa, I.,, G. Lopez,, F. Rojo,, M. R. Boocock,, and J. C. Alonso. 2003. Synapsis and strand exchange in the resolution and DNA inversions reactions catalysed by the β recombinase. Nucleic Acids Res. 31:10381044.
39. Canosa, I.,, R. Lurz,, F. Rojo,, and J. C. Alonso. 1998. β recombinase catalyse inversion and resolution between two inversely oriented six sites in a supercoiled DNA substrate and only inversion on relaxed or linear substrates. J. Biol. Chem. 272:1388613891.
40. Canosa, I.,, F. Rojo,, and J. C. Alonso. 1996. Site-specific recombination by the β protein from the streptococcal plasmid pSM1935: minimal recombination sequences and crossing over site. Nucleic Acids Res. 24:27122717.
41. Cao, Y.,, B. Hallet,, and D. J. Sherratt. 1997. Structure-function correlations in the XerD site-specific recombinase revealed by pentapeptide scanning mutagenesis.J. Mol. Biol. 274:3953.
42. Capiaux, H., C Lesterlin, K. Perals, J.M, Louarn, and F. Cornet. 2002. A dual role for the FtsK protein in Escherichia coli chromosome segregation. EMBO Rep. 3:532536.
43. Carrasco, C. D.,, K. S. Ramaswamy,, T. S. Ramasubramanian,, and J. W. Golden. 1994. Anahaena xisF gene encodes a developmentally regulated site-specific recombinase. Genes Dev. 8:7483.
44. Casjens, S. 1999. Evolution of the linear DNA replicons of the Borrelia spirochetes. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2:529534.
45. Ceglowski, P.,, A. Boitsov,, S. Chai,, and J. C. Alonso. 1993. Analysis of the stabilization system of pSM 19035-derivcd plasmid pBT233 in Bacillus subtilis. Gene 136:112.
46. Charlier, D.,, A. Kholti,, N. Huysveld,, D. Gigot,, D. Macs,, T. L. Thia-Toong,, and N. Glansdorff. 2000, Mutational analysis of Escherichia coli PepA, a multifunctional DNA-binding aminopeptidase. J . Mol. Biol. 302:411426.
47. Chen, J. W.,, J. Lee,, and M. Jayaram. 1992. DNA cleavage in trans by the active site tyrosine during Flp recombination: switching protein partners before exchanging strands. Cell 69:647658.
48. Chen, Y.,, U. Narendra,, L. E. Lypc,, M. M. Cox,, and P. A. Rice. 2000. Crystal structure of a Flp recombinase-Holliday junction complex: assembly of an active oligomer by helix swapping. Mol. Cell 6:885897.
49. Chen, Y.,, and P. A. Rice. 2002. New insight into site-specific recombination from Flp recomhinase-DNA structures. Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 32:135159.
50.Cheng, C, P. Kussie, N. Pavletich, and S. Shuman. 1998. Conservation of structure and mechanism between euearyotic topoisomerase I and site-specific recombinases. Cell 92:841850.
51. Christiansen, B.,, L. Brondstcd,, F. K. Vogensen,, and K. Hammer. 1996. A resolvase-like protein is required for the site-specific integration of the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1. J. Bacteriol. 178:51645173.
52. Churchward, G., 2002. Conjugative transposons and related mobile elements, p. 177191. In N. L. Craig,, R. Craigie,, M. Gellert,, and A. M. Lambowitz (ed.), Mobile DNA II. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
53. Clerget, M. 1991. Site-specific recombination promoted by a short DNA segment of plasmid R1 and by a homologous segment in the terminus region of the Escherichia coli chromosome. New Biol. 3:780788.
54. Colloms, S. D.,, C. Alèn,, and D. J . Sherratt. 1998. The ArcA/ArcB two-component regulatory system of Escherichia coli is essential for Xer site-specific recombination at psi. Mol. Microbiol. 28:521530.
55. Colloms, S. D.,, J. Bath,, and D. J. Sherratt. 1997. Topological selectivity in Xer site-specific recombination. Cell 88:855864.
56. Colloms, S. D.,, R. McCulloch,, K. Grant,, L. Neilson,, and D.J. Sherratt. 1996. Xer-mediated site-specific recombination in vitro. EMBO J. 15:11721181.
57. Colloms S, D.,, P. Sykora,, G. Szatmari,, and D.J. Sherratt. 1990. Recombination at ColE1 cer requires the Escherichia coli xerC gene product, a member of the lambda integrase family of site-specific recombinases. J. Bacteriol. 172:68736980.
58. Cornet F.,, B. Hallet,, and D.J. Sherratt. 1997. Xer recombination in Escherischia coli site-specific DNA topoisomerase activity of the XerC and XerD recombinases. J. Biol. Chem. 272:2192721931.
59. Cornet, F.,, I. Mortier,, J. Patte,, and J. M. Louarn. 1994. Plasmid pSC101 harbors a recombination site, psi, which is able to resolve plasmid multimers and to substitute for the analogous chromosomal Escherichia coli site dif. J. Bacteriol. 176:31883195.
60. Cornet, F.,, J. Louarn,, J. Patte,, and J. M, Louarn. 1996. Restriction of the activity of the recombination site dif to a small zone of the Escherichia coli chromosome. Genes Dev. 10:11521161.
61. Corre, J.,, F. Cornet,, J. Patte,, and J. M. Louarn. 1997. Unraveling a region-specific hyper-recombination phenomenon: genetic control and modalities of terminal recombination in Escherichia coli. Genetics 147:979989.
62. Corre, J.,, and J. M. Louarn. 2002. Evidence from terminal recombination gradients that FtsK uses replichore polarity to control chromosome terminus positioning at division in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 184:38013807.
63. Corre, J.,, J. Patte,, and J. M. Louarn. 2000. Prophage lambda induces terminal recombination in Escherichia coli by inhibiting chromosome dimer resolution. An orientation-dependent cis-effect lending support to bipolarization of the terminus. Genetics 154:3948.
64. Cox, M. M.,, M. F. Goodman,, K. N. Kreuzer,, D. J. Sherratt,, S. J. Sandler,, and K.J. Marians. 2000. The importance of repairing stalled replication forks. Nature 404:3741.
65. Crisona, N. J.,, R. Kanaar,, T. N. Gonzalez,, E. L. Zechiedrich,, A. Klippel,, and N. R. Cozzarelli. 1994. Processive recombination by wild-type Gin and enhancer-independent mutant. Insight into the mechanisms of recombination selectivity and strand exchange.J. Mol. Biol. 243:437457.
66. Cromic, G. A.,, and D. R. Leach. 2000. Control of crossing over. Mol Cell. 6:815826.
67. Davis, T. L.,, D. R. Helinski,, and R. C. Roberts. 1992. Transcription and autoregulation of the stabilizing functions of broad-host-range plasmid RK2 in Escherichia coli, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mol. Microbiol. 6:19811994.
68. De Boever, E. H.,, D. B. Clewell,, and C. M. Fraser. 2000. Enterococcus faecatis conjugative plasmid pAM373: complete nucleotide sequence and genetic analyses of sex pheromone response. Mol. Microbiol. 37:13271341.
69. De Mot, R.,, I. Nagy,, A. De Schrijver,, P. Pattanapipitpaisal,, G. Schoofs,, and J. Vanderleyden. 1997. Structural analysis of the 6 kb cryptic plasmid pFAJ2600 from Rhodococcus erythropotis N186/21 and construction of Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle vectors. Microbiology 143:31373147.
70. Deneke, J.,, G. Ziegelin,, R. Lurz,, and E. Lanka. 2000. The proteomerase of temperate Escherichia coli phage N15 has cleaving- joining activity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:77217726.
71. Derbise, A.,, K. G. H. Dyke,, and N. El Solh. 1995. Rearrangements in the staphylococcal β-lacatamase-encoding plasmid, plP1066, including a DNA inversion that generates two alternative transposons. Mol. Microbiol. 17:769779.
72. Disque-Kochem, C.,, and R. Eichenlaub. 1993. Purification and DNA binding of the D protein, a putative resolvase of the F-factor of Escherichia coli. Mol. Gen. Genet. 237:206214.
73. Dodd, H. M.,, and P. M. Bennett. 1983. R46 encodes a site-specific recombination system interchangeable with the resolution function of TnA. Plasmid 9:247261.
74. Dodd, H. M.,, and P. M. Bennett. 1986. Location of the site-specific recombination system of R46: a function for plasmid maintenance.J. Gen. Microbiol. 132:10091020.
75. Dodd, H. M.,, and P. M. Bennett. 1987. The R46 site-specific recombination system is a homologue of the Tn3 and γλ (Tn 1000) cointegrate resolution system. J. Gen. Microbiol. 133:20312039.
76. Donachie, W. D. 2002. FtsK: Maxwell's? Mol. Cell 9:206207.
77. Easter, C.L.,, H. Schwab,, and D.R. Helinski. 1998. Role of the parCBA operon of the broad-host-range plasmid RK2 in stable plasmid maintenance.J. Bacteriol. 180:60236030.
78. Easter, C.L.,, P. A. Sobecky,, and D. R. Helinski. 1997. Contribution of different segments of the par region to stable maintenance of the broad-host-range plasmid RK2. J. Bacteriol. 179:64726479.
79. Eberl, L.,, M. Givskov,, and H. Schwab. 1992. The divergent promoters mediating transcription of the par locus of plasmid RP4 are subject to autoregulation. Mol. Microbiol. 6:19691979.
80. Eberl, L.,, C. S. Kristensen,, M. Givskov,, E. Grohmann,, M. Gerlitz,, and H. Schwab. 1994. Analysis of the multimer resolution system encoded by the parCBA operon of broad-host-range plasmid RP4. Mol. Microbiol. 12:131141.
81. Esposito, D.,, and J. J. Scocca. 1997. The integrase family of tyrosine recombinases: evolution of a conserved active site domain. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:36053614.
82. Fishel, R. A.,, A. A. James,, and R. Kolodner. 1981. RecA-independent general genetic recombination of plasmids. Nature 294:184186.
83. Freiberg, C.,, R. Fellay,, A. Bairoch, W, J. Brougthon, A. Rosenthal, and X. Perret, 1997. Molecular basis of symbiosis between Rhizobium and legumes. Nature 387: 394401.
84. Garnier, T.,, W. Saurin,, and S. T. Cole. 1987. Molecular characterization of the resolvase gene, res, carried by a multicopy plasmid from Clostridium perfringens: common evolutionary origin of prokaryotic site-specific recombinases. Mol. Microbiol. 1:371376.
85. Geis, A.,, H. A. M. El Demerdash,, and K. J. Heller. 2003. Sequence analysis and characterization of plasmids from Streptococcus thermophilic. Plasmid 50:5369.
86. Genka, H.,, Y. Nagata,, and M. Tsuda. 2002. Site-specific recombination system encoded by toluene catabotic transposon Tn4651.J. Bacteriol. 184:47574766.
87. Gerdes, K. 2000. Toxin-antitoxin modules may regulate synthesis of macromolecules during nutritional stress. J. Bacteriol. 182:561572.
88. Gerlitz, M.,, O. Hrabak,, and H. Schwab. 1990. Partitioning of broad-host-range plasmid RP4 is a complex system involving site-specific recombination.J. Bacteriol. 172:61946203.
89. Gopaul, D. N.,, F. Guo,, and G. D. Van Duyne. 1998. Structure of the Holliday junction intermediate in Cre-loxP site-specific recombination. EMBO J. 17:41754187.
90. Gordon, S. V.,, B. Heym,, J. Parkhill,, B. Barrell,, and S. T. Cole. 1999. New insertion sequences and a novel repeated sequence in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Microbiology 145:881892.
91. Grainge, I.,, and M. Jayaram. 1999. The integrase family of recombinases: organization and function of the active site. Mol. Microbiol. 33:449456.
92. Greated, A.,, M. Titok, R, Krasowiak, R. J. Fairclough, and C. M. Thomas. 2002. The replication and stable-inheritance functions of IncP-9 plasmid pM3. Microbiology 146:22492258.
93. Grindley, N. D. F., 2002. The movment of Tn3-likc elements: transposition and cointegrate resolution, p. 272302. In N. L. Craig,, R. Craigie,, M. Gellert,, and A. M. Lambowitz (ed.), Mobile DNA II. ASM Press, Washington, D.C..
94. Grinter, N. J.,, G. Brewster,, and P. T. Barth. 1989. Two mechanisms for the stable inheritance of plasmid RP4. Plasmid 22:203214.
95. Grohmann, E.,, T. Stanzer,, and H. Schwab. 1997. The ParB protein encoded by the RP4 par region is a Ca2+-dependent nuclease linearizing circular DNA substrates. Microbiology 143:38893898.
96. Guo, F.,, D. N. Gopaul,, and G. D. Van Duyne. 1997. Structure of Cre recombinase complexed with DNA in a site-specific recombination synapse. Nature 389:4046.
97. Guo, F.,, D. N. Gopaul,, and G. D, Van Duyne. 1999. Asymmetric DNA bending in the Cre-loxP site-specific recombination synapse. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:71437148.
98. Haffter, P.,, and T. A. Bickle. 1988. Enhancer-independent mutants of the Cin recombinase have relaxed topological specificity. EMBO J. 7:39913996.
99. Hakkaart, M. J.,, P. J. van den Elzen,, E. Veltkamp,, and H. J. Nijkamp. 1984. Maintenance of multicopy plasmid Clo DF13 in E. coli cells: evidence for site-specific recombination at parB. Cell 36:203209.
100. Hallet, B. 2001. Playing Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde: combined mechanisms of phase variation in bacteria. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 4:570581.
101. Hallet, B.,, L. K. Arciszewska,, and D. J . Sherratt. 1999. Reciprocal control of catalysis by the tyrosine recombinases XerC and XerD: an enzymatic switch in site-specific recombination. Mol. Cell 4:949959.
102. Hallet, B.,, and D. J. Sherratt. 1997. Transposition and site-specific recombination: adapting DNA cut-and-paste mechanisms to a variety of genetic rearrangements. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 21:157178.
103. Han, Y. W.,, R. I. Gumport,, and J. F. Garner. 1994. Mapping the functional domains of bacteriophage lambda integrase protein.J. Mol. Biol. 235:908925.
104. Hanekamp, T.,, D. Kobayashi,, S. Hayes,, and M. M. Stayton. 1997. A virulence gene D of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato may have undergone horizontal gene transfer. FEBS Lett. 415:4044.
105. Haren, L.,, B. Ton-Hoang,, and M. Chandler. 1999. Integrating DNA: transposases and retroviral integrases. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 53:245281.
106. Hayes, F., and D. Sherratt. 1997. Recombinase binding specificity at the chromosome dimer resolution site dif of Escherichia coli. J. Mol. Biol. 266:525537.
107. Haykinson, M. J.,, L. M. Johnson,, J. Soong,, and R. C. Johnson. 1996. The Hin dimer interface is critical for Fismediated activation of the cacatlytic steps of site-specific DNA inversion. Curr. Biol. 6:163177.
108. Heichman, K. A.,, I. P. Moskowitz,, and R. C. Johnson. 1991. Configuration of DNA strands and mechanism of strand exchange in the Hin invertasome as revealed by analysis of recombinant knot. Genes Dev. 5:16221634.
109. Hendricks, E. C.,, H. Szerlong,, T. Hill,, and P. Kuempel. 2000. Cell division, guillotining of dimer chromosomes and SOS induction in resolution mutants (dif, xerC and xerD) of Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 36:973981.
110. Hickman, A. B.,, S. Wamngcr,, J. J. Scocca,, and F. Dyda. 1997. Molecular organization in site-specific recombination: the catalytic domain of bacteriophage HP 1 integrase at 2.7 Å resolution. Cell 89:227237.
111. Hildebrand, M. P., Hasegawa, R., W. Ord,, V. S. Thorpe,, C. A. Glass, and B. E. Volcani. 1992. Nucleotide sequence of diatom plasmids: identification of open reading frames with similarity to site-specific recombinases. Plant. Mol. Biol. 19:759770.
112.Hiraga. S., T. Sugiyama, and T. Itoh. 1994. Comparative analysis of the replicon regions of eleven ColE2-related plasmids.J. Bacteriol. 176:72337243.
113. Hochman, L.,, N. Segev,, N. Sternberg,, and G. Cohen. 1983. Site-specific recombinational circularization of bacteriophage P1 DNA. Virology 131:1117.
114. Hodgman, T. C.,, H. Griffiths,, and D. K. Summers. 1998. Nucleoprotein architecture and ColE1 dimer resolution: a hypothesis. Mol. Microbiol. 29:545558.
115. Hoess, R.,, A. Wierzbicki,, and K. Abremski. 1987. Isolation and characterization of intermediates in site-specific recombination. Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:68406844.
116. Hoess, R. H.,, and K. Abremski,. 1990. The Cre-lox recombination system. In F. Eckstein, and D. M. J. Lilley (ed.), Nucleic Acids and Molecular Biology, vol 4. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
117. Hofte, M.,, Q. Dong,, S. Kourambas,, V. Krishnapillai,, D. Sherratt,, and M. Mergeay. 1994. The sss gene product, which affects pyoverdin production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2, is a site-specific recombinase. Mol. Microbiol. 14:10111020.
118. Huber, K. E.,, and M. K. Waldor. 2002. Filamentous phage integration requires the host recombinases XerC and XerD. Nature 417:656659.
119. James, A. A., P, T, Morrison, and R, Kolodner. 1982, Genetic recombination of bacterial plasmid DNA. Analysis of the effect of recombination-deficient mutations on plasmid recombination.J. Mol. Biol. 160:411430.
120. Jannière, L.,, V. Bidnenko,, S. MacGovern,, S. D. Ehrlich,, and M. A. Petit. 1997. Replication terminus for DNA polymerase I during initiation of pAM beta 1 replication: role of the plasmide- encoded resolution system. Mol. Microbiol. 23:525535.
121. Jayaram, M.,, I. Grainge,, and G. Tribble,. 2002. Site-specific recombination by the Flp protein of Saccharomyces cervisae, p. 192218. In N. L. Craig,, R. Craigie,, M. Gellert,, and A. M. Lambowitz (ed.), Mobile DNA II. ASM Press, Washington, D.C..
122. Johnson, E. P.,, T. Mincer,, H. Schwab,, A. B. Burgin,, and D. R. Helinski. 1999. Plasmid RK2 ParB protein: purification and nuclease properties.J. Bacteriol. 181:60106018.
123. Johnson, R. C., 2002. Bacterial site-specific DNA inversion systems, p. 230271. In N. L. Craig,, R. Craigie,, M. Gellert,, and A. M. Lambowitz (ed.), Mobile DNA II. ASM Press, Washington, D.C..
124. Kamali-Moghaddam, M.,, and L. Sundström. 2000. Transposon targeting determined by resolvase. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 186:5559.
125. Kazmierezak, R. A.,, B. M. Swalla,, A. B, Burgin, R. I. Gumpord, and J. F. Gardner. 2002. Regulation of site-specific recombination by the C-terminus of I integrase. Nucl. Acids. Res. 30:51935204.
126. Kearney, K.,, G. F. Fitzgerald,, and J. F,, M. L. Seegers. 2000. Identification and characterization of an active plasmid partition mechanism for the novel Lactococcus lactis plasmid pC12000.J. Bacteriol. 182:3037.
127. Kersulyte, D.,, A. K. Mukhopadhyay,, M. Shirai,, T. Nakazawa,, and D. E. Berg. 2000. Functional organization and insertion specificity of IS607, a chimeric element of Helicobacter pylori.J. Bacteriol. 182:53005308.
128. Kholodii, G. 2001. The shuffling function of resolvases. Gene 269:121130.
129. Kholodii, G.,, O. Yurieva,, S. Mildin,, Z. Gorlenko,, V. Rybochkin,, and V. Nikiforov. 2000. Tn5044, a novel Tn3 family transposon coding for temperature-sensitive mercury resistance. Res. Microbiol. 151:291302.
130. Kholodii, G. Y.,, S. Z. Mindlin,, I. A. Bass,, O. V. Yurieva,, S. V. Minakhina,, and V. G. Nikiforov. 1995. Four genes, two ends, and a res region are involved in transposition of Tn5053: a paradigm for a novel family of transposons carrying either a mer operon or an integron. Mol. Microbiol. 17:11891200.
131. Kholodii, G. Y.,, O. V. Yurieva,, Z. M. Gorlenko, S, Z. Mindlin, I. A. Bass, O. L. Lomovskaya, A. V. Kopteva, and V. G. Nikiforov. 1997. TnS041: a chimeric mercury resistance transposon closely related to the toluene degradative transposon Tn4651. Microbiology 143:25492556.
132. Klippel, A.,, K. Cloppenborg,, and R. Kallmann. 1988. Isolation and characterization of unusual Gin mutants. EMBO J. 7:39833989.
133. Kobryn, K.,, and G. Chaconas. 2001. The circle is broken: telomere resolution in linear replicons. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 4:558564.
134. Kobryn, K.,, and G. Chaconas. 2002. ResT, a telomere resolvase encoded by the Lyme disease spirochete. Mol. Cell 9:195201.
135. Komano, T. 1999. Shufflons: multiple inversion systems and integrons. Annu. Rev. Genet. 33:171191.
136. Kowalczykowski, S. C 2000. Initiation of genetic recombination and recombination-dependent replication. Trends Biochem. Sci. 25:156165.
137. Krause, M.,, and D. G. Guiney. 1991. Identification of a multimer resolution system involved in stabilization of the Salmonella dublin virulence plasmid pSDL2. J. Bacteriol. 173:57545762.
138. Krause, M.,, C. Roudier,, J . Fierer,, J. Harwood,, and D. Guiney. 1991. Molecular analysis of the virulence locus of the Salmonella dublin plasmid pSDL2. Mol. Microbiol. 5:307316.
139. Krogh, B. O.,, and S. Shuman. 2000. Catalytic mechanism of DNA topoisomerase IB. Mol. Cell 5:10351041.
140. Kuempel, P.,, A. Hogaard,, M. Nielsen,, O. Nagappan. and M. Tecklenburg. 1996 Use of a transposon (Tndif) to obtain suppressing and nonsupprcssing insertions of the dif resolvase site of Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 10:11621171.
141. Kuempel, P. L.,, J. M. Henson,, L. Dircks,, M. Tecklenburg,, and D. F. Lim. 1991. dif a RccA-indepcndcnt recombination site in the terminus region of the chromosome of Escherichia coli. New Biol. 3:799811.
142. Kuzminov, A.,, and F. W. StahL 1999. Double-strand end repair via the RecBC pathway in Escherichia coli primes DNA replication. Genes Dev. 13:345356.
143. Kwon, H. J.,, R. Tirumalai,, A. Landy,, and T. Ellenberg. 1997. Flexibility in DNA recombination: structure of the lambda integrase catalytic core. Science 276:126131.
144. Lane, D.,, R. de Feyter,, M. Kennedy,, S. H. Phua, and D, Semon. 1986. D protein of miniF plasmid acts as a repressor of transcription and as a site-specific resolvase. Nucleic Acids Res. 14:97139728.
145. Lau, I. F.,, S. R. Filipe,, B. Soballe,, O. A,, Okstad, F.,, X. Barre,, and D. J. Sherratt. Spatial end temporal organization of replicating Escherichia coli chromosomes. Mol. Microbiol. 49:731743.
146. Lee, J.,, and M. Jayaram. 1995. Role of partner homology in DNA recombination.J. Biol. Chem. 270:40424052.
147. Lee, J.,, M. Jayaram,, and I. Grainge. 1999. Wild-type Flp recombinase cleaves DNA in trans. EMBO J. 18:784791.
148. Lee, J.,, G. Tribble,, and M. Jayaram. 2000. Resolution of tethered antiparallel and parallel Holliday junctions by the Flp site-specific recombinase.J. Mol. Biol. 296:403419.
149. Lee, L.,, and P. D. Sadowski. 2001. Directional resolution of synthetic Holliday structures by the Cre recombinase.J. Biol. Chem. 276:3109231098.
150. Lewis, J. A.,, and G. F. Hatfull. 2001. Control of directionality in integrase-mediated recombination: examination of recombination directionality factors (RDFs) including Xis and Cox proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 11:22052216.
151. Linder, L. E.,, G. V. Piano,, V. Buriand,, G. F. Mayhem,, and F. R. Blattner. 1998. Complete DNA sequence and detailed analysis of the Yersinia pestis KIM5 plasmid encoding murine toxin and capsular antigens. Infect. Immun. 66:57315742.
152. Liu, C. C. R. Khüne, J. Tu, E. Lorbach and P. Dröge. 1998. The resolvase encoded by Xanthomonas campestris transposable element ISXc5 constitutes a new subfamily closely related to invertases. Genes Cell 3:221233.
153. Lobry, J. R.,, and J. M. Louarn. 2003. Polarisation of prokaryotic chromosomes. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 6:101108.
154. Lusetti, S. L., and M, M, Cox. 2002. The bacterial RecA protein and the recombinational DNA repair of stalled replication forks. Annu. Rev. Biocbem. 71:71100.
155. Mahillon, J.,, and D. Lereclus. 1988. Structural and functional analysis of Tn4430: identification of an integrase-like protein involved in the co-integrate-resolution process. EMBO J. 7:15151526.
156. Mahillon, J.,, R. Rezsöhazy,, B. Hallet,, and J. Delcour. 1994. IS231 and other Bacillus thuringiensis transposable elements: a review. Genetica 93:1326.
157. Martin, S. S.,, E. Pulido,, V. C. Chu,, T. S. Lechner,, and E. P. Baldwin. 2002. The order of strand exchanges in Cre-LoxP recombination and its basis suggested by the crystal structure of a Cre-LoxP Holliday junction complex. J. Mol. Biol. 319:107127.
158. Matsuura, M.,, T. Noguchi,, D. Yamaguchi,, T. Aida,, M. Asayama,, H. Takahashi,, and M. Shirai. 1996. The sre gene (ORF469) encodes a site-specific recombinase responsible for integration of the R4 phage genome. J. Bacteriol. 178:33743376.
159. Mellwraight, M. J.,, M. R. Boocock,, and W. M, Stark. 1997. Tn3 resolvase catalyse multiple recombination events without intermediate rejoining of DNA ends.J. Mol. Biol. 266:108121.
160. Meima, R., and M, E, Lidstrom. 2000. Characterization of the minimal replicon of a cryptic Dcinococcus radiodurans SARK plasmid and development of versatile Escherichia coli- D. radiodurans shuttle vectors. Appl. Environ Microbiol. 66:38563867.
161. Merickel, S. K.,, M. J. Haykinson,, and R. Johnson. 1998. Communication between Hin recombinase and Fis regulatory subunits during coordinate activation of Hin-catalysed site-specific DNA inversion. Genes Dev. 12:28032816.
162. Michel, B.,, G. D. Recchia,, M. Penel-Colin. S. D. Ehrlich, and D. J. Sherratt. 2000. Resolution of holliday junctions by RuvABC prevents dimer formation in rep mutants and UV-irradiated cells. Mol. Microbiol. 37:180191.
163. Michiels, T.,, G. Cornelis,, K. Ellis,, and J. Grindsted. 1987. Tn2501, a component of the lactose transposon Tn951, is an example of a new category of class II transposable elements. J. Bacteriol. 169:624631.
164. Minakhina, S.,, G. Kholodii,, S. Mindlin,, O. Yurieva,, and V. Nikiforov. 1999. Tn5053 family transposons are res site hunters sensing plasmidal res sites occupied by cognate resolvases. Mol. Microbiol. 33:10591058.
165. Mindlin, S.,, G. Kholodii,, Z. Gorlenko,, S. Minakhina,, L. Minakhin,, E. Kalyaeva,, A. Kopteva,, M. Petrova,, O. Yurieva,, and V. Nikiforov. 2001. Mercury resistance transposons of gram-negative environmental bacteria and their classification. Res. Microbiol. 152:811822.
166. Murley, L. L.,, and N. D. F. Grindley. 1998. Architecture of the γλ resolvase synaptosome: oriented heterodimers identify interactions essential for synapsis and recombination. Cell 95:553562.
167. Nash, H. A., 1996. Site-specific recombination: integration, excision, resolution, and inversion of defined DNA segments, p. 23632376. In F. C. Neidhart,, R. CurtissIII,, J. L. Ingraham,, E. C. C. Lin,, K. B. Low,, B. Magasanik,, W. S. Reznikoff,, M. Riley,, M. Schaechter,, and H. E. Umbarger (ed.), Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C..
168. Niki, H.,, T. Ogura,, and S. Hiraga. 1990. Linear multimer formation of plasmid DNA in Escherichia coli hopE (recD) mutants. Mol. Gen. Genet. 224:19.
169. Niki, H.,, Y. Yamaichi,, and S. Hiraga. 2000. Dynamic organization of chromosomal DNA in Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 14:212223.
170. Nunes-Düby, S. E.,, M. A. Azaro,, and A. Landy. 1995. Swapping DNA strands and sensing homology without branch migration in λ site-specific recombination. Curr. Biol. 5:139148.
171. Nunes-Düby, S. E.,, H. J. Kwon,, R. S. Tirumalai,, T. Ellenberger,, and A. Landy. 1998. Similarities and differences among 105 members of the Int family of site-specific recombinases. Nucleic Acids Res. 26:391406.
172. Nunes-Düby, S. E.,, D. Yu,, and A. Landy. 1997. Sensing homology at the strand-swapping step in lambda excisive recombination. J. Mol. Biol. 272:493508.
173. O'Connor, M.,, J. J. Kilbane,, and M.H. Malamy. 1986. Site-specific and illegitimate recombination in the oriV1 region of the F factor.J. Mol. Biol. 189:85102.
174. Pan, B.,, M. W. Maciejewski,, A. Marintchev,, and G. P. Mullen. 2001. Solution structure of the catalytic domain of gd resolvase. Implication for the mechanism of catalysis. J. Mol. Biol. 310:10891107.
175. Park, K.,, E. Han,, J. Paulsson,, and D. K. Chattoraj. 2001. Origin pairing ('handcuffing') as a mode of negative control of PI plasmid copy number. EMBO J. 20:73237332.
176. Paulsen, I. T.,, M. T. Gillespie,, T. G. Littlejohn,, O. Hanvivatvong,, S.-J. Rowland,, K. G. H. Dyke,, and R. A. Skurray. 1994. Characterization of sin, a potential recombinasc- encoding gene from Staphyloccocus aureus. Gene 141:109114.
177. Pérals, K., H, Capiaux, J. B. Vincourt, J. M. Louarn, D. J. Sherratt, and F. Cornet. 2001. Interplay between recombination, cell division and chromosome structure during chromosome dimer resolution in Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 39:904913.
178. Pcrals, K.,, F. Cornet,, Y. Merlct, 1. Dclon, and J . M. Louarn. 2000. Functional polarization of the Escherichia coli chromosome terminus: the dif site acts in chromosome dimer resolution only when located between long stretches of opposite polarity. MoL Microbiol. 36:3343.
179. Petit, M. A.,, D. Ehrlich, and L, Janniére. 1995. pAMβ1 resolvase has an atypical recombination site and requires a histone-likc protein HU. Mol. Microbiol. 18:271282.
180. Pham, H.t K. J. Dery, D. J. Sherratt, and M. E. Tolmasky. 2002. Osmoregulation of dimer resolution at the plasmid pJHCMW1 mwr locus by Escherichia coli XerCD recombination. Bacteriol. 184:16071616.
181. Prikryl, J.,, E. C. Hendricks,, and P. L. Kuempel. 2001. DNA degradation in the terminus region of resolvase mutants of Escherichia coli, and suppression of this degradation and the Dif phenotype by recD. Biochimie 83:171176.
182. Pujol, C.,, S. D. Herlich,, and L. Janniére. 1994. The promiscuous plasmids plP501 and pAMbl from gram-positive bacteria encode complementary resolution functions. Plasmid 31:100105.
183. Radstrom, P.,, O. Skold,, G. Swedberg,, J . Flensburg,, P. H. Roy,, and L. Sundstrom. 1994. Transposon Tn5090 of plasmid R751. which carries an integron, is related toTn7, Mu, and the retroelemcnts. J. Bacteriol 176:32573268.
184. Recchia, G. DM M. Aroyo, D. Wolf, G. Blakely, and D. J. Sherratt. 1999 FtsK-dependent and -independent pathways of Xer site-specific recombination. EMBO J. 18:57245734.
185. Recchia, G. D.,, and D. J. Sherratt. 1999. Conservation of xer site-specific recombination genes in bacteria. Mol Microbiol. 34:11461148.
186. Redinbo, M. R.,, L. Stewart,, P. Kuhn,, J. J. Champoux,, and W. G. J. Hoi. 1998. Crystal strcutures of human topoisomerase 1 in covalent and noncovalent complexes with DNA. Science 279:15041513.
187. Rice, L. B.,, L. L. Carias,, S. H. Marshall,, and M. E. Bonafede. 1996. Sequences found on staphylococcal beta-lacatamase plasmids integrated into the chromosome of Enterococcus faecalis CH116. Plasmid. 35:8190.
188. Rice, P. A.,, and T. A. Steitz. 1994. Model for a DNA-mediated synaptic complex suggested by crystal packing of γλ resolvase subunits. EMBO J. 13:15141524.
189. Roberts, R. C , R. Burioni, and D. R. Helinski. 1990. Genetic characterization of the stability functions of a region of broad-host-range plasmid RK2. J. Bacteriol. 172:62046216.
190. Rojo, F.,, and J. C. Alonso. 1994. A novel site-specific recombinase encoded by the Streptococcus pyogenes plasmid pSM19035.J. Mol. Biol. 238:159172.
191. Rojo, F.,, and J . C. Alonso. 1995. The p recombinase of plasmid pSM1935 binds to two adjacent sites, making different contacts at each of them. Nucleic Acids Res. 23:31813188.
192. Rowe-Magnus, D. A.,, and D. Mazel. 2001. Integrons: natural tools for bacterial genome evolution. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 4:565569.
193. Rowland, S. J., and K. G. Dyke. 1989. Characterization of the staphylococcal p-lacatamase transposon Tn552. EMBO J. 8:27612773.
194. Rowland, S. J.,, W. M. Stark,, and M. R. Boocock. 2002. Sin recombinase from Staphylococcus aureus: synaptic complex architecture and transposon targeting. Mol. Microbiol. 44:607619.
195. Rybchin, V. M.,, and A. N. Svarchevsky. 1999. The plasmid prophage NI5: a linear DNA with covalently closed ends. Mol. MicrobioL 33:895903.
196. Sadowski, P. D. 1995. The Flp recombinase of the 2-micron plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. MoL Biol. 51:5391.
197. Sanchez-Hidalgo, M.,, M. Maqueda,, A. Galvez,, H. Abriouel,, E. Valdivia, and M, Martinez-Bueno. 2003. The genes coding for em croc in EJ97 production by Enterococcus faecalis EJ97 are located on a conjugative plasmid. Appt. Environ. Microbiol. 69:16331641.
198. Sanderson, M. R.,, P. S. Freemont,, P. A. Rice,, A. Goldman,, G. F. Hatfull,, and N. D. F. Grindley. 1990. The crystal structure of the catalytic domain of the site-specific recombination enzyme γλ resolvase at 2.7 A resolution. Cell 63:13231329.
199. Sarkis, G. J.,, L. L. Murley,, A. E. Leschziner,, M. R. Boocock,, W. M. Stark,, and N. D. F. Grindley. 2001. A model for theγλ resolvase synaptic complex. MoL Cell 8:623631.
200. Schneider, F.,, M. Schwikardi,, G. Muskhelishvili,, and P. Dröge. 2000. A DNA-binding domain swap converts the invertase Gin into a resolvase.J. Mol. Biol. 295:767775.
201. Schneiker, S.,, M. Keller,, M. Dröge,, E. Lanka,, A. Pühler,, and W. Selbitschka. 2001. The genetic organization and evolution of the broad host range mercury resistance plasmid pSB102 isolated from a microbial population residing in the rhizosphere of alfalfa. Nucleic Acids Res. 29:51695181.
202. Sciochetti, S. A.,, P. J. Piggott,, D. J , Sherratt, and G. Blakely. 1999. The ripX locus of Bacillus subtilis encodes a site-specific recombinase involved in proper chromosome partitioning.J. Bacteriol 181:60536062.
203. Sciochetti, S. A.,, and P. J. Piggot. 2000. A tale of two genomes: resolution of dimeric chromosomes in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Res. Microbiol. 151:503511.
204. Segev, N.,, and G. Cohen. 1981. Control of circularization of bacteriophage P1 DNA in Escherichia coli. Virology 114:333342.
205. Shankar, N.,, A. S. Baghdayan,, and M. S. Gilmore. 2002. Modulation of virulence within a pathogenicity island in vancomycin-rcsistant Enterococcus faecalis. Nature 417:746750.
206. Sherburne, C. K.t T. D. Lawley, M. W. Gilmour, F. R. Blattner, V. Burland, E. Grotbeck, D.J. Rose, and D. E. Taylor. 2000. The complete DNA sequence and analysis of R27, a large IncFII plasmid from Salmonella typhi that is temperature sensitive for transfer. Nucleic Acids Res. 28:21772186.
207.Sherratt, D, J , 2003. Bacterial chromosome dynamics. Science 8:780785.
208. Sherratt, D. J.,, and D. B. Wiglcy. 1998. Conserved themes but novel activities in recombinases and topoisomerases. Cell 93:149152.
209. Shimizu, T.,, K. Ohtani,, H. Hirakawa,, K. Ohshima,, A. Yamashita,, T. Shiba,, N. Ogasawara,, M. Hattori,, S. Kuhara,, and H. Hayashi. 2002. Complete genome sequence of Clostridium perfringens, an anaerobic flesh-eater. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:9961001.
210. Sia, E. A.,, R. C. Roberts,, C. Easter,, D. R. Helinski,, and D. H. Figurski. 1995. Different relative importance of the par operons and the effect of conjugal transfer on the maintenance of intact promiscuous plasmid RK2. J. Bacteriol. 177:27892797.
211. Siemieniak, D. R.,, J. L. Slightom,, and S. T. Chung. 1990. Nucleotide sequence of Streptomyces fradiae transposable element Tn4556: a class-II transposon related to Tn3. Gene 86:19.
212.Slavo, J , J . , and N. D. F. Grindley. 1987. Helical phasing between DNA bends and the determination of bend direction. Nucleic Acids Res. 15:97719779.
213. Slavo, J. J., and N. D. F. Grindley. 1988. The 76 resolvase bends the res site into a recombinogenic complex. EMBO J. 7:36093616.
214. Smith, M. C. M., and H, M. Thorpe. 2002. Diversity in the serine recombinases. Mol. Microbiol. 44:299307.
215. Snellings, N. J.,, M. Popck,, and L. E. Lindler. 2001. Complete DNA sequence of Yersinia cnterocolitica serotype 0:8 low-calciurn-response plasmid reveals a new virulence plasmid-associated replicon. Infect. Immun. 69:46274638.
216. Sobecky, P. A.,, C. L. Easter,, P. D. Bear,, and D. R. Helinski. 1996. Characterization of the stable maintenance properties of the par region of broad-host-range plasmid RK2. J. Bacteriol. 178:20862093.V
217. Stark, W. M.,, and M. R. Boocock,. 1995. Topological selectivity in site-specific recombination, p. 101129. In D. J. Sherratt (ed.), Mobile Genetic Elements. IRL Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
218. Stark, W. M.,, M. R. Boocock,, and D. J . Sherratt. 1992. Catalysis by site-specific recombinases. Trends Genet. 8:432439.
219. Stark, W. M.,, N. D. F. Grindley,, G. F. Hathill,, and M. R. Boocock. 1991. Resolvase-catalysed reactions between res sites differing in the central dinucleotide of subsite 1. EMBO J. 10:35413548.
220. Stark, W. M.,, D.J. Sherratt,, and M. R. Boocock. 1989. Sitespecific recombination by Tn3 resolvase: topological changes in the forward and reverse reactions. Cell 58: 779790.
221. Steiner, W.,, G. Liu,, W. D. Donachie,, and P. Kuempel. 1999. The cytoplasmic domain of FtsK protein is required for resolution of chromosome dimers. Mol. Microbiol. 31:579583.
222. Steiner, W. W.,, and P. L. Kuempel. 1998. Cell division is required for resolution of dimer chromosomes at the dif locus of Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 27:257268.
223. Steiner, W. W.,, and P. L. Kuempel. 1998. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies in Escherichia coli analyzed by recombination at the dif resolvase site. J. Bacteriol. 180:62696275.
224. Stemmer, C.,, S. Fernandez,, G. Lopez,, J. C. Alonso,, and K. D. Grasscr. 2002. Plant chromosomal HMG proteins efficiently promote the bacterial site-specific β-mediated recombination in vitro and in vivo. Biochemistry 41:77637770.
225. Sternberg, N.,, D. Hamilton,, S. Austin,, M. Yarmolinsky,, and R. Hoess. 1980. Site-specific recombination and its role in the life cycle of bacteriophage PI. CoW Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 45:297309.
226. Stewart, L.,, M. R. Redinbo,, X. Qiu,, W. G. J. Hoi,, and J. J, Champoux. 1998. A model for the mechanism of human topoisomerase I. Science 279:15341541.
227.Stirling, C J., S. D. Colloms, J. F. Collins, G. Szatmari, and D.J. Sherratt. 1989. xerB, an Escherichia co//gene required for plasmid ColEl site-specific recombination, is identical to pepA, encoding aminopcptidase A, a protein with substantial similarity to bovine lens leucine aminopcptidase. EMBO J. 8:16231627.
228. Stirling, C. J.,, G. Szatmari,, G. Stewart,, M. C. Smith,, and D. J . Sherratt. 1988. The arginine repressor is essential for plasmid- stabilizing site-specific recombination at the ColE1 cer locus. EMBO J. 7:43894395.
229. Stragier, P.,, B. Kunkel,, L. Kroos,, and R. Losick. 1989. Chromosomal rearrangement generating a composite gene for a developmental transcription factor. Science 243:507512.
230.Sträter, NM D. J . Sherratt, and S. D. Colloms. 1999. X-ray structure of aminopeptidasc A from Escherichia coli and a model for the nucleoprotein complex in Xer site-specific recombination. EMBO J . 18:45134522.
231. Subramanya, H. S.,, L. K. Arciszewska,, R. A. Baker,, L. E. Bird,, D. J . Sherratt,, and D. B. Wigley. 1997. Crystal structure of the site-specific recombinase, XerD. EMBO J. 16:51785187.
232. Summers, D. 1998. Timing, self-control and a sense of direction are the secrets of multicopy plasmid stability. Mol. Microbiol. 29:11371145.
233. Summers, D. K.,, C. W. Bcton,, and H. L. Withers, 1993. Multicopy plasmid instability: the dimer catastrophe hypothesis. Mol. Microbiol. 8:10311038.
234.Summers, D, K. and D, J . Sherratt. 1984. Multimerization of high copy number plasmids causes instability: ColEl encodes a determinant essential for plasmid monomerization and stability. Cell 36:10971103.
235. Swinfield, T. J.,, L. Jannière,, S. D. Herlich,, and N. P, Minton. 1991. Characterization of a region of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pAM beta 1 which enhances the segregational stability of pAM beta 1-derived cloning vectors in Bacillus subtilis. Plasmid 26:209221.
236. Tekle, M.,, D. J. Warren,, T. Biswas,, T. Ellenberger,, A. Landy,, and S. E. Nunes-Duby. 2002. Attenuating functions of the C-terminus of lambda integrase. J. Mol. Biol. 324:649665.
237.Thomas, C M. 1988. Recent studies on control of plasmid replication. Biochim. Biopbys. Acta. 949:253263.
238. Thorpe, H. M.,, and M. C. M. Smith. 1998. In vitro site-specific integration of bacteriophage DNA catalyzed by a recombinase of the rcsolvase/invertase family. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:55055510.
239. Tobe, T.,, T. Hayashi,, C.-G. Han, G, K. Schoolnik, E. Ohtsubo, and C, Sasakawa. 1999. Complete DNA sequence and structural analysis of the enteropathogenic Escherischia coli adherence factor plasmid. Infect. Immun. 67:54555462.
240. Tolmasky, M. E.,, S. Colloms, G, Blakely, and D. J. Sherrat. 2000. Stability by multimer resolution of pJHCMWl is due to tne Tnl331 resolvase and not to the Escherichia coli Xer system. Microbiology 146:581589.
241. Tsuda, M.,, and T. Iino. 1987. Genetic analysis of a transposon carrying toluene degrading genes on a TOL plasmid pWWO. Mol. Gen. Genet. 210:270276.
242. Van Duyne, G. D, 2001. A structural view of Cre-loxP sitespecific recombination. Annu. Rev. Biopbys. Biomol. Struct. 30:87104.
243. Van Duyne, G. D., 2002. A structural view of tyrosine recombinase site-specific recombination, p. 93117. In N. L. Craig,, R. Craigie,, M. Gellert,, and A. M. Lambowitz (ed.), Mobile DNA II. ASM Press, Washington, D.C..
244. van Gool, A. J.,, N. M. Hajibagheri,, A. Stasiak,, and S. C. West. 1999. Assembly of the Escherichia coli RuvABC resolvasomc directs the orientation of Holliday junction resolution. Genes Dev. 13:18611870.
245. Volkert, F. C , and J. R. Broach. 1986. Site-specific recombination promotes plasmid amplification in yeast. Cell. 46:541550.
246. Wang, H.,, and P. Mullany. 2000. The large resolvase TndX is required and sufficient for integration and excision of derivatives of the novel conjugative transposon Tn5397. J. Bacteriol. 182:65776583.
247. Wang, J. C. 2002. Cellular roles of DNA topoisomerases: a molecular perspective. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 3:430440.
248. Warren, G. J.,, and A. J . Clark. 1980. Sequence-specific recombination of plasmid ColEl. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:67246728.
249. Xu, C.-J.,, I. Graingc,, J . Lee,, R. M. Harshey,, and M. Jayaram. 1998. Unveiling two distinct ribonuclease activities and a topoisomerase activity in a site-specific DNA recombinase. Mol. Cell. 1:729739.
250. Yang, W.,, and T. A. Steitz. 1995. Crystal structure of the site-specific recombinase gd resolvase complexed with a 34 γλ cleavage site. Cell 82:193207.
251. Yates, J., M, Aroyo, D. J . Sherratt, and F. X. Barre. 2003. Species specificity in the activation of Xer recombination at dif by FtsK. Mol. Microbiol. 49:241249.
252. Yeo, C. C.,, J. M. Tham,, S. M, Kwong, S. Yin and C L. Poh. 1998. Tn5563, a transposon encoding putative mercuric ion transport proteins located on plasmid pRA2 of Pseudomonas alcaligenes. EEMS Microbiol. Lett. 158:159165.