1887

Chapter 4 : Gene Duplication and Gene Loading

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Gene Duplication and Gene Loading, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817749/9781555812713_Chap04-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817749/9781555812713_Chap04-2.gif

Abstract:

During the early evolution of life, gene duplication, the production of two copies of a DNA sequence, allowed the rapid diversification of enzymatically catalyzed reactions and an increase in genome size, providing also material for the invention of new enzymatic properties and complex regulatory and developmental patterns. A duplication may involve (i) a part of a gene, (ii) a whole gene, (iii) DNA stretches including two or more genes involved in the same or in different metabolic pathways, (iv) entire operons, (v) a part of a chromosome, (vi) an entire chromosome, and finally (vii) the whole genome. Therefore, any DNA sequence may undergo a duplication event(s), but the fate of the replicate depends on whether it provides an evolutionary advantage to the host cell. Two hypotheses on the origin and evolution of metabolic pathways exist. The first one, the Horowitz retrograde hypothesis, predicts that an entire metabolic route was assembled by successive duplications of an ancestral gene in a backward fashion, starting with the synthesis of the final product, then the penultimate pathway intermediate, and so on down the pathway to the initial precursor. The patchwork hypothesis is based on the duplication(s) of ancestral gene(s) leading to the progressive increasing of specificity of low-specific enzymes, which then may be recruited to catalyze similar reactions in different metabolic pathways or sequential steps in the same route.

Citation: Fani R. 2004. Gene Duplication and Gene Loading, p 67-81. In Miller R, Day M (ed), Microbial Evolution. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817749.ch4

Key Concept Ranking

Bacteria and Archaea
0.5867541
Histidine Biosynthesis
0.52651507
Klebsiella pneumoniae
0.5113636
0.5867541
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Gene duplication and divergence: formation of paralogs.

Citation: Fani R. 2004. Gene Duplication and Gene Loading, p 67-81. In Miller R, Day M (ed), Microbial Evolution. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817749.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Evolutionary relationship between orthologous and paralogous genes.

Citation: Fani R. 2004. Gene Duplication and Gene Loading, p 67-81. In Miller R, Day M (ed), Microbial Evolution. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817749.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Evolution of a paralogous gene family.

Citation: Fani R. 2004. Gene Duplication and Gene Loading, p 67-81. In Miller R, Day M (ed), Microbial Evolution. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817749.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Gene elongation: the duplication of an ancestral gene and the subsequent fusion of the two homologs to produce a longer protein.

Citation: Fani R. 2004. Gene Duplication and Gene Loading, p 67-81. In Miller R, Day M (ed), Microbial Evolution. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817749.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

The Horowitz hypothesis. As each intermediate (A through D) becomes exhausted in the primordial soup, the successful organisms evolve the next step in the pathway. Thus, as A is exhausted, ? (the next intermediate) becomes the prime material source, and so on.

Citation: Fani R. 2004. Gene Duplication and Gene Loading, p 67-81. In Miller R, Day M (ed), Microbial Evolution. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817749.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Patchwork hypothesis on the origin and evolution of metabolic pathways.

Citation: Fani R. 2004. Gene Duplication and Gene Loading, p 67-81. In Miller R, Day M (ed), Microbial Evolution. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817749.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Evolutionary divergence of an ancestral enzyme (E1) with a low specificity catalyzing similar reactions in the same (a) or different (b) metabolic route(s).

Citation: Fani R. 2004. Gene Duplication and Gene Loading, p 67-81. In Miller R, Day M (ed), Microbial Evolution. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817749.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Organization of in .

Citation: Fani R. 2004. Gene Duplication and Gene Loading, p 67-81. In Miller R, Day M (ed), Microbial Evolution. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817749.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

Origin and evolution of , , , and genes found in present-day bacterial and archaeal diazotrophs: a cascade of DNA duplications and divergence.

Citation: Fani R. 2004. Gene Duplication and Gene Loading, p 67-81. In Miller R, Day M (ed), Microbial Evolution. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817749.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

Two scenarios depicted for the evolution of the original functions performed by the genes and their ancestor genes.

Citation: Fani R. 2004. Gene Duplication and Gene Loading, p 67-81. In Miller R, Day M (ed), Microbial Evolution. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817749.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 11
FIGURE 11

Schematic representation of the histidine biosynthetic operon (upper) and pathway (lower).

Citation: Fani R. 2004. Gene Duplication and Gene Loading, p 67-81. In Miller R, Day M (ed), Microbial Evolution. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817749.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 12
FIGURE 12

Evolutionary origin of the and genes.

Citation: Fani R. 2004. Gene Duplication and Gene Loading, p 67-81. In Miller R, Day M (ed), Microbial Evolution. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817749.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817749.chap4
1. Brigle, K. E.,, M. C. Weiss,, W. E. Newton,, and D. R. Dean. 1987. Products of the iron-molybdenum cofactor-specific biosynthetic genes, nifE and nifN, are structurally homologous to the products of the nitrogenase molybdenum-iron genes, nifD and nifK. J. Bacteriol. 169:15471553.
2. Carlomagno, M. S.,, L. Chiarotti,, P. Alifano,, A. G. Nappo,, and C. B. Bruni. 1988. Structure of the Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli K-12 histidine operons. J. Mol. Biol. 203:585606.
3. de Rosa, R.,, and B. Labedan. 1998. The evolutionary relationships between the two bacteria Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae and their putative last common ancestor. Mol. Biol. Evol. 15: 1727.
4. Fani, R.,, R. Gallo,, and P. Lio. 2000. Molecular evolution of nitrogen fixation: the evolutionary history of nifD, nifK, nifE, and nifN genes. J. Mol. Evol. 51:111.
5. Fani, R.,, E. Mori,, E. Tamburini,, and A. Lazcano. 1998. Evolution of the structure and chromosomal distribution of histidine biosynthetic genes. Origins Life Evol. Biosph. 28:555570.
6. Horowitz, N. J. 1945. On the evolution of biochemical synthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 31:153157.
7. Labedan, B.,, and M. Riley. 1995. Widespread protein sequence similarities: origin of Escherichia coli genes. J. Bacteriol. 177:15851588.
8. Lang, D.,, R. Thoma,, M. Henn-Sax,, R. Sterner,, and M. Wilmanns. 2000. Structural evidence for evolution of the b/a barrel scaffold by gene duplication and fusion. Science 289:15461550.
9. Lazcano, A.,, and S. L. Miller. 1996. The origin and early evolution of life: prebiotic chemistry, the pre-RNA world, and time. Cell 85:793798.
10. Mortlock, R. P.,, and M. A. Gallo,. 1992. Experiments in the evolution of catabolic pathways using modern bacteria, p. 113. In R. P. Mortlock (ed.), The Evolution of Metabolic Functions. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
11. Mushegian, A. R.,, and E. V. Koonin. 1996. Gene order is not conserved in bacterial evolution. Trends Genet. 12:289290.
12. Rubin, R. A.,, S. B. Levy,, R. L. Heirinkson,, and F. J. Kezdy. 1990. Gene duplication in the evolution of the two complementing domains of Gram-negative bacterial tetracycline efflux proteins. Gene 87:713.
13. Silver, V. S.,, and J. R. Postgate. 1973. Evolution of asymbiotic nitrogen fixation. J. Theor. Biol. 40:110.
14. Winkler, M. E., 1987. Biosynthesis of histidine, p. 395411. In F. C. Neidhardt,, J. L. Ingraham,, K. B. Low,, B. Magasanik,, M. Schaechter,, and H. E. Umbarger (ed.), Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium: Cellular and Molecular Biology, vol. 1. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
15. Alifano, P.,, R. Fani,, P. Li,, A. Lazcano,, M. Bazzicalupo,, M. S. Carlomagno,, and C. B. Bruni. 1996. Histidine biosynthetic pathway and genes: structure, regulation and evolution. Microbiol. Rev. 60:4469.
16. Bryson, V.,, and H. J. Fogel (ed.). 1965. Evolving Genes and Proteins. Academic Press, New York.
17. Carlile, M.J.,, and J.J. Skehel (ed.). 1974. Evolution in the Microbial World. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.
18. Go, M.,, and M. Nosaka. 1987. Protein architecture and the origin of introns. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 52:915924.
19. Gogarten, J. P.,, and L. Olendzenski. 1999. Orthologs, paralogs and genome comparisons. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 9:630636.
20. Haldane, J. B. S. 1932. The Causes of Evolution. Longman and Green, London, England.
21. Hartman, H.,, and K. Matsuno (ed.). 1992. The Origin and Evolution of the Cell, p. 163182. World Scientific, River Edge, N.J.
22. Jensen, R. A. 1976. Enzyme recruitment in evolution of new function. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 30:409425.
23. Li, W. H.,, and D. Graur. 1991. Fundamentals of Molecular Evolution. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass.
24. McLachlan, A. D. 1987. Gene duplication and the origin of repetitive protein structures. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 52:411420.
25. Miller, S. L. 1953. A production of amino acids under possible primitive earth conditions. Science 117:528529.
26. Muller, H. J. 1935. The origination of chromatine deficiencies as minute deletions subject to insertion elsewhere. Genetics 17:237252.
27. Ohno, S. 1970. Evolution by Gene Duplication. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.
28. Oparin, A. I. 1938. The Origin of Life. MacMillan Publishing, New York, N.Y.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error