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Chapter 1 : Biotechnology, the Art of Exploiting Biology

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Abstract:

The business of the biotechnology-based industries is founded on the search for exploitable biology, or, in the terms of the Convention on Biological Diversity, genetic resources. As such, these resources reflect the major applications of biotechnology, namely, the replacement of fossil fuels and raw materials by renewable raw materials, the replacement of extant nonbiological products and processes based on biology, and the introduction of completely innovative goods and services. Whereas the concept of exploitable microbiology based on the isolation of organisms, cultivation to elicit maximum gene expression, and screening for desired properties remains the practice in many biotechnology companies and industries, major changes in the approach to search and discovery are occurring. This chapter illustrates how biotechnology can affect process substitution, process improvement, energy saving, waste minimization, and pollution control while reinforcing the benefits of microbial prospecting and biocatalyst development. Full details of the case studies can be found in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report. Feed enzymes for application in high-intensity livestock and poultry rearing illustrate the contribution that biotechnology can make to industrial sustainability. Innovative biotechnology is intimately associated with the discovery of novel exploitable biology, be it in terms of organisms per se, their activities, metabolic products, or genes.

Citation: Bull A. 2004. Biotechnology, the Art of Exploiting Biology, p 3-10. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch1

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Improvement options for sustainable processing

Citation: Bull A. 2004. Biotechnology, the Art of Exploiting Biology, p 3-10. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch1
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The elements of innovative biotechnology

Citation: Bull A. 2004. Biotechnology, the Art of Exploiting Biology, p 3-10. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch1
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References

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Tables

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Table 1

Prioritization of genetic resources for screening purposes

Citation: Bull A. 2004. Biotechnology, the Art of Exploiting Biology, p 3-10. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch1

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