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Chapter 14 : Extremophiles: pH, Temperature, and Salinity

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Abstract:

During the past 20 years, rapidly growing research activities focused on the elucidation of the basic rules that govern extreme microorganisms such as prokaryotes, have been conducted all over the world. This new field was strongly supported by industry and academia because it became obvious that the extremophilic organisms provide a unique resource for a variety of biomolecules such as enzymes and compounds with high potential for applications in the biotechnological industry. Furthermore, the finding of novel biocatalysts will allow the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly industrial processes. This chapter focuses on a general description of the ecology, the general properties, and some examples of the biotechnological application of microorganisms that are able to grow optimally under very low or very high temperature, extreme pH, and high salinity. Such extremophiles can be found in terrestrial and marine environments all over the world and particularly in exotic ecological niches such as polar regions, solfataric fields, soda lakes, and abyssal hypothermal vents. Most of the bacteria identified were classified in four phylogenetic groups: , , , and the division, as were supported by cultivation data.

Citation: Vorgias C, Antranikian G. 2004. Extremophiles: pH, Temperature, and Salinity, p 146-153. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch14

Key Concept Ranking

Bacteria and Archaea
1.6146322
Chemicals
0.79850924
Bacteria
0.6389855
Salt Lakes
0.5576252
Citric Acid
0.5477018
1.6146322
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References

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Tables

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Table 1

Microorganisms living at extreme pHs

Citation: Vorgias C, Antranikian G. 2004. Extremophiles: pH, Temperature, and Salinity, p 146-153. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch14
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Table 2

Microorganisms growing at low temperature

Citation: Vorgias C, Antranikian G. 2004. Extremophiles: pH, Temperature, and Salinity, p 146-153. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 3

Microorganisms growing at elevated temperatures

Citation: Vorgias C, Antranikian G. 2004. Extremophiles: pH, Temperature, and Salinity, p 146-153. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 4

Microorganisms living at high salt concentrations

Citation: Vorgias C, Antranikian G. 2004. Extremophiles: pH, Temperature, and Salinity, p 146-153. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch14

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