Chapter 19 : Invertebrates—Insects

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Insects (phylum Arthropoda; class Insecta) are one of the most diverse groups of living creatures on Earth. One salient theme to emerge from early investigations was that distinct microbial symbionts, or communities of microbial symbionts, were especially common in insects that feed on restricted and/or relatively refractory food resources. Accordingly, a major challenge in preparing this chapter has been to distill the enormous body of literature on insect-microbe interactions into a coherent and meaningful overview. To do this, the author has often cited other reviews as a gateway to background literature on a particular topic, opting to focus here on some exciting recent discoveries, especially those in which biochemical, genetic, and molecular biological approaches have greatly improved our understanding of the symbioses and their evolution. The chapter emphasizes the biodiversity of the interacting partners and to suggest systems in which bioprospecting for novel and useful natural products, genes, enzymes, or organisms might be fruitful. The intracellular symbionts can be divided into two general groups based on their pattern of interaction with various insects and the effect they exert on their host: (i) the Wolbachia group, which induce reproductive anomalies in their hosts and may be regarded as parasites and (ii) the primary (bacteriocyte-associated) and secondary endosymbionts, which usually have beneficial or neutral effects on host fitness. Ectosymbionts of insects include a wide array of bacteria, yeast, and filamentous fungi. The chapter focuses primarily on recent discoveries made in studies of fungus-cultivating ants, fungus-cultivating termites, and ambrosia and bark beetles.

Citation: Breznak J. 2004. Invertebrates—Insects, p 191-203. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch19

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Type III Secretion System
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Figure 1

(A) Diversity of prokaryotic microbes located on and near the hindgut epithelium (GT) of the termite , (B) Cells of within an aphid bacteriocyte (kindly supplied by P. Baumann). Bars: (A) 1 µm; (B) 5 µm.

Citation: Breznak J. 2004. Invertebrates—Insects, p 191-203. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch19
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111. Wilson, E. O. 1992. The Diversity of Life. W. W. Norton & Company, New York, N.Y.
112. Wren, H. N.,, and D. G. Cochran. 1987. Xanthine dehydrogenase activity in the cockroach endosymbiont Blattabacterium cuenoti (Mercier 1906) Hollande and Favre 1931 and in the cockroach fat body. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 88:10231026.
113. Yamin, M. 1979. Flagellates of the orders Trichomonadida Kirby, Oxymonadida Grasse, and Hypermastigida Grassi & Foà reported from lower termites (Isoptera families Mastotermitidae, Hodotermitidae, Termopsidae, Rhinotermitidae, and Serritermitidae) and from the wood-feeding roach Cryptocercus (Dictyoptera: Cryptocercidae). Sociobiology 4:1119.


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Table 1

Distribution of primary (P) and secondary (S) endosymbionts in insects

Citation: Breznak J. 2004. Invertebrates—Insects, p 191-203. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch19

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