1887

Chapter 21 : Ubiquitous Dispersal of Free-Living Microorganisms

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Ubiquitous Dispersal of Free-Living Microorganisms, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817770/9781555812676_Chap21-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817770/9781555812676_Chap21-2.gif

Abstract:

For purely statistical reasons, the sheer weight of numbers of microorganisms may drive their large-scale, even ubiquitous, dispersal, and this chapter concerns with exploring some of the evidence for this idea. The chapter uses the term ubiquitous dispersal to mean the process of continuous worldwide dispersal of individuals belonging to a species, whereas cosmopolitan refers to species that are capable of population growth in many different places worldwide. The evidence for ubiquitous dispersal is not always obvious because microorganisms are often cryptic, or because of undersampling. There are some important examples, however, that present themselves as direct and indirect evidence. In the discussion that follows, the term microorganism includes the prokaryotes and the unicellular eukaryotes (mainly algae and protozoa). But with ubiquitous dispersal as the relevant model of large-scale distribution, the global diversity of bacteria in soil would perhaps not be expected to be much greater than 4,000 genomes. Claims for endemic diatoms or any other microbial endemics probably cannot be supported because the absolute abundance of all free-living microbial eukaryote species is so great that ubiquitous dispersal is likely and because it is effectively impossible to disprove the existence of endemics (i.e., including resting spores and other cryptic forms) elsewhere on the planet.

Citation: Finlay B, Esteban G. 2004. Ubiquitous Dispersal of Free-Living Microorganisms, p 216-224. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch21

Key Concept Ranking

Freshwater Ecosystem
0.56407905
Terrestrial Ecosystem
0.51934797
Natural Environment
0.4935204
Green Algae
0.42368287
0.56407905
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817770.chap21
1. Agatha, S.,, M. Spindler,, and N. Wilbert. 1993. Ciliated protozoa (Ciliophora) from Arctic Sea ice. Acta Protozool. 32: 261 268.
2. Al-Rasheid, K. A. S. 1996. Records of free-living ciliates in Saudi Arabia. II. Freshwater benthic ciliates of Al-Hassa Oasis, Eastern Region. Arab Gulf J. Sci. Res. 15: 187 205.
3. Ammermann, D.,, M. Schlegel,, and K.-H. Hellmer. 1989. North American and Eurasian strains of Stylonychia lemnae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida) have a high genetic identity, but differ in the nuclear apparatus and in their mating behavior. Eur. J. Protistol. 25: 67 74.
4. Atkins, M. S.,, A. P. Teske,, and o. R. Anderson. 2000. A survey of flagellate diversity at four deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Eastern Pacific Ocean using structural and molecular approaches. J. Euk. Microbiol. 47: 400 411.
5. Atkinson, K. M. 1980. Experiments in dispersal of phytoplankton by ducks. Br. Phycol. J. 15: 4958.
6. Baurain, D.,, L. Renquin,, S. Grubisic,, P. Scheldeman,, A. Belay,, and A. Wilmotte. 2002. Remarkable conservation of internally transcribed spacer sequences of Arthrospira ("Spirulina") (Cyanophyceae, Cyanobacteria) strains from four continents and of recent and 30-year old dried samples from Africa. J. Phycol. 38: 384 393.
7. Bell, G. 2001. Neutral macroeclogy. Science 293: 2413 2418.
8. Berninger, U.-G.,, B. J. Finlay,, and P. Kuuppo-Leinikki. 1991. Protozoan control of bacterial abundances in fresh water. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36: 139 147.
9. Bolch, C. J. S.,, and M. L. Reynolds. 2002. Species resolution and global distribution of microreticulate dinoflagellate cysts. J. Plank. Res. 24: 565 578.
10. Bowers, N. J.,, and J. R. Pratt. 1995. Estimation of genetic variation among soil ciliates of Colpoda inflata (Strokes) (Protozoa: Ciliophora) using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Arch. Protistenkd. 145: 29 36.
11. Brown, J. K. M.,, and M. S. Hovmøller. 2002. Aerial dispersal of pathogens on the global and continental scales and its impact on plant disease. Science 297: 537 541.
12. Burkholder, J. M.,, H. B. Glasgow,, and N. Deamer-Melia. 2001. Overview and present status of the toxic Pfiesteria complex (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 40: 186 214.
13. Campbell, I. D.,, K. McDonald,, M. D. Flannigan,, and J. Kringayark. 1999. Long-distance transport of pollen into the Arctic. Nature 399: 29 30.
14. Carlton, J. T.,, and J. B. Geller. 1993. Ecological roulette: the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science 261: 78 82.
15. Censky, E. J.,, K. Hodge,, and J. Dudley. 1998. Over-water dispersal of lizards due to hurricanes. Nature 395: 556.
16. Clausen, P.,, B. A. Nolet,, A. D. Fox,, and M. Klaassen. 2002. Longdistance endozoochorous dispersal of submerged macrophyte seeds by migratory waterbirds in northern Europe—a critical review of possibilities and limitations. Acta Oecologica 23: 191 203.
17. Coates, J. D.,, R. A. Bruce,, and J. D. Haddock. 1998. Anoxic bioremediation of hydrocarbons. Nature 396: 730.
18. Coesel, P. F. M.,, S. R. Duque,, and G. Arango. 1988. Distributional patterns in some neotropical desmid species (Algae, Chlorophyta) in relation to migratory bird routes. Rev. Hydrobiol. Trop. 21: 197 205.
19. Coleman, A. W.,, A. Suarez,, and L. J. Goff. 1994. Molecular delineation of species and syngens in volvocacean green algae (Chlorophyta). J. Phycol. 30: 80 90.
20. Darling, K. F.,, C. M. Wade,, D. Kroon,, A. J. Leigh Brown,, and J. Bijma. 1999. The diversity and distribution of modern planktonic foraminiferal subunit RNA genotypes and their potential as tracers of present and past ocean circulations. Paleoceanography 14: 3 12.
21. Darling, K. F.,, C. M. Wade,, i. A. Stewart,, D. Kroon,, R. Dingle,, and A.J. Leigh Brown. 2000. Molecular evidence for genetic mixing of Arctic and Antarctic planktonic foraminifers. Nature 405: 43 47.
22. Ekebom, J.,, D.J. Patterson,, and N. Vprs. 1996. Heterotrophic flagellates from coral reef sediments (Great Barrier Reef, Australia). Arch. Protistenkd. 146: 251 272.
23. Esteban, G. F.,, B. J. Finlay,, J. L. Olmo,, and P. A. Tyler. 2000. Ciliated protozoa from a volcanic crater-lake in Victoria, Australia. J. Nat. Hist. 34: 159 189.
24. Esteban, G. F.,, B. J. Finlay,, N. Charubhun,, and B. Charubhun. 2001. On the geographic distribution of Loxodes rex (Protozoa, Ciliophora) and other alleged endemic species of ciliates. J. Zool. 255: 139 143.
25. Fenchel, T. 1993. There are more small than large species? Oikos 68: 375 378.
26. Fenchel, T.,, G. F. Esteban,, and B. J. Finlay. 1997. Local versus global diversity of microorganisms: cryptic diversity of ciliated protozoa. Oikos 80: 220 225.
27. Finlay, B. J. 2002 Global dispersal of free-living microbial eukaryote species. Science 296: 1061 1063.
28. Finlay, B. J., and K. J. Clarke. 1999a. Ubiquitous dispersal of microbial species. Nature 400: 828.
29. Finlay, B. J.,, and K. J. Clarke. 1999b. Apparent global ubiquity of species in the protist genus Paraphysomonas. Protist 150: 419 430.
30. Finlay, B. J., and G. F. Esteban. 1998. Freshwater protozoa: biodiversity and ecological function. Biodiver. Conserv. 7: 1163 1186.
31. Finlay, B. J.,, G. F. Esteban,, and T. Fenchel. 1996a. Global diversity and body size. Nature 383: 132 133.
32. Finlay, B. J.,, J. O. Corliss,, G. Esteban,, and T. Fenchel. 1996b. Biodiversity at the microbial level: the number of free-living ciliates in the biosphere. Q. Rev. Biol. 71: 221 237.
33. Finlay, B. J.,, G. F. Esteban,, J. L. Olmo,, and P. A. Tyler. 1999. Global distribution of free-living microbial species. Ecography 22: 138 144.
34. Finlay, B. J.,, G. F. Esteban,, K.J. Clarke,, and J. L. Olmo. 2001. Biodiversity of terrestrial protozoa appears homogeneous across local and global spatial scales. Protist 152: 355 366.
35. Finlay. B. J.,, E. B. Monaghan,, and S. C. Maberly. 2002. Hypothesis: the rate and scale of dispersal of freshwater diatom species is a function of their global abundance. Protist 153: 261 274.
36. Fulthorpe, R. R.,, A. N. Rhodes,, and J. M. Tiedje. 1998. High levels of endemicity of 3-chlorobenzoate-degrading bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 1620 1627.
37. Galil, B. S.,, and N. Hülsmann. 1997. Protist transport via ballast water—biological classification of ballast tanks by food web interactions. Eur. J. Protistol. 33: 244 253.
38. Gislén, T. 1948. Aerial plankton and its conditions of life. Biol. Rev. 23: 109 126.
39. Glöckner, F. O.,, E. Zaichikov,, N. Belkova,, L. Denissova,, J. Pernthaler,, A. Pernthaler,, and R. Amann. 2000. Comparative 16S rRNA analysis of lake bacterioplankton reveals globally distributed phylogenetic clusters including an abundant group of Actinobacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 5053 5065.
40. Kelly, K. M.,, and A. Y. Chistoserdov. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of the succession of bacterial communities in the Great South Bay (Long Island). FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 35: 85 95.
41. Kristiansen, J. 1996. Dispersal of freshwater algae—a review. Hydrobiologia 336: 151 157.
42. Kusch J.,, H. Welter,, M. Stremmel,, and H. J. Schmidt. 2000. Genetic diversity in populations of a freshwater ciliate. Hydrobiologia 431: 185 192.
43. Langley, J. M.,, R. J. Shiel,, D. L. Nielsen,, and J. D. Green. 2001. Hatching from the sediment egg-bank, or aerial dispersing?—the use of mesocosms in assessing rotifer biodiversity. Hydrobiologia 446/ 447: 203 211.
44. Larsen, J.,, and D. J. Patterson. 1990. Some flagellates (Protista) from tropical marine sediments. J. Nat. Hist. 24: 801 937.
45. Lee, W. J.,, and D. J. Patterson. 2000. Heterotrophic flagellates (Protista) from marine sediments of Botany Bay, Australia. J. Nat. Hist. 34: 483 562.
46. Lepère, C.,, A. Wilmotte,, and B. Meyer. 2000. Molecular diversity of Microcystis strains (Cyanophycease, Chroococcales). Syst. Georg. Pants 70: 275 283.
47. Levinsen, H.,, T. G. Nielsen,, and B. W. Hansen. 2000. Annual succession of marine pelagic protozoans in Disko Bay, West Greenland, with emphasis on winter dynamics. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 206: 119 134.
48. Lund, J. W. G. 2002. Seventieth Annual Report of the Freshwater Biological Association, p. 43 46. Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, United Kingdom.
49. Maguire, B. 1963. The passive dispersal of small aquatic organisms and their colonization of isolated bodies of water. Ecol. Monogr. 33: 161 185.
50. Maguire, B.,, and D. Belk. 1967. Paramecium transport by land snails. J. Protozool. 14: 445 447.
51. Marshall, W. A. 1996. Biological particles over Antarctica. Nature 383: 680.
52. Medlin, L. K.,, G. L. A. Barker,, M. Baumann,, P. K. Hayes,, and M. Lange,. 1994. Molecular biology and systematics, p. 393 411. In J. C. Green, and B. S. C. Leadbeater (ed.), The Haptophyte Algae. Systematics Association, spec. vol. 51. Clarendon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
53. Milliger, L. E.,, and H. E. Schlichting. 1968. The passive dispersal of viable algae and protozoa by an aquatic beetle. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 87: 443 448.
54. Moore, L. R.,, G. Rocap,, and S. W. Chisholm. 1998. Physiology and molecular phylogeny of coexisting Prochlorococcus ecotypes. Nature 393: 464 467.
55. Parsons, W. M.,, H. E. Schlichting,, and K. W. Stewart. 1966. Inflight transport of algae and protozoa by selected Odonata. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 85: 520 527.
56. Proctor, V. W. 1966. Dispersal of desmids by waterbirds. Phycologia 5: 227 232.
57. Roberts, M. S.,, and F. M. Cohan. 1995. Recombination and migration rates in natural populations of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus mojavensis. Evolution 49: 1081 1094.
58. Schlichting, H. E. 1964. Meteorological conditions affecting the dispersal of airborne algae and protozoa. Lloydia 27: 64 78.
59. Schlichting, H. E.,, and S. L. Sides. 1969. The passive transport of aquatic microorganisms by selected Hemiptera. J. Ecol. 57: 759 764 (and references therein).
60. Simpson, A. G. B.,, J. van den Hoff,, C. Bernard,, H. R. Burtom,, and D. J. Patterson. 1997. The ultrastructure and systematic position of the euglenozoon Postgaardi managerensis, Fenchel et al. Arch. Protistenkd. 147: 213 225.
61. Staley, J. T.,, and J. J. Gosink. 1999. Poles apart: biodiversity and biogeography of sea ice bacteria. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 53: 189 215.
62. Stoeck, T.,, and H. J. Schmidt. 1998. Fast and accurate identification of European species of the Paramecium aurelia complex by RAPD-fingerprints. Microb. Ecol. 35: 311 317.
63. Stoeck, T.,, E. Przybos,, and H. J. Schmidt. 1998. A combination of genetics with inter- and intra-strain crosses and RAPD-fingerprints reveals different population structures within the Paramecium aurelia species complex. Eur. J. Protistol. 34: 348 355.
64. Theriot, E. 1992. Clusters, species concepts, and morphological evolution of diatoms. Syst. Biol. 41: 141 157.
65. Tong, S.,, N. Vprs,, and D. J. Patterson. 1997. Heterotrophic flagellates, centrohelid heliozoa and filose amoebae from marine and freshwater sites in the Antarctic. Polar Biol. 18: 91 106.
66. Torsvik, V.,, J. Goksøyr,, and F. I. Daae. 1990. High diversity in DNA of soil bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56: 782 787.
67. Torsvik, V.,, L. Øvreas,, and T. F. Thingstad. 2002. Prokaryotic diversity—magnitude, dynamics, and controlling factors. Science 296: 1064 1066.
68. Van Iterson, G.,, L. E. Den Dooren de Jong,, and A. J. Kluyver. 1983. Martinus Willem Beijerinck, His Life and Work. Science Tech, Inc. Madison, Wis.
69. Vitousek, P. M.,, C. M. D'Antonio,, L. L. Loope,, and R. Westbrooks. 1996. Biological invasions as global environmental change. Am. Sci. 84: 468 478.
70. Wirsen, C. O.,, T. Brinkhoff,, J. Kuever,, G. Muyzer,, S. Molyneaux,, and H. W. Jannasch. 1998. Comparison of a new Thiomicrospira strain from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with known hydrothermal vent isolates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 4057 4059.
71. Zechman, F. W.,, E. A. Zimmer,, and E. C. Theriot. 1994. Use of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers for phylogenetic studies of diatoms. J. Phycol. 30: 507 512.
72. Zwart, G.,, B. C. Crump,, M. P. K. Agterveld,, F. Hagen,, and S.-K. Han. 2002. Typical freshwater bacteria: an analysis of available 16S rRNA gene sequences from plankton of lakes and rivers. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 28: 141 155.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Fundamental differences between macroscopic plants and animals and free-living microorganisms

Citation: Finlay B, Esteban G. 2004. Ubiquitous Dispersal of Free-Living Microorganisms, p 216-224. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch21

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error