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Chapter 39 : The Convention on Biological Diversity and Benefit Sharing

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Abstract:

Microbiologists today face a challenge not only to stay abreast of a fast-moving and interdisciplinary field of science, but also to be conversant with the law and policy affecting them, ranging from treaties and national laws to contracts and intellectual property rights. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the other policy instruments that have arisen in its wake are among the most significant of these. The objectives of the CBD are the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources, including, through access to genetic resources, technology transfer and funding. The Micro-Organisms Sustainable Use and Access Regulation International Code of Conduct (MOSAICC) is a living document and, like the Bonn Guidelines on Access and Benefit Sharing, is open to further improvement. It aims to assist countries providing microbial genetic resources by suggesting procedures to issue prior informed consent (PIC), as well as to monitor the transfer of genetic resources, enabling fair and equitable sharing of the possible benefits arising from their utilization. PIC and the nature of the benefits to be shared are increasingly commonly committed to an agreement. A number of different contractual arrangements may contain provisions related to access to genetic resources, traditional knowledge, benefit sharing, and intellectual property rights.

Citation: Kate K. 2004. The Convention on Biological Diversity and Benefit Sharing, p 431-439. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch39

Key Concept Ranking

Chemicals
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Plants
0.58344907
Elements
0.57552534
Lead
0.55135936
Malaria
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Inclusions
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0.6056548
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References

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1. Gollin, M. A., 1993. An intellectual property rights framework for biodiversity prospecting. In W. V. Reid,, S. A. Laird,, C. A. Meyer,, R. Games,, A. Sittenfeld,, D. H. Janzen,, M. A. Gollin,, and C. Juma (ed.), Biodiversity Prospecting: Using Genetic Resources for Sustainable Development. World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C.
2. Janetos, A. C. 1997. Do we still need nature? The importance of biological diversity. Consequences 3:1.
3. Laird, S. A. (ed.) 2002. Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge: Equitable Partnerships in Practice. People and Plants Conservation Series. Earthscan Publications Ltd., London, United Kingdom.
4. Latorre Garcia, F.,, C. Williams,, K. ten Kate,, and P. Cheyne. 2001. Results of the Pilot Project for Botanic Gardens: Principles on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-Sharing, Common Policy Guidelines to Assist with Their Implementation and Explanatory Text. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom.
5. Macilwain, C. 1998. When rhetoric hits reality in debate on bio-prospecting. Nature 392:535541.
6. Parry, B., 1999. The fate of the collections: social justice and the annexation of plant genetic resources. In C. Zerner (ed.), People, Plants and justice: The Politics of Nature Conservation. Columbia University Press, New York, N.Y.
7. Shiva, V. 1998. Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge. Green Books, Devon, United Kingdom.
8. ten Kate, K. 2002. Science and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Science 295:23712372.
9. ten Kate, K.,, and S. Laird. 1999. The Commercial Use of Biodiversity: Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-Sharing. Commission of the European Communities and Earthscan Publications Ltd., London, United Kingdom.
10. ten Kate, K.,, and S. Laird. 2000. Biodiversity and Business: Coming to Terms with the "Grand Bargain. " In International Affairs, vol. 76. Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, United Kingdom.
11. ten Kate, K.,, and S. Laird,. 2002. Bioprospecting agreements and benefit-sharing with local communities. In P. Schuier, and M. Finger (ed.), Intellectual Property and Communities. World Bank, Washington D.C.
12. ten Kate, K.,, and A. Wells. 2001. Preparing a national strategy on access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing. A pilot study. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and UNDP/UNEP Biodiversity Planning Support Programme.
13. Wells, A.,, and K. ten Kate. European Community Thematic Report to the CBD on Benefit-Sharing, Environment Directorate, European Commission, in press.

Tables

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Table 1

Key provisions of the CBD

Citation: Kate K. 2004. The Convention on Biological Diversity and Benefit Sharing, p 431-439. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch39
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Table 2

Ballpark high and low estimates for annual markets for various categories of products derived from genetic resources

Citation: Kate K. 2004. The Convention on Biological Diversity and Benefit Sharing, p 431-439. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch39
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Table 3

Summary of provisions in the CBD on access to genetic resources, on the knowledge, practices and innovations of local and indigenous communities, and on benefit sharing

Citation: Kate K. 2004. The Convention on Biological Diversity and Benefit Sharing, p 431-439. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch39
Generic image for table
Table 4

Common benefits shares in ABS partnerships

Citation: Kate K. 2004. The Convention on Biological Diversity and Benefit Sharing, p 431-439. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch39

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