1887

Chapter 40 : The Historical Context of Present Bioprospecting—Four Cases

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

The Historical Context of Present Bioprospecting—Four Cases, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817770/9781555812676_Chap40-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817770/9781555812676_Chap40-2.gif

Abstract:

Today's bioprospecting, aided by advanced biotechnologies, can be seen as a new phase of this important part of our history. Two factors have changed the open-access situation for bioprospecting. First, patents related to biotechnology inventions and strengthened plant breeders rights imply private ownership and commodification of the genetic resources that have been subject to scientific alteration. Second, and to a large extent a reaction from developing countries on the first change, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) provides an international legal instrument for source countries' national sovereignty over their genetic resources. This chapter looks at some historical cases that illustrate the ways that bioprospecting took place before the CBD, and thus for most of the times in open-access situations. First, two cases such as Busy Lizzie and are emphasized in the presentation of colonial bioprospecting, and thereafter the chapter shows two cases such as periwinkle and Hardangervidda fungus from the period after the Second World War. These cases provide an entrance to the context of the present situation in which new bioprospecting is to be controlled and subject to benefit sharing.

Citation: Svarstad H. 2004. The Historical Context of Present Bioprospecting—Four Cases, p 440-444. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch40
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817770.chap40
1. Baatvik, S. T. 1993. The genus Saintpaulia (Gesneriaceae) 100 years: history, taxonomy, ecology, distribution and conservation. Fragm. Flor. Geobot. (Suppl.) 2:97112.
2. Brockway, L. 1979. Science and Colonial Expansion: The Role of the British Royal Botanic Gardens. Academic Press, New York, N.Y.
3. Chivian, E., 1997. Global environmental degradation and biodiversity loss: implications for human health. In F. Grifo, and J. Rosenthal (ed.), Biodiversity and Human Health. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
4. Caufield, C. 1984. In the Rainforest. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, III.
5. Dyer, R. A.,, L. E. Codd,, and H. B. Rycroft. 1963. Flora of Southern Africa. The Republic of South Africa, Basutoland, Swaziland and South West Africa. The Republic of South Africa, Pretoria.
6. Hooker, Sir J. D. 1882. Impatiens Sultani. Curtis's Botanical Magazine, vol. XXXVIII of the Third Series.
7. Hoyland, K., and L. Ryvarden 1990. Er det liv er det sopp. Sopp i mil joe og kulturhistorie [If there is life, there is fungus (mushroom). Fungus in the environment and cultural history]. Fungi-flora, Oslo, Norway.
8. Johnson, I. S.,, J. G. Armstrong,, M. Gorman,, and J. P. Burnett, Jr. 1963. The vinca alkaloids: a new class of oncolytic agents. Cancer Res. 23:13901397.
9. Juma, C. 1989. The Gene Hunters. Biotechnology and the Scramble for Seeds. Zed Books Ltd., London, United Kingdom.
10. Laird, S. A., 1993. Contracts for biodiversity prospecting. In W. V. Reid,, S. A. Laird,, C. A. Meyer,, R. Gámez,, A. Sittenfeld,, D. H. Janzen,, M. A. Gollin,, and C. Juma (ed.), Biodiversity Prospecting: Using Genetic Resources for Sustainable Development. World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C.
11. Larsen, A. F. 1989. Usambara. Afrikas groenne magnet [Usam-bara. Africa's green magnet]. Gonzo/Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke, Copenhagen, Denmark.
12. Mather, S., 1989. Saintpaulia. In A. C. Hamilton, and R. Bensted-Smith (ed.), Forest Conservation in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Gland and IUCN, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
13. Munkejord, M. 1998. Fra hoeyfjells-sopp til menneskegener. Folkevett 20:5.
14. Noble, R. L. 1990. The discovery of the vinca alkaloids— chemotherapeutic agents against cancer. Biochem. Cell Biol. 68:13441351.
15. Parker, J. 1997. Rainforests. Quarto Children's Books Ltd., London, United Kingdom.
16. RAFI (Rural Advancement Foundation International). 1999. TRIPS traps for small farmers. RAFI News, 19 May.
17. Rasoanaivo, P. 1990. Rain forests of Madagascar: sources of industrial and medicinal plants. Ambio 19:421424.
18. Sheldon, J. W.,, M. J. Balick,, and S. A. Laird. 1997. Medicinal plants: can utilization and conservation coexist? The New York Botanical Garden: Adv. Econ. Bot. 12.
19. Simiyu, S. W.,, P. Muthoka,, J. Jefwa,, B. Bytebier,, and T. R. Pearce,. 1996. The conservation status of the genus Saintpaulia in Kenya, p. 341344. In L. J. G. Van der Maesen et al. (ed.), Dordrecht, The Biodiversity of African Plants. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
20. Svarstad, H., 2000. Reciprocity, biopiracy, heroes, villains and victims. In H. Svarstad, and S. S. Dhillion (ed.), Responding to Bioprospecting. From Biodiversity in the South to Medicines in the North. Spartacus, Oslo, Norway.
21. Svarstad, H., 2002a. Biologisk mangfold: Ressurser i Soer og intéresser i Nord [Biological diversity: Resources in the South and interests in the North]. In T. A. Benjaminsen, and H. Svarstad (ed.), Samfunnsperspektiver pâ Miljoe og Utvikling [Social Science Perspectives on Environment and Development], 2nd rev. ed. Universitetsforlaget, Oslo, Norway.
22. Svarstad, H. 2002b. Analysing conservation-environment discourses: the story of a biopiracy narrative. Forum Dev. Studies 29:3161.
23. Svarstad, H.,, H. C. Bugge,, and S. S. Dhillion. 2000. From Norway to Novartis: cyclosporin from tolypocladium inflatum in an open access regime. Biodivers. Conserv. 9(1):15211541.
24. Tribe, H. T. 1998. The discovery and development of Cyclosporin. Mycologist 12:2022.
25. WWIF Norway. 1998. Soppen fra Hardangervidda [The fungus from Hardangervidda]. Verdens Nat. 2.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error