1887

Chapter 1 : Viral Zoonoses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Viral Zoonoses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817787/9781555812362_Chap01-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817787/9781555812362_Chap01-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter talks about the alphaviruses, arboviruses, flaviviruses, orthopoxviruses and other viruses. The etiology, occurrence, transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, therapy and prophylaxis of each virus are explained in detail. This sequence makes it possible to point out the similarities within individual virus groups. Viral zoonoses are also compared with nonviral zoonotic diseases. A section deals with some viruses that reflect the modern concept of emerging and reemerging infections. Birds are the most important vertebrate hosts in encephalitis viruses group of viruses. Due to the extreme length of the viral genome for paramyxoviruses, Hendra virus together with Nipah virus was initially classified as a megaparamyxovirus but is now in the genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. The causative agent of swine vesicular disease (SVD) is an enterovirus which is biochemically and serologically closely related to human coxsackievirus B5, which is now classified as the human enterovirus B, serotype 5. The following orthopoxviruses have to be considered as zoonotic agents: monkeypox virus (only known since 1970), vaccinia virus (Jenner’s smallpox vaccine virus), buffalopox virus (closely related to vaccinia virus), camelpox virus (closely related to smallpox virus), cowpox virus (not identical to vaccinia virus), and elephantpox virus (closely related to cowpox virus). It is debatable whether the virus, which is today classified as cowpox virus, is identical to vaccinia virus.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-172. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch1
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.1
Figure 1.1

(A) Urban infectious cycles where humans are the source of infection for mosquitoes have been demonstrated or are possible if the level of viremia is sufficient. Infected people have to be protected from mosquito bites. This type of infection cycle has been found for yellow fever, dengue, St. Louis encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Chikungunya fever and is possible for O'nyong-nyong, Mayaro, Ross River, Oropouche, Rift Valley, and Wesselsbron fevers. (B) Humans are the dead-end hosts in the infection chain and do not serve for amplification. This type of infection chain exists for eastern and western equine encephalitides and Rocio, West Nile, and Sindbis fevers. (C) A vertical transmission (transovarial and transstadial) exists in arthropods and is of importance epidemiologically. This type of transmission is found in the following tick-transmitted virus infections: spring-summer meningoencephalitis, Russian spring-summer meningoencephalitis, louping ill, Kyasanur Forest fever, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Colorado tick encephalitis. It is found in the following mosquito-transmitted infections: California and Japanese encephalitides and Murray Valley fever.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-172. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.2
Figure 1.2

Areas in Eurasia where TBE is endemic. The transition from the eastern to the western type of TBE is indicated. Outside the areas of endemicity, sporadic autochthonous TBE infections have been found. (Courtesy of Chiron Behring.)

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-172. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.3
Figure 1.3

Infectious cycle of the TBE virus complex.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-172. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.4
Figure 1.4

Distribution and numbers of reported cases of Japanese encephalitis in regions of endemicity in Asia between 1986 and 1990. (Reprinted with permission from the WHO, Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 16:113–118, 1994.)

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-172. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.5a
Figure 1.5a

Distribution of YF in Africa (A) and South and Central America (B). Source: WHO International Travel and Health: Vaccination Requirements and Health Advice (WHO Geneva, Switzerland, 1996).

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-172. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.5b
Figure 1.5b

Distribution of YF in Africa (A) and South and Central America (B). Source: WHO International Travel and Health: Vaccination Requirements and Health Advice (WHO Geneva, Switzerland, 1996).

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-172. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.6
Figure 1.6

Maculopapular exanthema at day 6 of Marburg virus disease. (Courtesy of G. Baltzer.)

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-172. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.7
Figure 1.7

Patient with Marburg virus disease in a prefinal stage. (Courtesy of W. Stille.)

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-172. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.8
Figure 1.8

Infection chain of rabies.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-172. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.9
Figure 1.9

Hemorrhagic conjunctivitis after infection with NDV. (Photo: J. Kösters, Institute for Poultry Diseases, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.)

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-172. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.10
Figure 1.10

Lesions on the hand of an animal keeper, caused by FMD virus infection. (Archival photo, Institute of Veterinary Hygiene and Animal Infectious Diseases, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.)

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-172. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.11
Figure 1.11

Local pox after vaccination with vaccinia virus. (Photo: J. Pilaski.)

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-172. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.12
Figure 1.12

Facial poxvirus lesion (arrow) in a cat. (Photo: D. von Bomhard.)

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-172. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.13
Figure 1.13

Poxvirus lesion transmitted from a diseased cat. (Photo: T. Nasemann.)

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-172. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.14
Figure 1.14

Contagious ecthyma of sheep. (Photo: J. Pilaski.)

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-172. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.15
Figure 1.15

Human infection with orf virus. (Photo: Dr. Valder, Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Forster, Bonn, Germany.)

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-172. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.16
Figure 1.16

Pseudocowpox infection on the udder of a cow (udder pox).

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-172. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.17
Figure 1.17

Generalized pseudocowpox virus infection in a human. (Photo: J. Pilaski.)

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Viral Zoonoses, p 1-172. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817787.chap1
1. Beran, G. W.,, and J. H. Steele (ed.). 1994. CRC Handbook of Zoonoses, section B, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
2. Carbone, K. M.,, S. A. Rubin,, Y. Nishino,, and M. V. Pletnikov. 2001. Borna disease: virus-induced neurobehavioral disease pathogenesis. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 4:467475.
3. Cong, M. E.,, B. Nichols,, X. G. Dou,, J. E. Spelbring,, K. Krawczynski,, H. A. Fields,, and Y. E. Khudyakov. 2000. Related TT viruses in chimpanzees. Virology 274:343355.
4. Cooksley, W. G. 2000. What did we learn from the Shanghai hepatitis A epidemic? J. Viral Hepat. Suppl. 1:13.
5. Holmes, E. C. 2001. On the origin and evolution of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc. 76:239254.
6. Lederberg, J. 1997. Infectious disease as an evolutionary paradigm. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3:417423.
7. Lederberg, J. 1988. Medical science, infectious disease, and the unity of mankind. JAMA 260:8485.
8. Meertens, L.,, J. Rigoulet,, P. Mauclere,, M. Van Beveren,, G. M. Chen,, O. Diop,, G. Dubreuil,, M. C. Georges-Goubot,, J. L. Berthier,, J. Lewis,, and A. Gessain. 2001. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of 16 novel simian T cell leukemia virus type 1 from Africa: close relationship of STLV-1 from Allenopithecus nigroviridis to HTLV-1 subtype B strains. Virology 287:275285.
9. Morse, S. S. (ed.). 1993. Emerging Viruses. Oxford University Press, New York, N.Y.
10. Okamoto, H.,, T. Nishizawa,, M. Takahashi,, A. Tawara,, Y. Peng,, J. Kishimoto,, and Y. Wang. 2001. Genomic and evolutionary characterization of TT virus (TTV) in tupaias and comparison with speciesspecific TTVs in humans and non-human primates. J. Gen. Virol. 82:20412050.
11. Robertson, B. H. 2001. Viral hepatitis and primates: historical and molecular analysis of human and nonhuman primate hepatitis A, B, and the GB-related viruses. J. Viral Hepat. 8:233242.
12. Staeheli, P.,, and K. Lieb. 2001. Bornavirus and psychiatric disorders—fact or fiction? J. Med. Microbiol. 50:579581.
13. Suleman, M. A.,, B. J. Johnson,, R. Tarara,, P. D. Sayer,, D. M. Ochieng,, J. M. Muli,, E. Mbete,, P. M. Tukei,, D. Ndirangu,, S. Kago, et al. 1984. An outbreak of poliomyelitis caused by poliovirus type I in captive black and white colobus monkeys (Colobus abyssinicus kikuyuensis) in Kenya. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 78:665669.
14. Beaty, B. J.,, A. Rayms-Keller,, M. K. Borucki,, and C. D. Blair. 2000. La Crosse encephalitis virus and mosquitoes: a remarkable relationship. ASM News 66:349357.
15. Dobie, D. K.,, C. D. Blair,, L. J. Chandler,, A. Rayms- Keller,, M. M. McGaw,, L. P. Wasieloski,, and B. J. Beaty. 1997. Analysis of LaCrosse virus S mRNA 5′ termini in infected mosquito cells and Aedes triseriatus mosquitoes. J. Virol. 71:43954399.
16. Mackenzie, J. S. 1999. Emerging viral diseases: an Australian perspective. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:18.
17. Monath, T. P. (ed.). 1998. The Arboviruses: Epidemiology and Ecology, vol. 1-4. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
18. Nash, D.,, F. Mostashari,, A. Fine,, J. Miller,, D. O’Leary,, K. Murray,, A. Huang,, A. Rosenberg,, A. Greenberg,, M. Sherman,, S. Wong,, and M. Layton. 2001. The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999. N. Engl. J. Med. 344:18071814.
19. Porterfield, J. S. (ed.). 1995. Exotic Viral Infections. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
20. World Health Organization. 1985. Arthropod-Borne and Rodent-Borne Viral Diseases. Technical report series no. 719. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
21. Calisher, C. H., 1995. Alphavirus infections (family Togaviridae), p. 118. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Infections. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
22. Griffin, D. E., 2001. Alphaviruses, p. 917962. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, and S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa.
23. Johnson, A. J.,, D. A. Martin,, N. Karabatsos,, and J. T. Roehrig. 2000. Detection of anti-arboviral immunoglobulin G by using a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:18271831.
24. Linssen, B.,, R. M. Kinney,, P. Aguilar,, K. L. Russell,, D. M. Watts,, O. R. Kaaden,, and M. Pfeffer. 2000. Development of reverse transcription-PCR assays specific for detection of equine encephalitis viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:15271535.
25. Martin, D. A.,, D. A. Muth,, T. Brown,, A. J. Johnson,, N. Karabatsos,, and J. T. Roehrig. 2000. Standardization of immunoglobulin M capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assays for routine diagnosis of arboviral infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:18231826.
26. McClain, D. J.,, P. R. Pittman,, H. H. Ramsburg,, G. O. Nelson,, C. A. Rossi,, J. A. Mangiafico,, A. L. Schmaljohn,, and F. J. Malinoski. 1998. Immunologic interference from sequential administration of live attenuated alphavirus vaccines. J. Infect. Dis. 177:634641.
27. Pfeffer, M.,, B. Proebster,, R. M. Kinney,, and O. R. Kaaden. 1997. Genus-specific detection of Alphaviruses by a semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 57:709718.
28. Tsai, T. F.,, and L. J. Chandler. 2003. Arboviruses, p. 1553-1569. In P. R. Murray, E. J. Baron, J. H. Jorgensen, M. A. Pfaller, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th ed., vol. 2. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
29. Bosak, P. J.,, L. M. Reed,, and W. J. Crans. 2001. Habitat preference of host-seeking Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker) in relation to birds and eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in New Jersey. J. Vector Ecol. 26:103109.
30. Brault, A. C.,, A. M. Powers,, C. L. Chavez,, R. N. Lopez,, M. F. Cachon,, L. F. Gutierrez,, W. Kang,, R. B. Tesh,, R. E. Shope,, and S. C. Weaver. 1999. Genetic and antigenic diversity among eastern equine encephalitis viruses from North, Central, and South America. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 61:579586.
31. Calisher, C. H., 1995. Alphavirus infections (family Togaviridae), p. 118. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Infections. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
32. Deresiewicz, R. L.,, S. J. Thaler,, L. Hsu,, and A. A. Zamani. 1997. Clinical and neuroradiographic manifestations of eastern equine encephalitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 336:18671874.
33. Garen, P. D.,, T. F. Tsai,, and J. M. Powers. 1999. Human eastern equine encephalitis: immunohistochemistry and ultrastructure. Mod. Pathol. 12:646652.
34. Linssen, B.,, R. M. Kinney,, P. Aguilar,, K. L. Russell,, D. M. Watts,, O. R. Kaaden,, and M. Pfeffer. 2000. Development of reverse transcription-PCR assays specific for detection of equine encephalitis viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:15271535.
35. Sotomayor, E. A.,, and S. L. Josephson. 1999. Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus in A549 and MRC-5 cell cultures. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:193195.
36. Wozniak, A.,, H. E. Dowda,, M. W. Tolson,, N. Karabatsos,, D. R. Vaughan,, P. E. Turner,, D. I. Ortiz,, and W. Wills. 2001. Arbovirus surveillance in South Carolina, 1996-98. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 17:7378.
37. Calisher, C. H. 1994. Medically important arboviruses of the United States and Canada. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 7:89116.
38. Calisher, C. H., 1995. Alphavirus infections (family Togaviridae), p. 118. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Infections. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
39. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1994. Rapid assessment of vector-borne diseases during the Midwest flood—United States, 1993. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 43:481483.
40. Linssen, B.,, R. M. Kinney,, P. Aguilar,, K. L. Russell,, D. M. Watts,, O. R. Kaaden,, and M. Pfeffer. 2000. Development of reverse transcription-PCR assays specific for detection of equine encephalitis viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:15271535.
41. Reisen, W. K.,, J. O. Lundstrom,, T. W. Scott,, B. F. Eldridge,, R. E. Chiles,, R. Cusack,, V. M. Martinez,, H. D. Lothrop,, D. Gutierrez,, S. E. Wright,, K. Boyce,, and B. R. Hill. 2000. Patterns of avian seroprevalence to western equine encephalomyelitis and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses in California, USA. J. Med. Entomol. 37:507527.
42. Reisen, W. K.,, and R. E. Chiles. 1997. Prevalence of antibodies to western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in residents of California exposed to sporadic and consistent enzootic transmission. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 57:526529.
43. Sellers, R. F.,, and A. R. Maarouf. 1993. Weather factors in the prediction of western equine encephalitis epidemics in Manitoba. Epidemiol. Infect. 111:373390.
44. Brault, A. C.,, A. M. Powers,, E. C. Holmes,, C. H. Woelk,, and S. C. Weaver. 2002. Positively charged amino acid substitutions in the E2 envelope glycoprotein are associated with the emergence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. J. Virol. 76:17181730.
45. Calisher, C. H., 1995. Alphavirus infections (family Togaviridae), p. 118. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Infections. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
46. Linssen, B.,, R. M. Kinney,, P. Aguilar,, K. L. Russell,, D. M. Watts,, O. R. Kaaden,, and M. Pfeffer. 2000. Development of reverse transcription-PCR assays specific for detection of equine encephalitis viruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:15271535.
47. Meissner, J. D.,, C. Y. Huang,, M. Pfeffer,, and R. M. Kinney. 1999. Sequencing of prototype viruses in the Venezuelan equine encephalitis antigenic complex. Virus Res. 64:4359.
48. Moncayo, A. C.,, G. M. Medina,, Z. Kalvatchev,, A. C. Brault,, R. Barrera,, J. Boshell,, C. Ferro,, J. E. Freier,, J. C. Navarro,, R. Salas,, J. De Siger,, C. Vasquez,, R. Walder,, and S. C. Weaver. 2001. Genetic diversity and relationships among Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus field isolates from Colombia and Venezuela. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 65:738746.
49. Rosenbloom, M.,, J. B. Leikin,, S. N. Vogel,, and Z. A. Chaudry. 2002. Biological and chemical agents: a brief synopsis. Am. J. Ther. 9:514.
50. Calisher, C. H., 1995. Alphavirus infections (family Togaviridae), p. 118. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Infections. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
51. Mathiot, C. C.,, G. Grimmaud,, and P. Garry. 1990. An outbreak of human Semliki Forest virus infection in Central African Republic. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 42:386389.
52. Morris-Downes, M. M.,, K. V. Phenix,, J. Smyth,, B. J. Sheahan,, S. Lileqvist,, D. A. Mooney,, P. Liljestrom,, D. Todd,, and G. J. Atkins. 2001. Semliki Forest virusbased vaccines: persistence, distribution and pathological analysis in two animal systems. Vaccine 19:19781988.
53. Willems, W. R.,, G. Kaluza,, and C. B. Boschek. 1979. Semliki Forest virus: cause of a fatal case of human encephalitis. Science 203:11271129.
54. Calisher, C. H., 1995. Alphavirus infections (family Togaviridae), p. 118. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Infections. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
55. Horling, J.,, S. Vene,, C. Franzen,, and B. Niklasson. 1993. Detection of Ockelbo virus RNA in skin biopsies by polymerase chain reaction. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:20042009.
56. Laine, M.,, R. Luukkainen,, J. Jalava,, J. Ilonen,, P. Kuusisto,, and A. Toivanen. 2000. Prolonged arthritis associated with Sindbis-related (Pogosta) virus infection. Rheumatology (Oxford) 39:12721274.
57. Pfeffer, M.,, B. Proebster,, R. M. Kinney,, and O. R. Kaaden. 1997. Genus-specific detection of alphaviruses by a semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 57:709718.
58. Sammels, L. M.,, M. D. Lindsay,, M. Poidinger,, R. J. Coelen,, and J. S. Mackenzie. 1999. Geographic distribution and evolution of Sindbis virus in Australia. J. Gen. Virol. 80:739748.
59. Aaskov, J. G.,, J. Y. Chen,, N. T. Hanh,, and P. M. Dennington. 1998. Surveillance for Ross River virus infection using blood donors. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 58:726730.
60. Calisher, C. H., 1995. Alphavirus infections (family Togaviridae), p. 118. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Infections. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
61. Johnson, A. J.,, D. A. Martin,, N. Karabatsos,, and J. T. Roehrig. 2000. Detection of anti-arboviral immunoglobulin G by using a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:18271831.
62. Lidbury, B. A.,, and S. Mahalingam. 2000. Specific ablation of antiviral gene expression in macrophages by antibody-dependent enhancement of Ross River virus infection. J. Virol. 74:83768381.
63. Lindsay, M.,, N. Oliveira,, E. Jasinska,, C. Johansen,, S. Harrington,, A. E. Wright,, and D. Smith. 1996. An outbreak of Ross River virus disease in Southwestern Australia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2:117120.
64. Linn, M. L.,, J. G. Aaskov,, and A. Suhrbier. 1996. Antibody-dependent enhancement and persistence in macrophages of an arbovirus associated with arthritis. J. Gen. Virol. 77:407411.
65. Martin, D. A.,, D. A. Muth,, T. Brown,, A. J. Johnson,, N. Karabatsos,, and J. T. Roehrig. 2001. Standardization of immunoglobulin M capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assays for routine diagnosis of arboviral infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:18231826.
66. Pfeffer, M.,, B. Proebster,, R. M. Kinney,, and O. R. Kaaden. 1997. Genus-specific detection of alphaviruses by a semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 57:709718.
67. Poidinger, M.,, S. Roy,, R. A. Hall,, P. J. Turley,, J. H. Scherret,, M. D. Lindsay,, A. K. Broom,, and J. S. Mackenzie. 1997. Genetic stability among temporally and geographically diverse isolates of Barmah Forest virus. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 57:230234.
68. Proll, S.,, G. Dobler,, M. Pfeffer,, T. Jelinek,, H. D. Nothdurft,, and T. Loescher. 1999. Persistent arthralgias in Ross-River-Virus disease after travel to the South Pacific. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 124:759762. (In German.)
69. Sellner, I. N.,, R. J. Coelen,, and J. S. Mackenzie. 1995. Detection of Ross River Virus in clinical samples using a nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Clin. Diagn. Virol. 4:257267.
70. Sellner, L. 1998. A single-tube nested RT-PCR for the detection of Ross River virus. Methods Mol. Biol. 92:145152.
71. Soden, M.,, H. Vasudevan,, B. Roberts,, R. Coelen,, G. Hamlin,, S. Vasudevan,, and J. La Brooy. 2000. Detection of viral ribonucleic acid and histologic analysis of inflamed synovium in Ross River virus infection. Arthritis Rheum. 43:365369.
72. Calisher, C. H., 1995. Alphavirus infections (family Togaviridae), p. 118. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Infections. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
73. Diallo, M.,, J. Thonnon,, M. Traore-Lamizana,, and D. Fontenille. 1999. Vectors of Chikungunya virus in Senegal: current data and transmission cycles. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 60:281286.
74. Eisenhut, M.,, T. F. Schwarz,, and B. Hegenscheid. 1999. Seroprevalence of dengue, Chikungunya and Sindbis virus infections in German aid workers. Infection 27:8285.
75. Griffin, D. E., 2001. Alphaviruses, p. 917962. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, and S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa.
76. Guilherme, J. M.,, C. Gonella-Legall,, F. Legall,, E. Nakoume,, and J. Vincent. 1996. Seroprevalence of five arboviruses in Zebu cattle in the Central African Republic. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 90:3133.
77. Johnson, A. J.,, D. A. Martin,, N. Karabatsos,, and J. T. Roehrig. 2000. Detection of anti-arboviral immunoglobulin G by using a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:18271831.
78. Kounsang, Y.,, and D. Buranapiyawong. 1997. Chikungunya in Thailand: a re-emerging disease? Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 28:359364.
79. Lanciotti, R. S.,, M. L. Ludwig,, E. B. Rwaguma,, J. J. Lutwama,, T. M. Kram,, N. Karabatsos,, B. C. Cropp,, and B. R. Miller. 1998. Emergence of epidemic O’nyongnyong fever in Uganda after a 35-year absence: genetic characterization of the virus. Virology 252:258268.
80. Martin, D. A.,, D. A. Muth,, T. Brown,, A. J. Johnson,, N. Karabatsos,, and J. T. Roehrig. 2001. Standardization of immunoglobulin M capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assays for routine diagnosis of arboviral infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:18231826.
81. McCarthy, M. C.,, R. L. Haberberger,, A. W. Salib,, B. A. Soliman,, A. El-Tigani,, I. O. Khalid,, and D. M. Watts. 1996. Evaluation of arthropod-borne viruses and other infectious disease pathogens as the causes of febrile illnesses in the Khartoum Province of Sudan. J. Med. Virol. 48:141146.
82. McCarthy, M. C.,, R. L. Haberberger,, A. W. Salib,, B. A. Soliman,, A. El-Tigani,, I. O. Khalid,, D. M. Watts,, D. J. McClain,, P. R. Pittman,, H. H. Ramsburg,, G. O. Nelson,, C. A. Rossi,, J. A. Mangiafico,, A. L. Schmaljohn,, and F. J. Malinoski. 1998. Immunologic interference from sequential administration of live attenuated alphavirus vaccines. J. Infect. Dis. 177:634641.
83. Pfeffer, M.,, B. Proebster,, R. M. Kinney,, and O. R. Kaaden. 1997. Genus-specific detection of alphaviruses by a semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 57:709718.
84. Pile, J. C.,, E. A. Henchal,, G. W. Christopher,, K. E. Steele,, and J. A. Pavlin. 1999. Chikungunya in a North American traveler. J. Travel Med. 6:137139.
85. Powers, A. M.,, A. C. Brault,, R. B. Tesh,, and S. C. Weaver. 2000. Re-emergence of Chikungunya and O’nyong-nyong viruses: evidence for distinct geographical lineages and distant evolutionary relationships. J. Gen. Virol. 81:471479.
86. Thaikruea, L.,, O. Charearnsook,, S. Reanphumkarnkit,, P. Dissomboon,, R. Phonjan,, S. Ratchbud,, J. Thonnon,, A. Spiegel,, M. Diallo,, A. Diallo,, and D. Fontenille. 1999. Chikungunya virus outbreak in Senegal in 1996 and 1997. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 92:7982. (In French.)
87. Tsai, T. F.,, and L. J. Chandler,. 2003. Arboviruses, p. 1553-1569. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. A. Pfaller,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th ed., vol. 2. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
88. Guilherme, J. M.,, C. Gonella-Legall,, F. Legall,, E. Nakoume,, and J. Vincent. 1996. Seroprevalence of five arboviruses in Zebu cattle in the Central African Republic. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 90:3133.
89. Lanciotti, R. S.,, M. L. Ludwig,, E. B. Rwaguma,, J. J. Lutwama,, T. M. Kram,, N. Karabatsos,, B. C. Cropp,, and B. R. Miller. 1998. Emergence of epidemic O’nyong-nyong fever in Uganda after a 35-year absence: genetic characterization of the virus. Virology 252:258268.
90. Sanders, E. J.,, E. B. Rwguma,, J. Kawamata,, N. Kiwanuka,, J. J. Lutwama,, F. P. Ssengooba,, M. Lamumu,, R. Najjemba,, W. A. Were,, G. Bgambisa,, and L. G. Campbell. 1999. O’nyong-nyong fever in South- Central Uganda, 1996-97: description of the epidemic and results of a household based seroprevalence survey. J. Infect. Dis. 180:14361443.
91. Calisher, C. H., 1995. Alphavirus infections (family Togaviridae), p. 118. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Infections. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
92. Talarmin, A.,, L. J. Chandler,, M. Kazanji,, B. de Thoisy,, P. Debon,, J. Lelarge,, B. Labeau,, E. Bourreau,, J. C. Vie,, R. E. Shope,, and J. L. Sarthou. 1998. Mayaro virus fever in French Guiana: isolation, identification, and seroprevalence. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 59:452456.
93. Tesh, R. B.,, D. M. Watts,, K. L. Russell,, C. Damodaran,, C. Calampa,, C. Cabezas,, G. Ramirez,, B. Vasquez,, C. G. Hayes,, C. A. Rossi,, A. M. Powers,, C. L. Hice,, L. J. Chandler,, B. C. Cropp,, N. Karabatsos,, J. T. Roehrig,, and D. J. Gubler. 1999. Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical South America. Clin. Infect. Dis. 28:6773.
94. Burke, D. S.,, and T. P. Monath,. 2001. Flaviviruses, p. 10431126. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, and S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa.
95. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. Possible West Nile virus transmission to an infant through breast-feeding—Michigan, 2002. JAMA 288:19761977.
96. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. West Nile virus activity—United States, September 26-October 2, 2002, and investigations of West Nile virus infections in recipients of blood transfusion and organ transplantation. JAMA 288:19751976.
97. Chan, R. C.,, D. J. Penney,, D. Little,, I. W. Carter,, J. A. Roberts,, and W. D. Rawlinson. 2001. Hepatitis and death following vaccination with 17D-204 yellow fever vaccine. Lancet 358:121122.
98. Chang, G. J.,, B. S. Davis,, A. R. Hunt,, D. A. Holmes,, and G. Kuno. 2001. Flavivirus DNA vaccines: current status and potential. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 951: 272285.
99. Galler, R.,, K. V. Pugachev,, C. L. Santos,, S. W. Ocran,, A. V. Jabor,, S. G. Rodrigues,, R. S. Marchevsky,, M. S. Freire,, L. F. Almeida,, A. C. Cruz,, A. M. Yamamura,, I. M. Rocco,, E. S. da Rosa,, L. T. Souza,, P. F. Vasconcelos,, F. Guirakhoo,, and T. P. Monath. 2001. Phenotypic and molecular analyses of yellow fever 17D vaccine viruses associated with serious adverse events in Brazil. Virology 290:309319.
100. Johnson, A. J.,, D. A. Martin,, N. Karabatsos,, and J. T. Roehrig. 2000. Detection of anti-arboviral immunoglobulin G by using a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:18271831.
101. Knauber, M.,, K. H. Wells,, J. Arroyo,, and F. Guirakhoo. 2002. Clinical proof of principle for ChimeriVax: recombinant live, attenuated vaccines against flavivirus infections. Vaccine 20:10041018.
102. Marin, M.,, T. F. Tsai,, B. Cropp,, G. J. Chang,, D. A. Holmes,, J. Tseng,, W. Shieh,, S. R. Zaki,, I. Al-Sanouri,, A. F. Cutrona,, G. Ray,, L. H. Weld,, and M. S. Cetron. 2001. Fever and multisystem organ failure associated with 17D yellow fever vaccination: a report of four cases. Lancet 358:98104.
103. Markoff, L. J.,, and B. N. Falgout,. 1995. The family Flaviviridae and its diseases, p. 4766. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Diseases. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
104. Martin, D. A.,, D. A. Muth,, T. Brown,, A. J. Johnson,, N. Karabatsos,, and J. T. Roehrig. 2001. Standardization of immunoglobulin M capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assays for routine diagnosis of arboviral infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:18231826.
105. Monath, T. P. 2001. Yellow fever: an update. Lancet Infect. Dis. 1:1120.
106. Pond, W. L.,, N. J. Ehrenkranz,, J. X. Danauskas,, and M. J. Carter. 1967. Heterotypic serologic responses after yellow fever vaccination; detection of persons with past St. Louis encephalitis or dengue. J. Immunol. 98:673682.
107. Schlesinger, J. J.,, and M. W. Brandriss. 1981. Growth of 17D yellow fever virus in a macrophage-like cell line, U937: role of Fc and viral receptors in antibodymediated infection. J. Immunol. 127:659665.
108. Schlesinger, J. J.,, and M. W. Brandriss. 1981. Antibody-mediated infection of macrophages and macrophage-like cell lines with 17D-yellow fever virus. J. Med. Virol. 8:103117.
109. Tesh, R. B.,, A. P. Travassos da Rosa,, H. Guzman,, T. P. Araujo,, and S. Y. Xiao. 2002. Immunization with heterologous flaviviruses protective against fatal West Nile encephalitis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:245251.
110. Trent, D. W.,, and G. J. Chang,. 1992. Detection and identification of flaviviruses by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, p. 355369. In Y. Becker, and G. Darai (ed.), Diagnosis of Human Viruses by Polymerase Chain Reaction Technology. Springer- Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
111. Tsai, T. F.,, and L. J. Chandler,. 2003. Arboviruses, p. 15531569. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. A. Pfaller,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th ed., vol. 2. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
112. Vasconcelos, P. F. C.,, E. J. Luna,, R. Galler,, L. J. Silva,, T. L. Coimbra,, V. L. R. S. Barros,, T. P. Monath,, S. G. Rodigues,, C. Laval,, Z. G. Costa,, M. F. G. Vilela,, C. L. S. Santos,, P. M. O. Papaiordanou,, V. A. F. Alves,, L. D. Andrade,, H. K. Sato,, E. S. T. Rosa,, G. B. Froguas,, E. Lacava,, L. M. R. Almeida,, A. C. R. Cruz,, I. M. Rocco,, R. T. M. Santos,, O. F. P. Oliva, and the Brazilian Yellow Fever Vaccine Evaluation Group. 2001. Serious adverse events associated with yellow fever 17DD vaccine in Brazil: a report on two cases. Lancet 358:9197. (Errata, 358:336, 358:1018.)
113. Weissenbock, H.,, J. Kolodziejek,, A. Url,, H. Lussy,, B. Rebel-Bauder,, and N. Nowotny. 2002. Emergence of Usutu virus, an African mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus group, Central Europe. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:652656.
114. Alkadhi, H.,, and S. L. Kollias. 2000. MRI in tick-borne encephalitis. Neuroradiology 42:753755.
115. Arras, C.,, R. Fescharek,, and J. P. Gregersen. 1996. Do specific hyperimmunoglobulins aggravate clinical course of tick-borne encephalitis? Lancet 347:1331.
116. Bakhvalova, V. N.,, V. A. Rar,, S. E. Tkachev,, V. A. Matveev,, L. E. Matveev,, A. S. Karavanov,, A. K. Dobrotvorsky,, and O. V. Morozova. 2000. Tick-borne encephalitis strains of Western Siberia. Virus Res. 70:112.
117. Blessing, J. 1981. Epidemiologie und Diagnose der Frühsommer-Meningoenzephalitis. Med. Welt 32: 13451347.
118. Duppenthaler, A.,, J. P. Pfammatter,, and C. Aebi. 2000. Myopericarditis associated with Central European tick-borne encephalitis. Eur. J. Pediatr. 159:854856.
119. Gaidamovich, S. Y., 1995. Tick-borne encephalitis, p. 203210. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Diseases. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
120. Holzmann, H.,, M. Kundi,, J. Stiasny,, J. Clement,, P. McKenna,, C. Kunz,, and F. X. Heinz. 1996. Correlation between ELISA, hemagglutinin inhibition, and neutralization tests after vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis. J. Med. Virol. 48:102107.
121. Kurane, I.,, T. Takasaki,, and K. I. Yamada. 2000. Trend in flavivirus infections in Japan. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 6:569571.
122. Latric-Furlan, S.,, M. Petrovec,, T. Avsic-Zupanc,, and F. Strle. 2000. Clinical distinction between human granulocytic ehrlichiosis and the initial phase of tickborne encephalitis. J. Infect. 40:5558.
123. Logar, M.,, M. Arnec,, J. Kolbl,, T. Avsic-Zupanc,, and F. Strle. 2000. Comparison of the epidemiological and clinical features of tick-borne encephalitis in children and adults. Infection 28:7477.
124. Markoff, L. J.,, and B. N. Falgout,. 1995. The family Flaviviridae and its diseases, p. 4766. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Diseases. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
125. Özdemir, F. A.,, F. Rosenow,, W. Slenczka,, T. O. Kleine,, and W. H. Oertel. 1999. Frühsommermeningoenzephalitis (CEE)-Ausweitung des Endemiegebietes nach Mittelhessen. Nervenarzt 70:119122.
126. Schmaljohn, C.,, D. Custer,, L. Van der Zanden,, K. Spik,, C. Rossi,, and M. Bray. 1999. Evaluation of tickborne encephalitis DNA vaccines in monkeys. Virology 263:166174.
127. Schrader, C.,, and J. Suss. 1999. A nested RT-PCR for the detection of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in ticks in natural foci. Zentbl. Bakteriol. 289: 319328.
128. Treib, J.,, A. Haass,, N. Mueller-Lantzsch,, H. Ehrfeld,, D. Mueller Reiland,, R. Woessner,, G. Holzer,, and K. Schimrigk. 1996. Tick-borne encephalitis in the Saarland and the Rhineland-Palatinate. Infection 24:242244.
129. Trent, D. W.,, and G. J. Chang,. 1992. Detection and identification of flaviviruses by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, p. 355369. In Y. Becker, and G. Darai (ed.), Diagnosis of Human Viruses by Polymerase Chain Reaction Technology. Springer- Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
130. Waldvogel, K.,, W. Bossart,, T. Huisman,, E. Boltshauser,, and D. Nadat. 1996. Severe tick-borne encephalitis following passive immunization. Eur. J. Pediatr. 155:775779.
131. Gaidamovich, S. Y., 1995. Louping ill, p. 211212. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Diseases. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
132. Gaunt, M. W.,, L. D. Jones,, K. Laurenson,, P. J. Hudson,, H. W. Reid,, and E. A. Gould. 1997. Definitive identification of louping ill virus by RT-PCR and sequencing in field populations of Ixodes ricinus on the Lochindorb estate. Arch. Virol. 142:11811191.
133. Gilbert, L.,, L. D. Jones,, P. J. Hudson,, E. A. Gould,, and H. J. Reid. 2000. Role of small mammals in the persistence of louping-ill virus: field survey and tick cofeeding studies. Med. Vet. Entomol. 14:277282.
134. Laurenson, M. K.,, R. Norman,, H. W. Reid,, I. Pow,, D. Newborn,, and P. J. Hudson. 2000. The role of lambs in louping ill amplification. Parasitology 120:97104.
135. Markoff, L. J.,, and B. N. Falgout,. 1995. The family Flaviviridae and its diseases, p. 4766. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Diseases. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
136. Trent, D. W.,, and G. J. Chang,. 1992. Detection and identification of flaviviruses by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, p. 355369. In Y. Becker, and G. Darai (ed.), Diagnosis of Human Viruses by Polymerase Chain Reaction Technology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
137. Artsob, H., 1989. Powassan encephalitis, p. 2949. In T. Monath (ed.), The Arboviruses. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
138. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998. Arboviral infections of the central nervous system— United States, 1996-1997. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 47:517522.
139. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2001. Outbreak of Powassan encephalitis—Maine and Vermont, 1999-2001. JAMA 286:19621963.
140. Courtney, T.,, S. Sears,, J. Woytowicz,, D. Preston,, R. Smith,, P. Rand,, E. Lacombe,, M. Holman,, C. Lubelczyk,, G. Beckett,, E. Pritchard,, K. Gensheimer,, A. Beelen,, P. Tassler, and an EIS Officer, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2001. Outbreak of Powassan encephalitis—Maine and Vermont, 1999-2001. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 50:761764.
141. Ford-Jones, E. L.,, M. Fearon,, C. Leber,, P. Dwight,, M. Myszak,, B. Cole,, P. B. Greene,, S. Artes,, A. McGeer,, C. D’Cunha,, and M. Naus. 2002. Human surveillance for West Nile virus infection in Ontario in 2000. CMAJ 166:2935.
142. Luby, J. P., 1995. Powassan encephalitis, p. 223226. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Diseases. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
143. Markoff, L. J.,, and B. N. Falgout,. 1995. The family Flaviviridae and its diseases, p. 4766. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Diseases. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
144. Trent, D. W.,, and G. J. Chang,. 1992. Detection and identification of flaviviruses by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, p. 355369. In Y. Becker, and G. Darai (ed.), Diagnosis of Human Viruses by Polymerase Chain Reaction Technology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
145. Artsob, H., 1989. Powassan encephalitis, p. 2949. In T. Monath (ed.), The Arboviruses. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
146. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998. Arboviral infections of the central nervous system— United States, 1996-1997. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 47:517522.
147. Charrel, R. N.,, A. M. Zaki,, H. Attoui,, M. Fakeeh,, F. Billoir,, A. I. Yousef,, R. de Chesse,, P. De Micco,, E. A. Gould,, and X. de Lamballerie. 2001. Complete coding sequence of the Alkhurma virus, a tick-borne flavivirus causing severe hemorrhagic fever in humans in Saudi Arabia. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 287:455461.
148. Dandawate, C. N.,, G. B. Desai,, T. R. Achar,, and K. Banerjee. 1994. Field evaluation of formalin inactivated Kyasanur forest disease virus tissue culture vaccine in three districts of Karnataka state. Indian J. Med. Res. 99:152158.
149. Gaidamovich, S. Y., 1995. Kyasanur Forest disease, p. 215216. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Diseases. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
150. Gaidamovich, S. Y., 1995. Negishi virus, p. 217218. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Diseases. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
151. Markoff, L. J.,, and B. N. Falgout,. 1995. The family Flaviviridae and its diseases, p. 4766. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Diseases. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
152. Saxena, V. K. 1997. Ixodid ticks infesting rodents and sheep in diverse biotopes of southern India. J. Parasitol. 83:766767.
153. Trent, D. W.,, and G. J. Chang,. 1992. Detection and identification of flaviviruses by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, p. 355369. In Y. Becker, and G. Darai (ed.), Diagnosis of Human Viruses by Polymerase Chain Reaction Technology. Springer- Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
154. Venugopal, K.,, T. Gritsun,, V. A. Lashkevich,, and E. A. Gould. 1994. Analysis of the structural protein gene sequence shows Kyasanur Forest disease virus as a distinct member in the tick-borne encephalitis virus serocomplex. J. Gen. Virol. 75:227232.
155. Gaidamovich, S. Y., 1995. Omsk hemorrhagic fever, p. 213215. In J. S. Porterfield (ed.), Exotic Viral Diseases. Chapman and Hall Medical, London, United Kingdom.
156. Lvov, D. K., 1994. Arboviral zoonoses of northern Eurasia, p. 237260. In G. W. Beran, and J. H. Steele (ed.), Handbook of Zoonoses, 2nd ed., section B. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
157. Trent, D. W.,, and G. J. Chang,. 1992. Detection and identification of flaviviruses by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, p. 355369. In Y. Becker, and G. Darai (ed.), Diagnosis of Human Viruses by Polymerase Chain Reaction Technology. Springer- Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
158. Arroyo, J.,, F. Guirakhoo,, S. Fenner,, Z.-X. Zhang,, T. P. Monath,, and T. J. Chambers. 2001. Molecular basis for attenuation of neurovirulence of a yellow fever virus/Japanese encephalitis virus chimera vaccine (ChimeriVax-JE). J. Virol. 75:934942.
159. Ashok, M. S.,, and P. N. Rangarajan. 2000. Evaluation of the potency of BIKEN inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine and DNA-vaccines in an intracerebral Japanese encephalitis virus challenge. Vaccine 19:155157.
160. Beecham, H. J., III,, A. R. Pock,, L. A. May,, and T. F. Tsai. 1997. A cluster of severe reactions following improperly administered Takeda Japanese encephalitis vaccine. J. Travel Med. 4:810.