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Chapter 2 : Bacterial Zoonoses

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Abstract:

This chapter covers bacterial diseases (Bacterial Zoonoses) transmitted from animals to humans. Diseases like listeriosis and enteric yersinioses, which have traditionally been regarded as zoonoses, are discussed in the chapter since the agents for those diseases frequently occur in animals. Intestinal anthrax starts with a loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and fever; later, abdominal pain, hematemesis, bloody diarrhea, and shock develop. Diseases caused by the first group would thus be grouped as anthroponoses, and those caused by the second group would be classified as zoonoses. Brucelloses are either acute or chronic infections of animals and humans caused by gram-negative bacteria of the genus Brucella, which may infect one or several organs. Finally, transmission can occur via infectious aerosols or infectious dust particles produced in abattoirs. Melioidosis comprises a broad spectrum of acute and chronic, local and systemic clinical manifestations, e.g., abscesses in various organs, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, necroses in the gastrointestinal tract, and septicemia. In acute and subacute cases, cholera, shigellosis, amebiasis, typhoid fever, plague, tularemia, military tuberculosis, malaria, syphilis, glanders, and systemic mycoses should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Plague is one of the oldest and most dangerous zoonoses and one of the most virulent and potentially lethal bacterial diseases. Plague, tularemia, tuberculosis, cat scratch disease, pasteurelloses, syphilis, relapsing fever, brucellosis, leptospirosis, and malaria must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is the most important rickettsiosis in the Western Hemisphere.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.1

Anthrax: cycles of infection.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.2

Cutaneous anthrax (pustula maligna). (Source: Bildtafeln Thomae, no. 114, Bildarchiv für Medizin, Munich, Germany.)

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.3

Borrelia burgdorferi erythema migrans after a tick bite. (Source: R. C. Johnson, Minneapolis, Minn.)

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.4

Borrelia recurrentis in blood smear (May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain).

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.5

Brucellosis: cycles of infection.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.6

C. jejuni and C. coli: cycles of infection.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.7

Erysipeloid: extensive redness, edema, and hemorrhages. (Source: Bildtafeln Thomae, no. 114, Bildarchiv für Medizin, Munich, Germany.)

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.8

Glanders: multiple cutaneous ulcera.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.9

Listeriosis: cycles of infection.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.10

M. tuberculosis complex: cycles of infection.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.11

Plague: cycles of infection.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.12

RMSF: cycles of infection.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.13

RMSF: exanthema with primary lesion.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.14

Mediterranean spotted fever: cycles of infection.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.15

Mediterranean spotted fever: tache noire and exanthema. (Source: B. Stenglein, Munich, Germany.)

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.16

Murine typhus: cycles of infection.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.17

Q fever: cycles of infection. INF., infectious.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.18

Rickettsialpox: cycles of infection.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.19

Scrub typhus (tsutsugamushi fever): cycles of infection.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.20

Nontyphoidal Salmonella spp.: cycles of infection.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.21

Tularemia: cycles of infection.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.22

F. tularensis: primary lesion after cutaneous infection. (Source: Werner Knapp, Erlangen, Germany.)

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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Figure 2.23

Yersinioses: cycles of infection.

Citation: Krauss H, Weber A, Appel M, Enders B, Isenberg H, Schiefer H, Slenczka W, von Graevenitz A, Zahner H. 2003. Bacterial Zoonoses, p 173-252. In Zoonoses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817787.ch2
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