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Chapter 10 : Role of Adhesion in Biofilm Formation

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Abstract:

As bacterial adhesion is an indispensable component of biofilm formation, the factors involved in bacterium-substratum interactions are an important basis for understanding biofilm physiology. In fact, biofilm formation may be regarded as one of the most important sequelae of bacterial adhesion. This chapter discusses the advantages gained by bacteria from participation in a biofilm community, the mechanisms of biofilm formation, and attempts to block biofilm development in an effort to prevent infections. The chapter focuses on two types of medically important biofilms which have been extensively studied: hard tissue biofilms on tooth surfaces (i.e., dental plaque) and biomedical implant-associated biofilms. It is likely that there is an inverse relationship between the initial number of adherent bacteria required for biofilm formation and the avidity of the adhesion. The presence of this polysaccharide seems to be required for biofilm formation by strains of these organisms. This material appears to be the major constituent of the so-called slime, previously shown to be essential for biofilm formation by . The organisms produce another polysaccharide rich in galactose, which also contributes to biofilm formation. A type of quorum sensing used by many gram-negative bacterial species is the system involving acyl homoserine lactones. The dental biofilm is based on many bacterium-bacterium interactions, especially metal ion-requiring lectin-carbohydrate interactions. Infectious diseases associated with indwelling medical devices are now considered a major problem in health care. Some bacteria bind best to uncoated biomedical devices, and coating with various compounds can prevent bacterial adhesion.

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Role of Adhesion in Biofilm Formation, p 147-156. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch10
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Figures

Image of Figure 10.1
Figure 10.1

Schematic representation of biofilm formation on a substratum. The major steps involved in this process are illustrated in a sequential manner, whereby initial adhesion is followed by colonization, accretion, maturation, and dispersal phases. The mature biofilm can be a pure population or, more probably, a mixture of various genera entrapped in a protein-polysaccharide gel. Note that the channels and concavities formed within the biofilm increase the surface area. Over time, dispersal of the mature biofilm may eventually occur whereby individual cells or fragments of the protein-polysaccharide gel become detached and then reattach at a new region or new substratum. Several different species of bacteria are shown within the developing biofilm, one of which is outcompeted for nutrients and eliminated in the mature biofilm.

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Role of Adhesion in Biofilm Formation, p 147-156. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.2
Figure 10.2

Schematic diagram showing glucosyltransferase promotion of adhesion of oral streptococci on tooth surfaces. There are two mechanisms by which this occurs. (A) In one mechanism, the bacteria bind to glucan, and the glucosyltransferases secreted by oral bacteria into saliva synthesize glucan on the pellicle of tooth surfaces by using dietary sucrose. This enables mutans streptococci that express glucan binding lectins (GBL+ bacteria, most notably and ) to adhere to the growing plaque. (B) In the second mechanism, the mutans streptococci adhere to the adsorbed pellicle on tooth surfaces via adhesinspecific pellicle constituents. Glucosyltransferases of the bound streptococci synthesize α1?6-glucan in the presence of sucrose, some of which remains bound and some of which is released. The bound glucan promotes the adhesion of other GBL+ mutans streptococci, which express receptors for other genera of oral bacteria (see Fig. 10.3 ).

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Role of Adhesion in Biofilm Formation, p 147-156. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.3
Figure 10.3

Ecology of the microbiota of the tooth biofilm. Salivary components bind to the tooth surface after cleaning, forming the acquired salivary pellicle. Subsequent bacterial attachment tends to occur in a somewhat ordered sequence, obviously varying among individuals. The bacteria that attach initially are usually called primary or early colonizers. This group includes primarily spp. and spp. There are many other bacterial species (e.g., and ) that attach to the early colonizers or their products.

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Role of Adhesion in Biofilm Formation, p 147-156. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.4
Figure 10.4

Illustration of two methods for altering adhesion to smooth inert surfaces. One mechanism involves coating the target surfaces with various materials which alter the surface properties and provide repulsive forces that keep bacteria from adhering. The other involves impregnating the material with antimicrobial agents which slowly leach from the surface and kill any bacteria that may adhere.

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Role of Adhesion in Biofilm Formation, p 147-156. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch10
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 10.1

Advantages gained by bacteria as a result of participating in biofilms

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Role of Adhesion in Biofilm Formation, p 147-156. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 10.2

Examples of bacterial adhesion to indwelling medical devices mediated by adhesins specific for devices coated with host-derived macromolecules

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Role of Adhesion in Biofilm Formation, p 147-156. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch10

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