Chapter 11 : Antiadhesion Therapy

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Antiadhesion Therapy, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817800/9781555812638_Chap11-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817800/9781555812638_Chap11-2.gif


This chapter provides a review of the various traditional approaches of antiadhesion therapy and immunity, including the usef of adhesin-based vaccines, receptor and adhesin analogs, sub-lethal concentrations of antibiotics, dietary constituents, and innate host-derived antiadhesion factors. The adhesin analog strategy is based on the assumption that the isolated adhesin molecule or its synthetic or recombinant fragment binds to the receptor and thereby competitively blocks adhesion of the bacteria. It has so far been impractical to use adhesin analogs in antiadhesion therapy because they are almost always macromolecules that must be employed in relatively high molar concentrations and they are available only in limited supply. In addition, careful consideration must be given to their toxicity and immunogenicity. Nevertheless, modern proteomics and recombinant biotechnology have permitted the development of unique types of relatively small peptides for antiadhesion therapy. The chapter talks about the studies performed to investigate the antiadhesion activities of cranberry materials. In a study it was found that cranberry extract inhibited the coaggregation between pairs of gram-negative oral bacteria more often than it did those between pairs of gram-positive bacteria. The target of the antiadhesive activity is the bacterial adhesin, not the animal cell receptors or human mucus. The most important host-derived components which potentially may provide innate immunity by inhibiting adhesion are those found associated with mucus on mucosal surfaces. The secretor or nonsecretor status of individuals is of particular interest in relation to their susceptibility to infection and the possible role of soluble adhesin receptors.

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Antiadhesion Therapy, p 157-176. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch11

Key Concept Ranking

Infection and Immunity
Antibacterial Agents
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 11.1
Figure 11.1

Schematic diagram illustrating a proposed effect of antibiotic usage on the survival and spread of resistant bacteria. The proposed effect assumes that if the resistance is plasmid mediated, the rate of spread of resistance within the population will be equal to the rate of plasmid transfer within the population. The rate of conjugative plasmid transfer observed in vitro is approximately 1 in 10 bacterial cells. If the resistance is chromosomally mediated, mostly arising from point mutations, the rate of spread will be much lower, approximately 1 in 10 to 10 bacteria. Thus, assuming that an infection caused by 10 to 10 bacteria is treated with antibiotics, 1 to 10 would remain viable in chromosomal resistance population while 10 to 10 would remain viable in the plasmid-mediated resistance population. The probability that the resistant population will grow and spread to other individuals would therefore be much higher for plasmid-mediated resistance than for chromosome-mediated resistance. Continued use of the same antibiotics will inevitably result, in a relatively short period (e.g., 5 to 6 years), in infections caused mostly by resistant strains, ultimately requiring alternative antibiotic treatment.

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Antiadhesion Therapy, p 157-176. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch11
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 11.2
Figure 11.2

Schematic diagram illustrating a proposed effect of the use of antiadhesion agents on the survival and spread of resistant bacteria. The rate of spread of resistance to antiadhesion agents within the population for either plasmid- or chromosome-mediated resistance is expected to be essentially the same as that described for antibiotic resistance in Fig. 11.1 . Unlike antibiotic treatments, however, treatment with antiadhesion agents does not have a differential effect on the viability of resistant and sensitive strains. Thus, the rate of spread of resistant strains will remain low, due to the continued viability of sensitive strains. It is predicted, therefore, that over a given period, antiadhesion therapy would result in a much slower spread of resistant strains within the population than would antibiotic therapy.

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Antiadhesion Therapy, p 157-176. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch11
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 11.3
Figure 11.3

Schematic diagram and examples of receptor analog (A) and adhesin analog (B) inhibition of adhesion. (A) Adhesion mediated by a lectin on the surface of binding to sialic acid residues on host cells. Excess of sialyllactose in the reaction mixture competitively inhibits adhesion by occupying the sugar-combining sites of the bacterial lectin. A clinical study based on this type of therapy was conducted by Ukkonen et al. ( ), in which children were given synthetic sialyllactose, administered intranasally, to prevent otitis media caused mainly by and which express adhesins specific for this sugar. There was no effect on the incidence of otitis media in the experimental group compared to the placebo group. The lack of effect was postulated to be due to the presence of multiple adhesins expressed by these pathogens for distinct receptors. (B) Adhesion mediated by a protein adhesin of to its cognate receptor on the acquired pellicle on teeth. In vitro, a synthetic oligopeptide representing the binding site of the streptococcal adhesin competitively inhibited adhesion by occupying the adhesin binding site in the acquired pellicle. In a clinical study, the oligopeptide mimicking the adhesin binding site was applied directly to the tooth surfaces of four human volunteers ( ). The rate of recolonization of mutans streptococci was significantly reduced compared to that in patients given placebo, consisting of a control peptide administered in a similar fashion. The effect was specific for mutans streptococci and not for other oral bacterial genera.

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Antiadhesion Therapy, p 157-176. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch11
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 11.4
Figure 11.4

Schematic diagram and examples of sublethal antibiotic (A) and dietary product (B) inhibition of adhesion. (A) Treatment of with subinhibitory concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics in vitro leads to lack of fimbrial expression and reduced adhesion. In a study of the effects of sublethal concentrations of penicillin on urinary tract infections, the number of CFU in urine was significantly reduced ( ). (B) Example of the inhibitory effects of dietary compounds on the adhesion of various bacteria. With respect to cranberry extract, these effects can be observed on bacteria ranging from strains of causing urinary tract infections, diarrhea, and meningitis to oral bacteria and . In two independent clinical studies, cranberry juice consumption was found to reduce significantly the incidence of urinary tract infections both in elderly ( ) and young ( ) women.

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Antiadhesion Therapy, p 157-176. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch11
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. al-Makhlafi, H.,, J. McGuire,, and M. Daeschel. 1994. Influence of preadsorbed milk proteins on adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica surfaces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:35603565.
2. Alugupalli, K. R.,, and S. Kalfas. 1995. Inhibitory effect of lactoferrin on the adhesion of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Prevotella intermedia to fibroblasts and epithelial cells. APMIS 103:154160.
3. Alugupalli, K. R.,, and S. Kalfas. 1997. Characterization of the lactoferrin-dependent inhibition of the adhesion of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens to fibroblasts and to a reconstituted basement membrane. APMIS 105:680688.
4. Andersson, B.,, O. Porras,, L. A. Hanson,, T. Lagergard,, and C. Svanborg-Edén. 1986. Inhibition of attachment of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae by human milk and receptor oligosaccharides. J. Infect. Dis. 153:232237.
5. Andrade, J. R. C. 1980. Role of fimbrial adhesiveness in guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis by Shigella flexneri. Rev. Microbiol. 11:117125.
6. Aronson, M.,, O. Medalia,, L. Schori,, D. Mirelman,, N. Sharon,, and I. Ofek. 1979. Prevention of colonization of the urinary tract of mice with Escherichia coli by blocking of bacterial adherence with methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside. J. Infect. Dis. 139:329332.
7. Ashkenazi, S. 1994. A review of the effect of human milk fractions on the adherence of diarrheogenic Escherichia coli to the gut in an animal model. Isr. J. Med. Sci. 30:335338.
8. Avorn, J.,, M. Monane,, J. H. Gurwitz,, R. J. Glynn,, I. Choodnovskiy,, and L. A. Lipsitz. 1994. Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria after ingestion of cranberry juice. JAMA 271:751754.
9. Badalament, R. A.,, G. L. Franklin,, C. M. Page,, B. M. Dasani,, M. G. Wientjes,, and J. R. Drago. 1992. Enhancement of bacillus Calmette-Guerin attachment to the urothelium by removal of the rabbit bladder mucin layer. J. Urol. 147:482485.
10. Bengmark, S. 1998. Ecological control of the gastrointestinal tract. The role of probiotic flora. Gut 42:27.
11. Ben-Redjeb, S.,, A. Slim,, A. Horchani,, S. Zmerilli,, A. Boujnah,, and V. Lorian. 1982. Treatment of urinary tract infections with ten milligrams of ampicillin per day. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 22:10841086.
12. Beuth, J.,, B. Stoffel,, and G. Pulverer. 1996. Inhibition of bacterial adhesion and infections by lectin blocking. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 408:5156.
13. Bibel, D. J.,, R. Aly,, and H. R. Shinefield. 1992. Inhibition of microbial adherence by sphinganine. Can. J. Microbiol. 38:983985.
14. Bitzan, M. M.,, B. D. Gold,, D. J. Philpott,, M. Huesca,, P. M. Sherman,, H. Karch,, R. Lissner,, C. A. Lingwood,, and M. A. Karmali. 1998. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter mustelae binding to lipid receptors by bovine colostrum. J. Infect. Dis. 177:955961.
15. Blackwell, C. C. 1989. Genetic susceptibility to infectious agents. Proc. R. Coll. Physicians Edinburgh 19:129138.
16. Blomberg, L.,, A. Henriksson,, and P. L. Conway. 1993. Inhibition of adhesion of Escherichia coli K88 to piglet ileal mucus by Lactobacillus spp. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:3439.
17. Brady, P. G.,, A. M. Vannier,, and J. G. Banwell. 1978. Identification of the dietary lectin, wheat germ agglutin, in inhuman intestinal contents. Gastroenterology 75:236239.
18. Burger O.,, E. Weiss,, N. Sharon,, M. Tabak,, I. Neeman,, and I. Ofek. 2002 Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastric mucus by a high-molecular-weight constituent of cranberry juice. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 42:279284.
19. Burger, O.,, I. Ofek,, M. Tabak,, E. I. Weiss,, N. Sharon,, and I. Neeman. 2000. A high molecular mass constituent of cranberry juice inhibits Helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastric mucus. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 29:295301.
20. Coconnier, M. H.,, T. R. Klaenhammer,, S. Kerneis,, M. F. Bernet,, and A. L. Servin. 1992. Protein-mediated adhesion of Lactobacillus acidophilus BG2FO4 on human enterocyte and mucus-secreting cell lines in culture. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:20342039.
21. Courtney, H. S.,, I. Ofek,, and D. L. Hasty. 1997. M protein mediated adhesion of M type 24 Streptococcus pyogenes stimulates release of interleukin-6 by HEp-2 tissue culture cells. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 151:6570.
22. Cowan, M. M. 1999. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2:564582.
23. Cox, F. 1982. Prevention of group B streptococcal colonization with topically applied lipoteichoic acid in a maternal-newborn mouse model. Pediatr. Res. 16:816819.
24. Cravioto, A.,, A. Tello,, H. Villafan,, J. Ruiz,, S. del Vedovo,, and J.-R. Neeser. 1991. Inhibition of localized adhesion of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to HEp-2 cells by immunoglobulin and oligosaccharide fractions of human colostrum and breast milk. J. Infect. Dis. 163:12471255.
25. Cywes, C.,, I. Stamenkovic,, and M. R. Wessels. 2000. CD44 as a receptor for colonization of the pharynx by group A streptococcus. J. Clin. Investig. 106:9951002.
26. Dale, J. B.,, R. W. Baird,, H. S. Courtney,, D. L. Hasty,, and M. S. Bronze. 1994. Passive protection of mice against group A streptococcal pharyngeal infection by lipoteichoic acid. J. Infect. Dis. 169:319323.
27. Duguid, J. P.,, and R. R. Gillies. 1957. Fimbriae and adhesive properties of dysentery bacilli. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 74:397411.
28. Fader, R. C.,, and C. P. Davis. 1980. Effect of piliation on Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in rat bladders. Infect. Immun. 30:554561.
29. Faubion, W. A.,, and W. J. Sandborn. 2000. Probiotic therapy with E. coli for ulcerative colitis: take the good with the bad. Gastroenterology 118:630631.
30. Firon, N.,, S. Ashkenazi,, D. Mirelman,, I. Ofek,, and N. Sharon. 1987. Aromatic alphaglycosides of mannose are powerful inhibitors of the adherence of type 1 fimbriated Escherichia coli to yeast and intestinal epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 55:472476.
31. Foo, L. Y.,, Y. Lu,, A. B. Howell,, and N. Vorsa. 2000. A-type proanthocyanidin trimers from cranberry that inhibit adherence of uropathogenic P-fimbriated Escherichia coli. J. Nat. Prod. 63:12251228.
32. Fujiwara, S.,, H. Hashiba,, T. Hirota,, and J. F. Forstner. 1997. Proteinaceous factor(s) in culture supernatant fluids of bifidobacteria which prevents the binding of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to gangliotetraosylceramide. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:506512.
33. Gibbons, R. J.,, and I. Denkers. 1983. Association of food lectins with humanoral epithelial cells in vivo. Arch. Oral Biol. 28:561566.
34. Giugliano, L. G.,, S. T. Ribeiro,, M. H. Vainstein,, and C. J. Ulhoa. 1995. Free secretory component and lactoferrin of human milk inhibit the adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. J. Med. Microbiol. 42:39.
35. Goh, C. T.,, S. Taweechaisupapong,, K. G. Taylor,, and R. J. Doyle. 2000. Polycarboxylates inhibit the glucan-binding lectin of Streptococcus sobrinus. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1523:111116.
36. Goldhar, J.,, A. Zilberberg,, and I. Ofek. 1986. Infant mouse model of adherence and colonization of intestinal tissues by enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli isolated from humans. Infect. Immun. 52:205208.
37. Hayashi, S.,, T. Sugiyama,, M. Asaka,, K. Yokota,, K. Oguma,, and Y. Hirai. 1998. Modification of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastric epithelial cells by antiadhesion agents. Dig. Dis. Sci. 43:56S60S.
38. Idänpään-Heikkilä, I.,, P. M. Simon,, D. Zopf,, T. Vullo,, P. Cahill,, K. Sokol,, and E. Tuomanen. 1997. Oligosaccharides interfere with the establishment and progression of experimental pneumococcal pneumonia. J. Infect. Dis. 176:704712.
39. Isolauri, E. 2001. Probiotics in human disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 73:1142S1146S.
40. Johnson, J. R.,, and T. Berggren. 1994. Pigeon and dove eggwhite protect mice against renal infection due to P fimbriated Escherichia coli. Am. J. Med. Sci. 307:335339.
41. Kahane, I.,, and I. Ofek. 1996. Toward AntiAdhesion Therapy of Microbial Infectious Diseases. Plenum Publishers, New York, N.Y.
42. Kelly, C. G.,, and J. S. Younson. 2000. Anti-adhesive strategies in the prevention of infectious disease at mucosal surfaces. Expert Opin. Investig. Drugs 9:17111712.
43. Kelly, C. G.,, J. S. Younson,, B. Y. Hikmat,, S. M. Todryk,, M. Czisch,, P. I. Haris,, I. R. Flindall,, C. Newby,, A. I. Mallet,, J. K. Ma,, and T. Lehner. 1999. A synthetic peptide adhesion epitope as a novel antimicrobial agent. Nat. Biotechnol. 17:4247.
44. Kontiokari, T.,, K. Sundqvist,, M. Nuutinen,, T. Pokka,, M. Koskela,, and M. Uhari. 2001. Randomized trial of cranberry-lingonberry juice and Lactobacillus GG drink for the prevention of urinary tract infections in women. Br. Med. J. 322:1571.
45. Korhonen, T. K.,, M. V. Valtonen,, J. Parkkinen,, V. Vaisanen-Rhen,, J. Finne,, F. Orskov,, I. Orskov,, S. B. Svenson,, and P. H. Makela. 1985. Serotypes, hemolysin production, and receptor recognition of Escherichia coli strains associated with neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Infect. Immun. 48:486491.
46. Kunz, C.,, and S. Rudloff. 1993. Biological functions of oligosaccharides in human milk. Acta Paediatr. 82:903912.
47. Langermann, S.,, R. Mollby,, J. E. Burlein,, S. R. Palaszynski,, C. G. Auguste,, A. DeFusco,, R. Strouse,, M. A. Schenerman,, S. J. Hultgren,, J. S. Pinkner,, J. Winberg,, L. Guldevall,, M. Soderhall,, K. Ishikawa,, S. Normark,, and S. Koenig. 2000. Vaccination with FimH adhesin protects cynomolgus monkeys from colonization and infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli. J. Infect. Dis. 181:774778.
48. Langermann, S.,, S. Palaszynski,, M. Barnhart,, G. Auguste,, J. S. Pinkner,, J. Burlein,, P. Barren,, S. Koenig,, S. Leath,, C. H. Jones,, and S. J. Hultgren. 1997. Prevention of mucosal Escherichia coli infection by FimH-adhesin-based systemic vaccination. Science 276:607611.
49. Lee, J. Y.,, H. T. Sojar,, G. S. Bedi,, and R. J. Genco. 1992. Synthetic peptides analogous to the fimbrillin sequence inhibit adherence of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Infect. Immun. 60:16621670.
50. Lee, K. K.,, W. Y. Wong,, H. B. Sheth,, R. S. Hodges,, W. Paranchych,, and R. T. Irvin. 1995. Use of synthetic peptides in characterization of microbial adhesins. Methods Enzymol. 253:115131.
51. Lindhorst, T. K.,, C. Kieburg,, and U. Krallmann-Wenzel. 1998. Inhibition of the type 1 fimbriae-mediated adhesion of Escherichia coli to erythrocytes by multiantennary alpha-mannosyl clusters: the effect of multivalency. Glycoconj. J. 15:605613.
52. Longhi, C.,, M. P. Conte,, L. Seganti,, M. Polidoro,, A. Alfsen,, and P. Valenti. 1993. Influence of lactoferrin on the entry process of Escherichia coli HB101 (pRI203) in HeLa cells. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 182:2535.
53. Loveless, R. W.,, and T. Feizi. 1989. Sialooligosaccharide receptors for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and related oligosaccharides of poly-N-acetyllactosamine series are polarized at the cilia and apical-microvillar domains of the ciliated cells in human bronchial epithelium. Infect. Immun. 57:12851289.
54. Ma, J. K.,, B. Y. Hikmat,, K. Wycoff,, N. D. Vine,, D. Chargelegue,, L. Yu,, M. B. Hein,, and T. Lehner. 1998. Characterization of a recombinant plant monoclonal secretory antibody and preventive immunotherapy in humans. Nat. Med. 4:601606.
55. Mack, D. R.,, T. S. Gaginella,, and P. M. Sherman. 1992. Effect of colonic inflammation on mucin inhibition of Escherichia coli RDEC-1 binding in vitro. Gastroenterology 102:11991211.
56. Mamo, W.,, and G. Froman. 1994. Adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus to bovine mammary epithelial cells induced by growth in milk whey. Microbiol. Immunol. 38:305308.
57. McGroarty, J. A. 1994. Cell surface appendages of lactobacilli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 124:405410.
58. Mestecky, J.,, S. M. Michalek,, Z. Moldoveanu,, and M. W. Russell. 1997. Routes of immunization and antigen delivery systems for optimal mucosal immune responses in humans. Behring Inst. Mitt. 98:3343.
59. Moen, D. V. 1962. Observations on the effectiveness of cranberry juice in urinary infections. Wis. Med. J. 61:282283.
60. Moon, H. W.,, and T. O. Bunn. 1993. Vaccines for preventing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in farm animals. Vaccine 11:200213.
61. Mouricout, M. 1991. Swine and cattle enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-mediated diarrhea. Development of therapies based on inhibition of bacteria-host interactions. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 7:588604.
62. Mouricout, M.,, J. M. Petit,, J. R. Carias,, and R. Julien. 1990. Glycoprotein glycans that inhibit adhesion of Escherichia coli mediated by K99 fimbriae: treatment of experimental colibacillosis. Infect. Immun. 58:98106.
63. Mulvey, G.,, P. I. Kitov,, P. Marcato,, D. R. Bundle,, and G. D. Armstrong. 2001. Glycan mimicry as a basis for novel anti-infective drugs. Biochimie 83:841847.
64. Mysore, J. V.,, T. Wigginton,, P. M. Simon,, D. Zopf,, L. M. Heman-Ackah,, and A. Dubois. 1999. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in rhesus monkeys using a novel antiadhesion compound. Gastroenterology 117:13161325.
65. Nachbar, M. S.,, and J. D. Oppenheim. 1980. Lectins in the United States diet: a survey of lectins in commonly consumed foods and review of the literature. Am. J. Clin Nutr. 33:23382345.
66. Naughton, P. J.,, G. Grant,, S. Bardocz,, and A. Pusztai. 2000. Modulation of Salmonella infection by the lectins of Canavalia ensiformis (Con A) and Galanthus nivalis (GNA) in a rat model in vivo. J. Appl. Microbiol. 88:720727.
67. Neeser, J. R.,, B. Koellreutter,, and P. Wuersch. 1986. Oligomannoside-type glycopeptides inhibiting adhesion of Escherichia coli strains mediated by type 1 pili: preparation of potent inhibitors from plant glycoproteins. Infect. Immun. 52:428436.
68. Newburg, D. S. 2000. Oligosaccharides in human milk and bacterial colonization. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 30:S8S17.
69. Newburg, D. S.,, L. K. Pickering,, R. H. McCluer,, and T. G. Cleary. 1990. Fucosylated oligosaccharides of human milk protect suckling mice from heat-stabile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli. J. Infect. Dis. 162:10751080.
70. Newman, J. 1995. How breast milk protects newborns. Sci. Am. 273:7679.
71. Ofek, I.,, and R. J. Doyle. 1994. Bacterial Adhesion to Cells and Tissues, p. 513562. Chapman & Hall, New York, N.Y.
72. Ofek, I.,, D. Mirelman,, and N. Sharon. 1977. Adherence of Escherichia coli to human mucosal cells mediated by mannose receptors. Nature 265:623625.
73. Ofek, I.,, J. Goldhar,, D. Zafriri,, H. Lis,, R. Adar,, and N. Sharon. 1991. Anti-Escherichia coli adhesin activity of cranberry and blueberry juices. N. Engl. J. Med. 324:1599.
74. Ofek, I.,, J. Goldhar,, and N. Sharon. 1996. Anti-Escherichia coli adhesin activity of cranberry and blueberry juices. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 408:179184.
75. Ofek, I.,, and E. Crouch,. 2000. Interactions of microbial glycoconjugates with collectins, p. 517537. In R. J. Doyle (ed.), Glycobiology. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, N.Y.
76. Ooshima, T.,, T. Minami,, W. Aono,, A. Izumitani,, S. Sobue,, T. Fujiwara,, S. Kawabata,, and S. Hamada. 1993. Oolong tea polyphenols inhibit experimental dental caries in SPF rats infected with mutans streptococci. Caries Res. 27:124129.
77. Ouwehand, A. C.,, and P. L. Conway. 1996. Purification and characterization of a component produced by Lactobacillus fermentum that inhibits the adhesion of K88 expressing Escherichia coli to porcine ileal mucus. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 80:311318.
78. Papas, P. N.,, C. A. Brusch,, and G. C. Cresia. 1968. Cranberry juice in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Southwest. Med. 47:1720.
79. Patel, S. S.,, J. A. Balfour,, and H. M. Bryson. 1997. Fosfomycin tromethamine. A review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy as a single-dose oral treatment for acute uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections. Drugs 53:637656.
80. Pusztai, A.,, G. Grant,, R. J. Spencer,, T. J. Duguid,, D. S. Brown,, S. W. B. Ewen,, W. J. Peumans,, E. J. M. van Damme,, and S. Bardocz. 1993. Kidney bean lectin-induced Escherichia coli overgrowth in the small intestine is blocked by GNA, a mannose specific lectin. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 75:360368.
81. Ramphal, R.,, C. Carnoy,, S. Fievre,, J. C. Michalski,, N. Houdret,, G. Lamblin,, G. Strecker,, and P. Roussel. 1991. Pseudomonas aeruginosa recognizes carbohydrate chains containing type 1 (Gal beta 1-3GlcNAc) or type 2 (Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc) disaccharide units. Infect. Immun. 59:700704.
82. Reid, G.,, J. Howard,, and B. S. Gan. 2001. Can bacterial interference prevent infection? Trends Microbiol. 9:424428.
83. Relman, D. A.,, M. Domenighini,, E. Tuomanen,, R. Rappuoli,, and S. Falkow. 1989. Protein filamentous hemagglutinin of Bordetella pertussis: nucleotide sequence and crucial role in adherence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:26372641.
84. Robbins, J. B.,, R. Schneerson,, and S. C. Szu. 1995. Perspective: hypothesis: serum IgG antibody is sufficient to confer protection against infectious diseases by inactivating the inoculum. J. Infect. Dis. 171:13871398.
85. Roberts, D. D.,, L. D. Olson,, M. F. Barile,, V. Ginsburg,, and H. C. Krivan. 1989. Sialic acid-dependent adhesion of Mycoplasma pneumoniae to purified glycoproteins. J. Biol. Chem. 264:92899293.
86. Roberts, J. A.,, B. Kaack,, G. Kallenius,, R. Møllby,, J. Winberg,, and S. B. Svenson. 1984. Receptors for pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli in primates. J. Urol. 131:163168.
87. Ruggieri, M. R.,, R. K. Balagani,, J. J. Rajter,, and P. M. Hanno. 1992. Characterization of bovine bladder mucin fractions that inhibit Escherichia coli adherence to the mucin deficient rabbit bladder. J. Urol. 148:173178.
88. Saeki, Y.. Effect of seaweed extracts on Streptococcus sobrinus adsorption to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite. Bull. Tokyo Dent. Coll. 35:915.
89. Sahly, H.,, I. Ofek,, R. Podschun,, H. Brade,, Y. He,, U. Ullmann,, and E. Crouch. 2002. Surfactant protein D binds selectively to Klebsiella pneumoniae lipopolysaccharides containing mannose-rich O-antigens. J. Immunol. 169:32673274.
90. Sakanaka, S.,, M. Aizawa,, M. Kim,, and T. Yamamoto. 1996. Inhibitory effects of green tea polyphenols on growth and cellular adherence of an oral bacterium, Porphyromonas gingivalis. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 60:745749.
91. Schmidt, D. R.,, and A. E. Sobota. 1988. An examination of the anti-adherence activity of cranberry juice on urinary and nonurinary bacterial isolates. Microbios 55:173181.
92. Schröten, H.,, A. Lethen,, F. G. Hanisch,, R. Plogmann,, J. Hacker,, R. Nobis-Bosch,, and V. Wahn. 1992. Inhibition of adhesion of S-fimbriated Escherichia coli to epithelial cells by meconium and feces of breast-fed and formulafed newborns: mucins are the major inhibitory component. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 15:150158.
93. Schröten, H.,, F. G. Hanisch,, R. Plogmann,, J. Hacker,, G. Uhlenbruck,, R. Nobis-Bosch,, and V. Wahn. 1992. Inhibition of adhesion of S-fimbriated Escherichia coli to buccal epithelial cells by human milk fat globule membrane components: a novel aspect of the protective function of mucins in the nonimmunoglobulin fraction. Infect. Immun. 60:28932899.
94. Schröten, H.,, R. Plogmann,, F. G. Hanisch,, J. Hacker,, R. Nobis-Bosch,, and V. Wahn. 1993. Inhibition of adhesion of S-fimbriated E. coli to buccal epithelial cells by human skim milk is predominantly mediated by mucins and depends on the period of lactation. Acta Paediatr. 82:611.
95. Schupbach, P.,, J. R. Neeser,, M. Golliard,, M. Rouvet,, and B. Guggenheim. 1996. Incorporation of caseinoglycomacropeptide and caseinophosphopeptide into the salivary pellicle inhibits adherence of mutans streptococci. J. Dent. Res. 75:17791788.
96. Senpuku, H.,, H. Kato,, M. Todoroki,, N. Hanada,, and T. Nisizawa. 1996. Interaction of lysozyme with a surface protein antigen of Streptococcus mutans. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 139:195201.
97. Sherman, P. M.,, and E. C. Boedeker. 1987. Pilus-mediated interactions of the Escherichia coli strain RDEC-1 with mucosal glycoproteins in the small intestine of rabbits. Gastroenterology 93:734743.
98. Simon, P. M.,, P. L. Goode,, A. Mobasseri,, and D. Zopf. 1997. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori binding to gastrointestinal epithelial cells by sialic acid-containing oligosaccharides. Infect. Immun. 65:750757.
99. Slifkin, M.,, and R. J. Doyle. 1990. Lectins and their application to clinical microbiology. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 3:197218.
100. Smith, C. J.,, J. B. Kaper,, and D. R. Mack. 1995. Intestinal mucin inhibits adhesion of human enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to HEp-2 cells. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 21:269276.
101. Sobota, A. E. 1984. Inhibition of bacterial adherence by cranberry juice: Potential use for treatment of urinary tract infection. J. Urol. 131:10311016.
102. Sokurenko, E. V.,, V. Chesnokova,, R. J. Doyle,, and D. L. Hasty. 1997. Diversity of the Escherichia coli type 1 fimbrial lectin. Differential binding to mannosides and uroepithelial cells. J. Biol. Chem. 272:1788017886.
103. Spencer, R. J.,, and A. Chesson. 1994. The effect of Lactobacillus spp. on the attachment of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to isolated porcine enterocytes. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 77:215220.
104. Staat, R. H.,, R. J. Doyle,, S. D. Langley,, and R. P. Suddick. 1978. Modification of in vitro adherence of Streptococcus mutans by plant lectins. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 107:639647.
105. Sternlieb, P. 1963. Cranberry juice in renal disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 268:57.
106. Steuer, M. K.,, H. Herbst,, J. Beuth,, M. Steuer,, G. Pulverer,, and R. Matthias. 1993. Inhibition of lectin mediated bacterial adhesion by receptor blocking carbohydrates in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced otitis externa: a prospective phase II study, Otorhinolaryngol. Nova 3:19.
107. Stromqvist, M.,, P. Falk,, S. Bergstrom,, L. Hansson,, B. Lonnerdal,, S. Normark,, and O. Hernell. 1995. Human milk kappa-casein and inhibition of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastric mucosa. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 21:288296.
108. Svanborg-Edén, C.,, R. Freter,, L. Hagberg,, R. Hull,, S. Hull,, H. Leffler,, and G. Schoolnik. 1982. Inhibition of experimental ascending urinary tract infection by an epithelial cell-surface receptor analogue. Nature 298:560562.
109. Tagashira, M.,, K. Uchiyama,, T. Yoshimura,, M. Shirota,, and N. Uemitsu. 1997. Inhibition by hop bract polyphenols of cellular adherence and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of mutans streptococci. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 61:332335.
110. Ukkonen, P.,, K. Varis,, M. Jernfors,, E. Herva,, J. Jokinen,, E. Ruokokoski,, D. Zopf,, and T. Kilpi. 2000. Treatment of acute otitis media with an antiadhesive oligosaccharide: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 356:13981402.
111.Underhill C. 1992. CD44: the hyaluronan receptor. J. Cell Sci. 103:293298.
112. Vacca-Smith, A. M.,, B. C. Van Wuyckhuyse,, L. A. Tabak,, and W. H. Bowen. 1994. The effect of milk and casein proteins on the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite. Arch. Oral Biol. 39:10631069.
113. Velraeds, M. M. B., van de Belt-Gritter,, H. C. van der Mei,, G. Reid,, and H. J. Busscher. 1998. Interference in initial adhesion of uropathogenic bacteria and yeasts to silicone rubber by a Lactobacillus acidophilus biosurfactant. J. Med. Microbiol. 47:10811085.
114. Velraeds, M. M.,, H. C. van der Mei,, G. Reid,, and H. J. Busscher. 1996. Inhibition of initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis by biosurfactants from Lactobacillus isolates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:19581963.
115. Wang, Q.,, S. Singh,, K. G. Taylor,, and R. J. Doyle. 1996. Anti-adhesins of Streptococcus sobrinus. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 408:249262.
116. Weiss, E. I.,, R. Lev-Dor,, N. Sharon,, and I. Ofek. 2002. Inhibitory effect of a high-molecular-weight constituent of cranberry on adhesion of oral bacteria. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 42:285293.
117. Weiss, E. I.,, R. Lev-Dor,, Y. Kashman,, J. Goldhar,, N. Sharon,, and I. Ofek. 1998. Inhibiting interspecies coaggregation of plaque bacteria with cranberry juice constituent. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 129:17191723.
118. Wentworth, J. S.,, F. E. Austin,, N. Garber,, N. Gilboa-Garber,, C. A. Paterson,, and R. J. Doyle. 1991. Cytoplasmic lectins contribute to the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biofouling 4:99104.
119. Wizemann, T. M.,, J. E. Adamou,, and S. Langermann. 1999. Adhesins as targets for vaccine development. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:395403.
120. Wolinsky, L. E.,, S. Mania,, S. Nachnani,, and S. Ling. 1996. The inhibiting effect of aqueous Azadirachta indica (Neem) extract upon bacterial properties influencing in vitro plaque formation. J. Dent. Res. 75:816822.
121. Zafriri, D.,, I. Ofek,, R. Adar,, M. Pocino,, and N. Sharon. 1989. Inhibitory activity of cranberry juice on adherence of type 1 and type P fimbriated Escherichia coli to eucaryotic cells. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:9298.
122. Zorgani, A. A.,, J. Stewart,, C. C. Blackwell,, R. A. Elton,, and D. M. Weir. 1994. Inhibitory effect of saliva from secretors and non-secretors on binding of meningococci to epithelial cells. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 9:135142.


Generic image for table
TABLE 11.1

Carbohydrates prevent bacterial infection in vivo

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Antiadhesion Therapy, p 157-176. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch11
Generic image for table
TABLE 11.2

Examples of probiotic bacteria inhibiting the adhesion of pathogens

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Antiadhesion Therapy, p 157-176. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch11
Generic image for table
TABLE 11.3

Glycoconjugates and saccharides from milk capable of interacting with bacteria

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Antiadhesion Therapy, p 157-176. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch11
Generic image for table
TABLE 11.4

Plant extracts containing bacterial antiadhesin activities

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Antiadhesion Therapy, p 157-176. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch11
Generic image for table
TABLE 11.5

Examples of antiadhesion effects of juice or extracts of spp. (cranberry)

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Antiadhesion Therapy, p 157-176. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch11
Generic image for table
TABLE 11.6

Example of studies describing the interaction with mucus and effect on adhesion

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Antiadhesion Therapy, p 157-176. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch11

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error