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Chapter 8 : Postadhesion Events Induced in Nonphagocytic Cells

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on contact-induced signaling of nonphagocytic cells (NPCs) as an immediate postadhesion event, and discusses two major events, one involving an immediate activation of cytoskeletal responses and the other involving activation of transcriptional responses. The former is needed for completion of internalization, while the latter results in the production of inflammatory mediators that can have a great systemic influence on the course of infection. While the cytoskeletal response is associated mainly with actual or abortive entry of bacteria into the cell, the transcriptional response may result either from adherent or from internalized bacteria. An adherent bacterium can transmit a transcriptional signal to nonphagocytic cells (NPCs) in two ways. One way is by using a specific secretory system to create a channel through which effector molecules can be passed into the host cell cytosol, and the second is by secreting effector molecules into the space between the bacterium and the cell, resulting in a relatively high concentration at the cell surface. In summary, considering the four types of activation mechanisms that include the high concentration mechanism, the association mechanism, the adhesin-dependent mechanism and the cooperativity mechanism, and the vast number of modulins produced by pathogenic bacteria, it appears that adhesion per se is only one prerequisite for a wide variety of potential subsequent reactions between the bacterium and target cell that influence the infectious process.

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Postadhesion Events Induced in Nonphagocytic Cells, p 127-142. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch8

Key Concept Ranking

Type III Secretion System
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Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway
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Type IV Secretion Systems
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 8.1
FIGURE 8.1

Schematic presentation of direct and indirect (“bridging”) mechanisms of cytoskeleton activation by invading bacteria. Initiation of signal transduction that activates adaptor proteins linking the receptor to the actin cytoskeleton is shared by the two mechanisms. The direct mechanism is illustrated by binding of to integrin via invasin and the binding of to cadherin via internalin. The indirect mechanism is illustrated by the binding of to integrin via binding of fibronectin binding proteins (e.g., protein F1) to a fibronectin bridge.

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Postadhesion Events Induced in Nonphagocytic Cells, p 127-142. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch8
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Image of FIGURE 8.2
FIGURE 8.2

Schematic presentation of type III secretion apparatus-mediated activation of the cytoskeletal system. Effector molecules are translocated from the bacterial cytosol into the animal cell cytosol via a complex type III apparatus formed by more than a dozen proteins. This apparatus creates a channel, or translocation pore, that connects across both inner and outer bacterial membranes as well as the animal cell membrane, enabling molecular transport. (A) In the effector molecules (e.g., YopE and YopH proteins) cause rearrangement of the actin network connected to the invasin molecule via integrin, leading to internalization. In phagocytic cells, these effector molecules may, instead, inhibit phagocytosis. (B) In EPEC, one of the effector molecules tranlocated via the type III apparatus becomes inserted into the animal cell membrane and there acts as a receptor for intimin, called the translocated intimin receptor (Tir). In each case, there is rearrangement of cytoskeletal elements and animal cell membranes at the site of bacterial contact. (C) In the type III secretion system also involves the formation of a tubular structure by which effector molecules are translocated into the host cell. These effectors, numbering more than a dozen, exert dramatic effects on host cell membranes, resulting in remarkable membrane ruffling and macropinocytic ingestion of bacteria.

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Postadhesion Events Induced in Nonphagocytic Cells, p 127-142. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch8
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Image of FIGURE 8.3
FIGURE 8.3

Schematic presentation of secretion-dependent pedestal formation and subsequent cytoskeletal rearrangement. (A) EPEC adheres to enterocytes via bundle-forming pili. Attachment enables the EPEC type III secretion apparatus to contact epithelial cells and initiates the local destruction of microvilli. (B) Tir is the major effector molecule and is thought to be translocated into the host cells through a channel formed by an EspA- and an EspB/D-generated pore in the host cell plasmalemma (see also Fig. 8.2B ). Tir integrates into the host cell membrane and becomes a receptor for the bacterial adhesin, intimin. (C) Phosphorylation of Tir triggers cytoskeletal rearrangements that result in the formation of a structure that has been called a pedestal. Pedestals have a core filled with filamentous actin and other cytoskeletal proteins, such as a-actinin, ezrin, and talin, and can extend up to 10 μm outward from the surface of the cells.

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Postadhesion Events Induced in Nonphagocytic Cells, p 127-142. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch8
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Image of FIGURE 8.4
FIGURE 8.4

Microscopic examination of pedestal formation by EPEC. (A) Scanning electron micrograph of a pedestal formed in response to EPEC by an epithelial cell in tissue culture. The plasmalemma is dramatically deformed during the formation of this attaching/effacing lesion, with pedestals extending up to 10 μm from the surface of the epithelial cell. However, the bacteria are not engulfed and remain at the tips of the pedestals. (B) Transmission electron micrograph of an immunogold-labeled EPEC cell on a pedestal. Colloidal gold marks the uniform expression of intimin on the bacterial surface (arrow). The marker is excluded from the bacterium/pedestal interface only because antibody cannot penetrate into the area of intimate attachment (i.e., the area demarcated by arrowheads). (C) Immunolocalization of Tir by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. The “body” of the pedestal is indicated by actin filament immunostaining, and Tir is localized to the bacterium/ pedestal interfaces. Bacteria appear as dark ovals. (Reprinted from reference with permission from the publisher.)

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Postadhesion Events Induced in Nonphagocytic Cells, p 127-142. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch8
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Image of FIGURE 8.5
FIGURE 8.5

Diagram describing four mechanisms of adhesion-dependent activation of nonphagocytic cells by bacterial modulins. (A) In the high-concentration mechanism, accumulation of modulins at the interface between the bacterial and animal cell reach a threshold concentration necessary to affect host cell metabolism, as exemplified by the increase in the concentration of cAMP caused by labiletoxin delivery by type 1 fimbria-mediated attachment of ETEC. (B) In the association mechanism, the modulin is presented to its receptor on animal cells in an adhesin-bound form, which enables it to trigger a cascade of biological events in the animal cell. This is exemplified by association of an LPS modulin with P-fimbrial adhesin. (C) In the cooperativity mechanism, the modulin released by loosely adherent bacteria upregulates the expression of receptors for the bacterial adhesins, leading to firm adhesion, further stimulation of cells, and uptake of bacteria. This is exemplified by the upregulation of integrin receptors for the filamentous hemagglutinin adhesin by pertussis toxin. The high density of integrins induces binding of additional bacteria via the filamentous hemagglutinin and also transduces a signal that results in the invasion of the bacteria. (D) In the adhesin-mediated mechanism, the adhesin itself acts as a modulin, triggering a cascade of events in the animal cells on binding to its cognate receptor. This mechanism is exemplified by For further details, see the text.

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Postadhesion Events Induced in Nonphagocytic Cells, p 127-142. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch8
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 8.1

Some mechanisms of cytoskeleton rearrangements caused by bacteria encountering host cells

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Postadhesion Events Induced in Nonphagocytic Cells, p 127-142. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch8
Generic image for table
TABLE 8.2

Examples of secretion system-dependent transcriptional responses induced by bacteria interacting with NPC

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Postadhesion Events Induced in Nonphagocytic Cells, p 127-142. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch8
Generic image for table
TABLE 8.3

Examples of adhesion/invasion-dependent activation of NPC by bacteria

Citation: Ofek I, Hasty D, Doyle R. 2003. Postadhesion Events Induced in Nonphagocytic Cells, p 127-142. In Bacterial Adhesion to Animal Cells and Tissues. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817800.ch8

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