1887

Chapter 10 : Use of Quinolones for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Use of Quinolones for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817817/9781555812317_Chap10-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817817/9781555812317_Chap10-2.gif

Abstract:

Bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a global public health problem. The annual incidence of bacterial STDs exceeds 100,000,000. Unrecognized, asymptomatic, or latent infections may make this number closer to 200,000,000. A table depicts the bacterial STDs that are discussed in this chapter and identifies acute presentations and sequelae. Bacterial STDs, specifically those caused by and , are responsible for serious morbidity in women including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, tubal infertility, chronic pelvic pain, neonatal infection, and increased risks of acquiring or transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Heterotypic resistance was found in up to 69% of isolates each year, and patients with this pattern of resistance were more likely to fail therapy. Heterotypic resistance to the quinolones was recently reported in three patients whose isolates were resistant to doxycycline, azithromycin, and ofloxacin at concentrations > 4.0 mg/liter. Ofloxacin is now an alternate regimen for treatment of chlamydial infection in both the Canadian and U.S. treatment guidelines. The quinolones were found to be excellent drugs for the treatment of gonococcal infection. The fluoroquinolones, especially ciprofloxacin, were effective single-dose therapeutic agents for . Granuloma inguinale is a cause of genital ulceration in some parts of the world, including Southeast Asia, India, Australia, and South Africa. Ofloxacin, levofloxacin, and perhaps sparfloxacin provide equivalence to doxycycline for the treatment of infections.

Citation: Peeling R, Ronald A. 2003. Use of Quinolones for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, p 171-192. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch10
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817817.chap10
1. Abeck, D.,, A. P. Johnson,, Y. Dangor,, and R. C. Ballard. 1988. Antibiotic susceptibilities and plasmid profiles of Haemophilus ducreyi isolates from southern Africa. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 22:437444.
2. Ahmed, B. A.,, and A. Tang. 1996. Successful treatment of donovanosis with ciprofloxacin. Genitourin. Med. 72:7374.
3. Alegente, G.,, B. Marchi,, F. Mugnaini,, L. Toscano,, and F. De Lalla. 1989. Treatment of Gardnerella vaginalis syndrome with new quinolones: preliminary results. Rev. Infect. Dis. 11(Suppl. 5):S1308.
4. Apuzzio, J. J.,, R. Stankiewicz,, V. Ganesh,, S. Jain,, Z. Kaminski,, and D. Louria. 1989. Comparison of parenteral ciprofloxacin with clindamycin-gentamicin in the treatment of pelvic infection. Am. J. Med. 87(Suppl 5A):148S151S.
5. Aplasca de los Reyes, R. M.,, V. P. Mesola,, J. D. Klausner,, R. Manalastas,, T. Wi,, C. U. Tuszon,, G. Dallabetta,, W. L. H. Whittington,, and K. K. Holmes. 2001. A randomised trial of ciprofloxacin versus cefixime for the treatment of gonorrhea after rapid emergence of gonococcal ciprofloxacin resistance in the Philippines. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:13131318.
6. Aral, S. O.,, and K. K. Holmes. 1991. Sexually transmitted diseases in the AIDS era. Sci. Am. 264:6269.
7.Association of Genitourinary Medicine and the Medical Society for the Study of Venereal Diseases. 1999. National Guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted diseases. Sex. Transm. Infect. 75(Suppl. 1).
8. Avonts, D.,, L. Fransen,, J . Vielfont,, A. Stevens,, K. Hendrick,, and P. Piot. 1988. Treating uncomplicated gonococcal infection with 250 mg or 100 mg ciprofloxacin in a single oral dose. Genitourin. Med. 64:134.
9. Ballard, R. C.,, M. O. Duncan,, H. G. Fehler,, Y. Dangor,, F. L. Exposto,, A. S. Latif. 1989. Treating chancroid: summary of studies in southern Africa. Genitourin. Med. 65:5457.
10. Bebear, C. M.,, H. Renaudin,, A. Bryskier,, and C. Bebear. 2000. Comparative activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647), levofloxacin and other antimicrobial agents against human mycoplasmas. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:19801982.
11. Behets, F. M.,, G. Liomba,, G. Lule,, G. Dallabetta,, I. F. Hoffman, Hamilton, S. Moeng, and M. S. Cohen. 1995. Sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency control in Malawi: a field study of genital ulcers. J . Infect. Dis. 171:451455.
12. Biedenbach, D. J.,, R. N. Jones,, M. L. Beach,, M. S. Barrett,, D. M. Johnson,, M. A. Pfaller,, and G. V. Doern. 1999. In vitro antimicrobial activity of gatifloxacin against N. gonorrhoeae and H influenzae . Drugs 58(Suppl. 2):178179.
13. Bodhidatta, L.,, D. N. Taylor,, A. Chitwarakorn,, K. Kuvanont,, and P. Echeverria. 1988. Evaluation of 500- and 1,000-mg doses of ciprofloxacin for the treatment of chancroid. Antmicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:723725.
14. Bogaerts, J.,, L. Kestens,, W. Martinez Tello,, J . Akingeneye,, V. Mukantabana,, J. Verhaegen,, E. Van Dyck,, and P. Piot. 1995. Failure of treatment for chancroid in Rwanda is not related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection: in vitro resistance to Haemophilus ducreyi to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20:924930.
15. Borsum, T.,, L. Dannevig,, G. Storvold,, and K. Melby. 1990. Chlamydia trachomatis: in vitro susceptibility of genital and ocular isolates to some quinolones, amoxicillin and azithromycin. Chemotherapy 36:407415.
16. Boslego, J. W.,, C. B. Hicks,, R. Greenup,, R. J. Thomas,, H. A. Wiener,, J. Ciak,, and E. C. Tramont. 1988. A prospective randomized trial of ofloxacin vs. doxycycline in the treatment of uncomplicated male urethritis. Sex. Transm. Dis. 15:186191.
17. Brihmer, C.,, I. Kallings,, C. E. Nord,, and J. Brundin. 1989. Second look laparoscopy: evaluation of two different antibiotic regimens after treatment of acute salpingitis. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 30:263274.
18. Brumsted, J. R.,, P. M. Clifford,, S. T. Nakajima,, and M. Gibson. 1988. Reproductive outcome after medical management of complicated pelvic inflammatory disease. Fertil. Steril. 50:667669.
19. Brunham, R C..,, I. W. Maclean,, B. Binns,, and R. Peeling. 1985. Chlamydia trachomatis: its role in tubal infertility. J. Infect. Dis. 152:12751282.
20. Brunham, R. C.,, and F. A. Plummer. 1990. A general model of sexually transmitted disease epidemiology and its implications for control. Med. Clin. N. Am. 74:13391352.
21. Brunham, R. C.,, R. W. Peeling,, I. W. Maclean,, M. L. Kosseim,, and M. Paraskevas. 1992. Chlamydia trachomatis associated ectopic pregnancy: serologic and histologic correlates.J. Infect. Dis. 165:10761081.
22. Bryan, J. P.,, S. K. Hira,, W. Brady,, N. Luo,, C. Mwale,, G. Mpoko,, R. Krieg,, E. Siwiwaliondo,, C. Reichart,, C. Waters,, and P. L. Perine. 1990. Oral ciprofloxacin versus ceftriaxone for the treatment of urethritis from resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Zambia. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:819822.
23. Carmona O.,, S. Hernandez-Gonzalez,, and R. Kobelt. 1987. Ciprofloxacin in the treatment of non-specific vaginitis. Am. J. Med. 82(Suppl. 4A):321323.
24. Cates, W.,, R. T. Rolfs,, and S. Aral. 1990. Sexual transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility: an epidemiologic update. Epidemiol. Rev. 12:199220.
25. Cates, W.,, and J. N. Wasserheit. 1991. Genital chlamydial infections: epidemiology and reproductive sequelae. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 164:17711781.
26.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. Guidelines for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51(RR-6):178. Web access: http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/1998_STD_Guidelines.
27. Clendennen, T. E. III,, C. S. Hames,, E. S. Kees,, F. C. Price,, W. J. Rueppel,, A. B. Andrada,, G. E. Espinosa,, G. Kabrerra,, and F. S. Wignall. 1992. In vitro antibiotic susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in the Philippines. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:277282.
28. Coker, D. M.,, I. Ahmed-Jushuf,, O. P. Arya,, J . S. Chessbrough,, and B. C. Pratt. 1989. Evaluation of single dose ciprofloxacin in the treatment of rectal and pharyngeal gonorrhoea. J . Antimicrob. Chemother. 24:271272.
29. Corkill, J . E.,, A. Percival,, and M. Lind. 1991. Reduced uptake of ciprofloxacin in a resistant strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and transformation of resistance to other strains. J . Antimicrob. Chemother. 28:601604.
30. Covino, J. M.,, M. Cummings,, B. Smith,, S. Benes,, K. Draft,, and W. M. McCormack. 1990. Comparison of ofloxacin and ceftriaxone in the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea caused by penicillinase-producing and non-penicillinase-producing strains. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:148149.
31. Covino, J . M.,, J . R. Black,, M. Cummings,, S. Smith,, B. Zwickl,, and W. M. McCormack. 1993. Comparative evaluation of ofloxacin and metronidazole in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Sex. Transm. Dis. 20:262264.
32. Costa, P.,, J. F. Louis,, N. Mottet,, H. Navraril,, M. Favier,, E. Jarroux,, and A. Boccanfuso. 1991. Acute epididymitis and pefloxacin in mono-antibiotic therapy. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. Special issue: 626627.
33. Crombleholme, W. R.,, J. Schachter,, M. Ohm-Smith,, J. Luft,, R. Whidden,, and R. L. Sweet. 1989. Efficacy of single-agent therapy for the treatment of acute pelvic inflammatory disease with ciprofloxacin. Am. J. Med. 87(Suppl. 5A):142S147S.
34. Dean, D.,, R. J. Suchland,, and W. E. Stamm. 2000. Evidence for long-term cervical persistence of Chlamydia trachomatis by ompl genotyping.J. Infect. Dis. 182:909916.
35. Dessus-Babus, S.,, C. M. B'b'ar,, A. Charron,, C. B'b'ar,, and B. de Barbeyrac 1998. Sequencing of gyrase and topoisomerase IV quinolone-resistance-determining regions of Chlamydia trachomatis and characterization of quinoloneresistant mutants obtained in vitro . Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:24742481.
36. Deguchi, T.,, H. Komeda,, and M. Yasuda. 1995. Mycoplasma genitalium in nongoncoccal urethritis. Int. J. STD AIDS 6:144145.
37. Deguchi, T.,, I. Saito,, M. Tanaka,, K. Sato,, K. Deguchi,, M. Yasuda,, M. Nakano,, Y. Nishino,, E. Kanematsu,, S. Ozeki,, and Y. Kawada. 1997. Fluoroquinolone treatment failure in gonorrhea. Sex. Transm. Dis. 24:247250.
38. Donati, M.,, F. Rumpianesi,, F. Marchetti,, V. Smabri,, and R. Cevenini. 1998. Comparative in vitro activity of levofloxacin against Chlamydia spp. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 48:670671.
39. Dosa, E.,, E. Nagy,, W. Falk,, I. Szoke,, and U. Bailies. 1999. Evaluation of the E test for susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum . J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 43:575578.
40. Dreses-Werringloer, U.,, I. Padubrin,, B. Jiirgens-Saathoff,, A. P. Hudson,, H. Zeidler,, and L. Kohler. 2000. Persistence of Chlamydia trachomatis is induced by ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin in vitro . Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:32883297.
41. D'Souza, P.,, R. Pandhi,, N. Khanna,, A. Rattan,, and R. S. Misra. 1998. A comparative study of therapeutic response of patients with clinical chancroid to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and cotrimoxasole. Sex. Transm. Dis. 25:293295.
42. Dubois, J.,, and V. Fontaine. 1988. In vitro activity of fleroxacin against urinary tract and genital tract pathogens. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 22(Suppl. D):3134.
43. Dylewski, J .,, H. Nsanze,, L. D'Costa,, L. Slaney,, and A. R. Ronald. 1985. Trimethoprimsulfamoxazole in the treatment of chancroid comparison of two single dose treatment regimens with a five day regimen. J . Antimicrob. Chemother. 16:103110.
44. Ehret, J . M.,, and F. N. Judson. 1988. Susceptibility testing of Chlamydia trachomatis: from eggs to monoclonal antibodies. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:12951299.
45. Endtz, H.,, J. M. Ossewaarde,, P. J. G. M. van de Korput,, and H. T. Weiland. 1989. In vitro activity of eight quinolones against Chlamydia trachomatis. Rev. Infect. Dis. ll(Suppl. 5):S1278.
46. Faro, S.,, M. G. Martens,, M. Maccato,, H. A. Hammill,, S. Roberts,, and G. Riddle. 1991. Effectiveness of ofloxacin in the treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae cervical infection. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 164:13801383.
47. Fishbach, F.,, R. Deckardt,, H. Graeff,, and W. Busch. 1991. Comparison of ciprofloxacin/metronidazole versus cefoxitin/ doxycycline in the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. Special issue:402-403.
48. Fleming, D. T.,, and J. N. Wasserheit. 1999. From epidemiological synergy to public health policy and practice: the contribution of other sexually transmitted diseases to sexual transmission of HIV infection. Sex. Transm. Infect. 75:317.
49. Friesen, T. R.,, and R. J . Mangi. 1990. Inappropriate use of oral ciprofloxacin. JAMA 264:14381440.
50. Gambini, D.,, I. Decleva,, L. Lupica,, M. Ghislanzoni,, M. Cusini,, and E. Alessi. 2000. Mycoplasma genitalium in males with nongonococcal urethritis:prevalence and clinical efficicacy of eradication. Sex. Transm. Dis. 27:226229.
51. Gerding, G. N.,, and J. A. Hitt. 1989. Tissue penetration of the new quinolones in humans. Rev. Infect. Dis. ll(Suppl. 5):S1046S1057.
52. Gransden, W. R.,, C. A. Warren,, I. Phillips,, M. Hodges,, and D. Barlow. 1990. Decreased susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to ciprofloxacin. Lancet. 335:51.
53. Gransden, W. R.,, C. Warren,, and I. Phillips. 1991. 4- Quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United Kingdom. J. Med. Microbiol. 34:2327.
54. Gundersen, T.,, and F. Zahm. 1989. Fleroxacin in the treatment of urogenital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis: a pilot study. Rev. Infect. Dis. 11:S1278.
55. Haase, D. A.,, J. O. Ndinya-Achola,, R. A. Nash,, L. J . D'Costa,, D. Hazlett,, S. Lubwama,, H. Nsanze,, and A. R. Ronald. 1986. Clinical evaluation of rosoxacin for the treatment of chancroid. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 30:3941.
56. Haizlip, J.,, S. F. Isbey,, H. A. Hamilton,, A. E. Jerse,, P. A. Leone,, R. H. Davis,, and M. S. Cohen. 1995. Time required for elimination of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from the urogenital tract in men with symptomatic urethritis: comparison of oral and intramuscular single-dose therapy. Sex. Transm. Dis. 22:145148.
57. Handsfield, H. H.,, J. A. McCutchan,, L. Corey,, and A. R. Ronald. 1992. Special issues in clinical trials of new antiinfective drugs for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15(Suppl. l):596598.
58. Handsfield, H. H. 1996. Antibiotic-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae: the calm before another storm? Ann. Intern. Med. 125:507509.
59. Hannan, P. C.,, and G. Woodnutt. 2000. In vitro activity of gemifloxacin (SB 265805; LB 20304a) against human mycoplasmas. J . Antimicrob. Chemother. 45:367369.
60. Hasselquist, M. B.,, and S. Hillier. 1991. Susceptibility of upper tract isolates from women with pelvic inflammatory disease to ampicillin, cefpodoxime, metronidazole and doxycycline. Sex. Transm. Dis. 18:146149.
61.Health Canada. 1998. Canadian Guidelines for the Management of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb/lcdc/publicat/std98.
62. Heinonen, P. K.,, K. Teisala,, R. Aine,, and A. Miettinen. 1989. Intravenous and oral ciprofloxacin in the treatment of proven pelvic inflammatory disease. A comparison with doxycycline and metronidazole. Am. J. Med. 87(Suppl. 5A):152S156S.
63. Hoban, D.,, P. DeGagne,, and E. Witwicki. 1989. In vitro activity of lomefloxacin against Chlamydiatrachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilusducreyi, Mycoplasmahominis, and Ureaplasmaurealyticum . Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 12(Suppl. 3):83S86S.
64. Hook, E. W., III,, R. B. Jones,, D. H. Martin,, G. A. Bolan,, T. F. Mroczkowski,, T. M. Neumann,, J. J. Haag,, and R. Echols. 1993. Comparison of ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone as single-dose therapy for uncomplicated gonorrhea in women. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:16701673.
65. Hook, E. W.,, M. W. McCormack,, D. Martin,, R. Jones,, K. Bean,, and A. Maroli. 1997. Comparison of single-dose oral grepafloxacin with cefixime for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in men. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:18431845.
66. Hooper, D. C. Mechanisms of action of antimicrobials: focus on the quinolones. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32(Suppl. 1):S9S15.
67. Hooton, T. M.,, M. E. Rogers,, T. G. Medina,, L. E. Kuwamura,, C. Ewers,, P. L. Roberts,, and W. E. Stamm. 1990. Ciprofloxacin compared with doxycycline for nongonococcal urethritis. Ineffectiveness against Chlamydia trachomatis due to relapsing infection. JAMA 264:14181421.
68. Horner, P. J.,, C. R. Gilroy,, B. J. Thomas,, R. O. M. Naidoo,, and D. Taylor-Robinson. 1993. Association of Mycoplasma gentialium with acute nongonococcal urethritis. Lancet 342:582585.
69. Ibsen, H. H. W.,, B. R. Moller,, L. Halkier-Sorensen,, and E. From. 1989. Treatment of nongonococcal urethritis: comparison of ofloxacin and erythromycin. Sex. Transm. Dis. 16:3235.
70. Jaffe, H. W.,, A. L. Schroeter,, G. H. Reynolds,, A. A. Zaidi,, J . E. Martin, Jr.,, and J. D. Thayer. 1979. Pharmacokinetic determinants of penicillin cure of gonococcal urethritis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 15:587591.
71. Jephcott, A. E.,, and A. Turner A. 1990. Ciprofloxacin resistance in gonococci. Lancet 335:165.
72. Jeskanen, L.,, and A. Lassus 1991. Fleroxacin (Ro 23-6240) versus doxycycline in the treatment of chlamydial urethritis and/or cervicitis. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. Special Issue:457-458.
73. Jha, P.,, J. D. Nagelkerke,, E. N. Ngugi,, J. V. Prasada Rao,, B. Willbond,, S. Moses,, and F. A. Plummer. 2001. Public health. Reducing HIV transmission in developing countries. Science 292:224225.
74. Jones, R. B.,, B. Van Der Pol,, D. H. Martin,, and M. K. Shepard. 1990. Partial characterization of Chlamydia trachomatis isolates resistant to multiple antibiotics. J . Infect. Dis. 162:13091315.
75. Jones, R. N.,, L. M. Deshpande,, M. E. Erwin,, M. S. Barrett,, and M. L. Beach. 2000. Anti-gonococcal activity of gemifloxacin against fluoroquinolone-resistant strains and a comparison of agar dilution and Etest methods. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 45(Suppl. l):6770.
76. Judlin, P.,, C. Scheffler,, M. Dailloux,, and P. Landes. 1991. Shorter duration of treatment in chlamydial pelvic infections with ofloxacin-amoxicillin-clavulanate, compared with doxycycline-amoxicillin-clavulanate. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. Special Issue: p. 314—315.
77. Kam, K. M.,, K. K. Lo,, L. Y. Chong,, W. F. Au,, P. Y. Wong,, and M. M. Cheung. 1999. Correlation between in vitro quinolone susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and outcome of treatment of gonococcal urethritis with single-dose ofloxacin. Clin. Infect. Dis. 28:11651166.
78. Kam, K. M.,, K. K. Lo,, N. K. Ho,, and M. M. Cheung. 1995. Rapid decline in penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Hong Kong associated with emerging 4-fluoroquinolone resistance. Genitourin. Med. 71:141144.
79. Kawada, Y. 1989. Multicentre study of ofloxacin for nongonococcal urethritis in Asia. Rev. Infect. Dis. ll(Suppl. 5):S1318S1319.
80. Kenny, G. E.,, T. M. Hooton,, M. C. Roberts,, F. D. Cartwright,, and J . Hoyt. 1989. Susceptibilities of genital mycoplasmas to the newer quinolones as determined by the agar dilution method. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:103107.
81. Kimura, M.,, T. Kishimoto,, Y. Niki,, and R. Soejima. 1993. In vitro and in vivo antichlamydial activities of newly developed quinolone antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:801803.
82. Kitchen, V. S.,, C. Donegan,, H. Ward,, B. Thomas,, J. R. Harris,, and D. Taylor-Robinson. 1990. Comparison of ofloxacin with doxycycline in the treatment of non-gonococcal urethritis and cervical chlamydial infection. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 26(Suppl. D):99105.
83. Klausner, J. D.,, M. Aplasca,, V. P. Mesola,, G. Bolan,, W. L. Whittington,, and K. K. Holmes. 1999. Correlates of gono coccal infection and of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae among female sex workers, Republic of Philippines, 1996-1997. J. Infect. Dis. 179:729733.
84. Knapp, J. S.,, A. F. Back,, A. F. Babat,, D. Taylor,, and R. J. Rice. 1993. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of isolates of Haemophilus ducreyi from Thailand and the United States to currently recommended and newer agents for the treatment of chancroid. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:15521555.
85. Knapp, J. S.,, K. K. Fox,, D. L. Trees,, and W. L. Whittington. 1997. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae . Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3:3339.
86. Lassus, A.,, O. V. Renkonen,, J. Ellmen. 1988. Fleroxacin versus standard therapy in gonococcal urethritis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 22(Suppl. D):223225.
87. Lutz, F. B., Jr. 1989. Am. J. Med. 87:69S74S.
88. MacDonald, K. S.,, D. W. Cameron,, L. D'Costa,, J. O. Ndinya-Achola,, F. A. Plummer,, and A. R. Ronald. 1989. Evaluation of fleroxacin (RO 23-6240) as single-oral-dose therapy of culture-proven chancroid in Nairobi, Kenya. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:612614.
89. Maeda, S.,, M. Tamaki,, K. Kojima,, T. Yoshida,, H. Ishiko,, M. Yasuda,, and T. Deguchi. 2001. Association of Mycoplasma genitalium persistence in the urethra with recurrence of non-gonococcal urethritis. Sex. Transm. Dis. 28:472476.
90. Malonza, I. M.,, M. W. Tyndall,, J. O. Ndinya-Achola,, I. Maclean,, S. Omar,, K. S. MacDonald,, J. Perriens,, K. Orle,, F. A. Plummer,, A. R. Ronald,, and S. Moses. 1999. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of single-dose ciprofloxacin versus erthromycin for the treatment of chancroid in Nairobi, Kenya.J. Infect. Dis. 180:18861893.
91. Martens, M. G.,, S. Gordon,, D. R. Yarborough,, S. Faro,, D. Binder,, and A. Berkeley. 1993. Multicenter randomised trial of ofloxacin versus cefoxitin and doxycycline in outpatient treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease. South. Med. J. 86:604610.
92. Martin, D. H.,, T. F. Mroczkowski,, T. Richelo,, P. St. Clair,, and S. Pizzuti. 1991. Randomized double-blind study of fleroxacin and doxycycline for the treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infections. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. Special Issue:458-459.
93. Martin, D. H.,, C. L. Cammarata,, and D. Grubb. 1991. In vitro activity of sparfloxacin (CI-978, AT-4140), ofloxacin, doxycycline, and tetracycline versus genital tract mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis . Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. Special issue:563-564.
94. Mabey, D.,, and R. W. Peeling. 1999. Heat shock protein expression and immunity in chlamydial infections. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol 7:7279.
95. McCormack, W. M.,, D. H. Martin,, E. W. Hook,, and R. B. Jones. 1998. Daily oral grepafloxacin vs. twice daily oral doxycycline in the treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervical infection. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 6:109115.
96. Mikamo, H.,, Y. Sato,, Y. Hayasaki,, Y. X. Hua,, and T. Tamaya. 2000. Adequate levofloxacin treatment schedules for uterine cervicitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. Chemotherapy 46:150152.
97. Miller, S. D.,, F. da L. Exposto,, Y. Dangor,, S. Kaka,, H. G. Fehler,, and H. J. Koornhof. 1989. A dose finding study of fleroxacin in the treatment of chancroid. Rev. Infect. Dis. ll(Suppl. 5):S1310S1311.
98. Mogabgab, W. J.,, B. Holmes,, M. Murray,, R. Beville,, F. B. Lutz,, and K. J. Tack. 1990. Randomized comparison of ofloxacin and doxycycline for chlamydia and ureaplama urethritis and cervicitis. Chemotherapy 36:7076.
99. Moi, H.,, P. Morel,, B. Gianotti,, D. Barlow,, I. Phillips,, and C. Jean. 1996. Comparative efficacy and safety of single oral doses of sparfloxacin versus ciprofloxacin in the treatment of acute gonococcal urethritis in men. J . Antimicrob. Chemother. 37(Suppl. A):l15122.
100. Moller, B. R.,, B. Herrmann,, H. H. Ibsen,, L. Halkier-Sorensen,, E. From,, and P.-A. Mardh. 1990. Occurrence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in nongonococcal urethritis before and after treatment in a doubleblind trial of ofloxacin versus erythromycin. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 68(Suppl.):3134.
101. Naamara, W.,, F. A. Plummer,, R. Greenblatt,, L. J. D'Costa,, J. O. Ndinya-Achola,, and A. R. Ronald. 1987. Treatment of chancroid with ciprofloxacin: a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Am. J. Med. 82:S317S320.
102. Ndinya-Achola, O.,, F. A. Odhiambo,, P. Wambugu,, L. Slaney,, M. Bosire,, J. Kimata,, M. Malisa,, F. Plummer,, and A. R. Ronald. 1991. Ciprofloxacin treatment of gonoccocal infections in Nairobi, Kenya, abstr. P-20-258. Proceedings of the 9th Meeting of the International Society of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Research..
103. Panikabutra, K.,, C. T. Lee,, B. Ho,, and P. Bamberg. 1988. Single dose oral norfloxacin or intramuscular spectinomycin to treat gonorrhoea (PPNG and non-PPNG infections): analysis of efficacy and patient preference. Genitourin. Med. 64:235240.
104. Peipert J. F.,, R. L. Sweet,, C. K. Walker,, J. Krahn,, and K. Rielly-Gauvin. 1999. Evaluation of ofloxacin in the treatment of laparoscopically documented acute pelvic inflammatory disease (salpingitis). J. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 7:138144.
105. Pepin, J.,, F. Sobela,, S. Deslandis,, M. Alary,, K. Wegner,, N. Khonde,, F. Kintin,, A. Kamuragiye,, M. Sylla,, P.-J. Zerbo,, E. Baganizi,, A. Kone,, F. Kane,, B. Masse,, P. Viens,, and E. Frost. 2001. Etiology of uethral discharge in west Africa: the role of Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis . Bull. W.H.O. 79:118126.
106. Peterson, H. B.,, C. K. Walker,, J . G. Kahn,, A. E. Washington,, D. A. Eschenbach,, and S. Faro. 1991. Pelvic inflammatory disease: key treatment issues and options. JAMA 266: 26052612.
107. Phillips, I.,, C. Dimian,, D. Barlow,, H. Moi,, E. Stolz,, W. Weidner,, and E. Perea. 1996. A comparative study of two different regimens of sparfloxacin versus doxycycline in the treatment of non-gonococcal urethritis in men. J. Antimicrob. Chermother. 37:123134.
108. Plourde, P. J.,, L. J. D'Costa,, E. Agoki,, J. Ombette,, J. O. Ndinya-Achola,, L. A. Slaney,, A. R. Ronald,, and F. A. Plummer. 1991. A randomized double-blind study of the efficacy of fleroxacin vs. trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in female prostitutes with culture-proven chancroid. J. Infect. Dis. 165:949952.
109. Poutiers, F.,, S. Bessu-Babus,, F. Leblanc,, C. Bebear,, and B. de Barbeyrac. 1999. In vitro activity of grepafloxacin against Chlamydia trachomatis. Drugs 58(Suppl. 2):404405.
110. Pust, R. A.,, H. R. Ackenheil-Koppe,, W. Weidner,, and H. Meier-Ewert. 1988. Clinical efficacy and tolerance of fleroxacin in patients with urethritis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis . J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 22(Suppl. D):227230.
111. Rahman, M.,, A. Alam,, K. Nessa,, S. Nahar,, D. K. Dutta,, L. Yasmin,, S. Monira,, Z. Sultan,, S. A. Khan,, and M. J . Albert. 2001. Treatment failure with the use of ciprofloxacin for gonorrhea correlates with the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains in Bangladesh. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:884889.
112. Rajakumar, M. K.,, Y. F. Ngeow,, B. S. Khor,, and K. F. Lim. 1988. Ofloxacin, a new quinolone for the treatment of gonorrhea. Sex. Transm. Dis. 15:2526.
113. Ramirez, C. A.,, J. L. Bran,, C. R. Mejia,, and J. F. Garcia. 1985. Open, prospective study of the clinical efficacy of oral ciprofloxacin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 28:128132.
114. Richmond, S. J.,, M. N. Bhattacharyya,, H. Maiti,, F. H. Chowdhurry,, R. M. Stirland,, and J. A. Tooth. 1998. The efficacy of ofloxacin against infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis . J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 22(Suppl. C):149153.
115. Ridgway, G. L. 1995. Quinolones in sexually transmitted diseases: global experience. Drugs 49(Suppl. 2):115122.
116. Ridgway, G. L. 1997. Treatment of chlamydial genital infection.J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 40:311314.
117. Ridgway, G. L.,, H. Salman,, M. J. Robbins,, C. Dencer,, and D. Felmingham. 1997. The in-vitro activity of grepafloxacin against Chlamydia spp., Mycoplasma spp., Urealplasma urealyticum and Legionella spp. J. Antimicrob. Chemother 40(Suppl. A):3134.
118. Sanders, C. C. 2001. Mechanisms responsible for cross-resistance and dichotomous resistance among the quinolones. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32(Suppl. 1):S1S8.
119. Scholes, D.,, A. Stergachis,, F. E. Heidrich,, H. Andrilla,, K. K. Holmes,, and W. E. Stamm. 1996. Prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease by screening for cervical chlamydial infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 334:13621366.
120. Schmid, G.,, B. Van Der Pol,, R. B. Jones,, and R. Johnson. 2001. Further investigating the clinical importance of heterotypic antimicrobial resistance in Chlamydia trachomatis . Int. J. STD & AIDS 12:41.
121. Schwarez, S. K.,, J. M. Zenilman,, D. Schnell,, J. S. Knapp,, E. Hook,, S. Thompson,, F. N. Judson,, and K. K. Holmes. 1990. The gonococcal isolate surveillance project. National Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae . JAMA 264:14131417.
122. Shanmugaratnam, K.,, M. S. Sprott,, R. S. Pattman,, A. M. Kearns,, and P. G. Watson. 1989. Single dose ciprofloxacin to treat women with gonorrhoea. Genitourin. Med. 65:129.
123. Shepard, M. K.,, and R. B. Jones. 1989. Recovery of Chlamydia trachomatis from endometrial and fallopian tube biopsies in women with infertility of tubal origin. Fertil. Steril. 52:232238.
124. Slaney, L.,, H. Chubb,, A. Ronald,, and R. Brunham. 1990. In vitro activity of azithromycin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus ducreyi, and Chlamydia trachomatis . J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 25(Suppl. A):l5.
125. Smith, B. L.,, M. C. Cummings,, J. M. Covino,, S. Benes,, K. Draft,, and W. M. McCormack. 1991. Evaluation of ofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea. Sex. Transm. Dis. 18:1820.
126. Smith, B. L.,, W. J. Mogabgab,, Z. A. Dalu,, R. B. Jones,, J. M. Douglas,, H. H. Handsfield,, E. W. Hook,, B. L. Vinear,, J . W. Shands,, and W. M. McCormack. 1993. Multicenter trial of fleroxacin versus ceftriaxone in the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea. Am. J. Med. 94:81S84S.
127. Somani, J.,, V. B. Bhullar,, K. A. Workowski,, C. E. Farshy,, and C. M. Black. 2000. Multiple drug-resistant Chlamydia trachomatis associated with clinical treatment failure. J. Infect. Dis. 181:14211427.
128. Soltz-Szots, J.,, S. Schneider,, and H. Mailer. 1989. Efficacy of and tolerance to fleroxacin in the treatment of chlamydia urethritis and cervicitis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 11:S1280S1281.
129. Stein, D. C. 1991. Transformation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: physical requirements of transforming DNA. Can. J. Microbiol. 37:345349.
130. Stein, D. C.,, R. J. Danaher, and T. M. Cook. 1991. Characterization of a gyrB mutation responsible for low-level nalidixic acid resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae . Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:622626.
131. Stein, G. E.,, and L. D. Saravolatz. 1989. Randomized clinical study of ofloxacin and doxycycline in the treatment of nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 11:S1277.
132. Stoner, B. P.,, J. M. Douglas,, D. H. Martin,, E. W. Hook,, P. Leone,, W. M. McCormack,, T. F. Mroczkowki,, R. Jones,, J . Yang,, and T. Baumgartner. 2000. Single dose gatifloxacin compared with ofloxacin for the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea. Sex. Transm. Dis. 28:136142.
133. Su, X.,, and I. Lind. 2001. Molecular basis of high-level ciprofloxacin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Denmark from 1995 to 1998. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:117123.
134. Suchland, R. J.,, W. M. Geisler,, J. C. Lara,, and W. E. Stamm. 2001. Evaluation of methodologies and cell lines for antibiotic susceptibility testing of Chlamydia spp., poster C-286. Procedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
135. Talbot, H.,, and B. Romanowski. 1989. In vitro activities of lomefloxacin, tetracycline, penicillin, spectinomycin, and ceftriaxone against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis . Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:20492051.
136. Tanaka, M.,, H. Nakayama,, M. Haraoka,, T. Nagafuji,, T. Saika,, and I. Kobayashi. 1998. Analysis of quinolone resistance mechanisms in a sparfloxacin-resistant clinical isolate of Neissseria gonorrhoeae . Sex. Transm. Dis. 25:489493.
137. Tanaka, M.,, T. Matsumoto,, M. Sakumoto,, K. Takahashi,, T. Saika,, I. Kabayashi,, J . Kumazawa, and the Pazufloxacin STD group. 1998. Reduced clinical efficacy of pazufloxacin against gonorrhea due to high prevalence of quinoloneresistant isolates with the gyrA mutation. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:579582.
138. Tanaka, M.,, H. Nakayama,, M. Haraoka,, T. Saika,, I. Kobayashi,, and S. Naito. 2000. Antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and high prevalence of ciprofloxacinresistant isolates in Japan, 1993 to 1998. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:521525.
139. Tapsall, J. 2001. Antimicrobial Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, WHO/CDS/CSR/2001.3. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
140. Taylor-Robinson, D.,, and C. Bebear. 1997. Antibiotic susceptibilities of mycoplasmas and treatment of mycoplasma infections. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 40:622630.
141. Thomas, D.,, J. Orfila,, and E. Bissac. 1995. Evaluation of the activity of different quinolones in the experimental chlamydia salpingitis mouse model. Drugs 49(Suppl. 2):261263.
142. Thorpe, E. M.,, J. R. Schwebke,, E. W. Hook m,, A. Rompalo,, W. M. McCormack,, K. Mussari,, G. C. Giguere,, and J. J. Collins. 1996. Comparison of single-dose cefuroxime axetil with ciprofloxacin in treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea caused by penicillinase-producing and non-penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:27752780.
143. Tio, T. T.,, I. R. Sindhunata,, J. H. T. Wagenvoort,, A. F. Angulo,, L. Habbema,, and M. F. Michel,, E. Stolz. 1990. Pefloxacin compared with cefotaxime for treating men with uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 22(Suppl. B):141146.
144. Turner, A.,, A. E. Jephcott,, and K. R. Gough. 1991. Laboratory detection of ciprofloxacin resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae . J. Clin. Pathol. 44:169170.
145. Tyndall M.,, M. Malisa,, F. A. Plummer,, J. Ombetti,, J. O. Ndinya-Achola,, and A. R. Ronald. 1993. Fleroxacin in the treatment of chancroid: an open study in men seropositive or seronegative for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Am. J. Med. 94(Suppl. 3A):85S88S.
146. Ulmann, U.,, S. Schubert,, and R. Krause. 1999. Comparative in-vitro activity of levofloxacin, other fluoroquinolones, doxycycline and erythromycin against Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis . J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 43(Suppl. C):3336.
147. Une, T.,, R. Nakajima,, T. Otani,, K. Katami,, Y. Osada,, and M. Otani. 1987. Lack of effectiveness of ofloxacin against experimental syphilis in rabbits. Forsch. Klin. Lab. 37:10481041.
148. van der Willigen, A. H.,, A. A. Polak-Vogelzang,, L. Habbema,, and J. H. Wagenvoort. 1988. Clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin versus doxycycline in the treatment of nongonococcal urethritis in males. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 7:658661.
149. Veller-Fornasa, C.,, M. Tarantello,, R. Cepriani,, L. Gurerra,, and A. Peserico. 1987. Effect of ofloxacin on Treponema pallidum in incubating experimental syphilis. Genitourin. Med. 63:214.
150. Vila, J.,, L. Olmos,, J. Ballesteros,, J. A. Vasquez,, M. J. Gimenez,, F. Marco,, and L. Aguilar. 1997. Development of in vivo resistance after quinolone treatment of gonococcal urethritis. J . Antimicrob. Chemother. 39:841.
151. Vilata, J. J.,, J. Garcia-De-Lomas,, J. Sanchez,, A. Lloret,, M. Evole,, and J. M. Nogueira. 1989. A double-blind randomized study comparing two ofloxacin regimens vs. minocycline in the treatment of nongonococcal urethritis. Rev. Infect. Dis. ll(Suppl. 5):S1285S1286.
152. Waites, K. B.,, L. B. Duffy,, T. Schmidt,, D. Crabb,, M. S. Pate,, and G. H. Cassel. 1999. In vitro susceptibilities of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum to sparfloxacin and PD 127391. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:25712573.
153. Waites, K. B.,, K. C. Canupp,, and G. E. Kenny. 1999. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hominis to moxifloxacin by E-test and agar dilution. Drugs 58(Suppl. 2):406407.
154. Weidner, W.,, H. G. Schiefer,, and C. Garbe. 1987. Acute nongonococcal epididymitis. Aetiological and therapeutic aspects. Drugs 34(Suppl. 1):111-–117.
155.World Health Organization. 2001. Guidelines for the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections. WHO/ HIV_AIDS/2001.01. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
156.World Health Organization. Global Prevalence and Incidence of Selected Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections: Overview and Estimates. WHO/HIV.AIDS/ 2001.02. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Clinical manifestations of bacterial STDs

Citation: Peeling R, Ronald A. 2003. Use of Quinolones for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, p 171-192. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 2

In vitro activity of quinolones and other agents against

Citation: Peeling R, Ronald A. 2003. Use of Quinolones for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, p 171-192. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 3

Treatment trials of oral quinolones for genital chlamydial infections

Citation: Peeling R, Ronald A. 2003. Use of Quinolones for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, p 171-192. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 4

In vitro activity of quinolones versus

Citation: Peeling R, Ronald A. 2003. Use of Quinolones for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, p 171-192. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 5

Treatment trials of oral quinolones for gonococcal infections up to 1996

Citation: Peeling R, Ronald A. 2003. Use of Quinolones for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, p 171-192. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 6

Treatment trials of oral quinolones for gonococcal infections, 1997 to 2001

Citation: Peeling R, Ronald A. 2003. Use of Quinolones for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, p 171-192. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 7

Treatment trials of oral quinolones for gonococcal infections at other body sites

Citation: Peeling R, Ronald A. 2003. Use of Quinolones for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, p 171-192. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 8

Treatment regimens and the development of quinolone-resistant phenotypes

Citation: Peeling R, Ronald A. 2003. Use of Quinolones for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, p 171-192. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 9

In vitro activity of quinolones against and

Citation: Peeling R, Ronald A. 2003. Use of Quinolones for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, p 171-192. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 10

Treatment of nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis

Citation: Peeling R, Ronald A. 2003. Use of Quinolones for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, p 171-192. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 11

Activity of quinolones and other agents against

Citation: Peeling R, Ronald A. 2003. Use of Quinolones for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, p 171-192. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 12

Treatment of infection: clinical trials

Citation: Peeling R, Ronald A. 2003. Use of Quinolones for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, p 171-192. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 13

Pelvic inflammatory disease trials: comparative studies

Citation: Peeling R, Ronald A. 2003. Use of Quinolones for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, p 171-192. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch10

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error