1887

Chapter 17 : Treatment of Bacterial Meningitis and Other Central Nervous System Infections

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Treatment of Bacterial Meningitis and Other Central Nervous System Infections, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817817/9781555812317_Chap17-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817817/9781555812317_Chap17-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter reviews the epidemiology and etiology of bacterial meningitis, the in vitro activities of the fluoroquinolones against various meningeal pathogens, the therapeutic principles (i.e., cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration and pharmacodynamics) for use of the agents in meningitis, and clinical results in both experimental animal models and humans to place in perspective the potential usefulness of the fluoroquinolones in the treatment and prevention of bacterial meningitis. The efficacy of the fluoroquinolones in the treatment of other central nervous system (CNS) infections is also reviewed, where data are available on the utility of the agents. The chapter reviews the importance of different factors in the use of the fluoroquinolones in bacterial meningitis. An overview of the clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin through 1986 in 3,981 patients and an analysis of the new drug application and published clinical experience with ciprofloxacin in 2,018 patients did not include any cases of bacterial meningitis. Several isolated case reports subsequently suggested the potential benefits of the fluoroquinolones in the therapy of bacterial meningitis. The limited published literature on the use of fluoroquinolones in humans suggests that the primary area of usefulness of these agents in patients with bacterial meningitis is for therapy of multidrugresistant gram-negative organisms (e.g., ) or when the response to conventional β-lactam therapy is slow.

Citation: Tunkel A, Scheld W. 2003. Treatment of Bacterial Meningitis and Other Central Nervous System Infections, p 275-289. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch17
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817817.chap17
1. Ahmed, A.,, M. M. Paris,, M. Trujilo,, S. M. Hickey,, L. Wubbel,, S. L. Shelton,, and G. H. McCracken, Jr. 1997. Once-daily gentamicin therapy for experimental Escherichia coli meningitis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:4953.
2. Andes, D. R.,, and W. A. Craig. 1999. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibiotics in meningitis. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 13:595618.
3. Arcieri, G. E.,, E. Griffith,, G. Gruenwaldt,, A. Heyd,, B. O'Brien,, N. Becker,, and R. August. 1987. Ciprofloxacin: an update on clinical experience. Am. J. Med. 46(Suppl. 4A):381386.
4. Armengaud, M.,, V. T. Tran,, and B. DiConstanzo. 1983. Study of pefloxacin diffusion into serum and CSF in the dog, both with healthy meninges and during experimental meningitis, p. 2328. In Proceedings of the 13th International Congress on Chemotherapy.
5. Bhutta, Z. A.,, B. J. Farooqui,, and A. W. Sturm. 1992. Eradication of a multiple drug resistant Salmonella paratyphi A causing meningitis with ciprofloxacin.J. Infect. 25:215219.
6. Bitar, N.,, R. Claes,, and P. Van der Auwera. 1989. Concentrations of ofloxacin in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients without meningitis receiving the drug intravenously and orally. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:16861690.
7. Bonvin, P.,, T. Ejlertsen,, and H. Dons-Jensen. 1998. Brain abscess caused by Salmonella enteritidis in an immunocompetent adult patient: successful treatment with cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 30:632634.
8. Bryan, J. P.,, H. R. de Silva,, A. Tavares,, H. Rocha,, and W. M. Scheld. 1990. Etiology and mortality of bacterial meningitis in Northeastern Brazil. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12:128135.
9. Campbell, G. D.,, and R. Silberman. 1998. Drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae . Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:11881195.
10. Chen, D. K.,, A. McGeer,, J. C. de Azavedo,, and D. E. Low. 1999. Decreased susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae to fluoroquinolones in Canada. N. Engl. J. Med. 341:233239.
11. Chowdhury, M. H.,, and A. R. Tunkel. 2000. Antibacterial agents in infections of the central nervous system. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 14:391408.
12. Cottagnoud, P.,, F. Acosta,, M. Cottagnoud,, K. Neftel,, and M. G. Tauber. 2000. Synergy between trovafloxacin and ceftriaxone against penicillin-resistant pneumococci in the rabbit meningitis model and in vitro. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:21792181.
13. Cutler, N. R.,, J. Vincent,, S. S. Jhee,, R. Teng,, T. Wardle,, G. Lucas,, L. C. Dogolo,, and J. J. Sramek. 1997. Penetration of trovafloxacin into cerebrospinal fluid in humans following intravenous infusion of alatrofloxacin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:12981300.
14. D'Antuono, V. S.,, and I. Brown. 1998. Successful treatment of Enterobacter meningitis with ciprofloxacin. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:206207.
15. Darouiche, R.,, B. Perkins,, D. Musher,, R. Hamill,, and S. Tsai. 1990. Levels of rifampin and ciprofloxacin in nasal secretions: correlation with MIC90 and eradication of nasopharyngeal carriage of bacteria. J. Infect. Dis. 162:11241127.
16. Decazes, J. M.,, J. Mohler,, A. Bure,, J. M. Vallois,, A. Meulemans,, and J. Modai. 1989. Pharmacokinetics of fleroxacin and its metabolites in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain of rabbits with and without experimental Escherichia coli meningitis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 11:S1208S1209.
17. Dow, J.,, J. Chazal,, A. M. Frydman,, P. Janny,, R. Woehrle,, F. Djebbar,, and J. Gaillot. 1986. Transfer kinetics of pefloxacin into cerebrospinal fluid after one hour infusion of 400 mg in man. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 17(Suppl. B):8187.
18. Drancourt, M.,, H. Gallais,, D. Raoult,, E. Estrangin,, M. W. Mallet,, and P. DeMicco. 1988. Ofloxacin penetration into cerebrospinal fluid. J. Antimicrob Chemother. 22:263265.
19. Dworzack, D. L.,, C. C. Sanders,, E. A. Horowitz,, J. M. Allais,, M. Sookpranee,, W. E. Sanders, Jr.,, and F. M. Ferraro. 1988. Evaluation of single-dose ciprofloxacin in the eradication of Neisseria meningitidis from nasopharyngeal carriers. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:17401741.
20. Gaunt, P. N.,, and B. E. Lambert. 1988. Single dose ciprofloxacin for the eradication of pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 21:489496.
21. Gille-Johnson, P.,, J. Kovamees,, V. Lindgren,, E. Aufwerber,, and J. Strove. 2000. Salmonella virchow meningitis in an adult. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 32:431433.
22. Girijaratnakumari, T.,, A. Raja,, R. Ramani,, B. Antony,, and P. G. Shivananda. 1993. Meningitis due to Xanthomonas maltophilia . J. Postgrad. Med. 39:153155.
23. Goepp, J. G.,, C. K. K. Lee,, T. Anderson,, J. D. Dick,, J. M. Stokoe,, and J. Eiden. 1992. Use of ciprofloxacin in an infant with ventriculitis. J. Pediatr. 121:303305.
24. Gogos, C. A.,, T. G. Maraziotis,, N. Papadakis,, D. Beermann,, D. K. Siamplis,, and H. P. Bassaris. 1991. Penetration of ciprofloxacin into human cerebrospinal fluid in patients with inflamed and non-inflamed meninges. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 10:511514.
25. Green, S. D. R.,, F. Ilunga,, J. S. Cheesbrough,, G. S. Tillotson,, M. Hichens,, and D. Felmingham. 1993. The treatment of neonatal meningitis due to gram-negative bacilli with ciprofloxacin: evidence of satisfactory penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid. J. Infect. 26:253256.
26. Gromback, N. M.,, E. Mylonakis,, and E. J. Wing. 1999. Development of listerial meningitis during ciprofloxacin treatment. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:13401341.
27. Hackbarth, C. J.,, H. F. Chambers,, F. Stella,, A. M. Shibl,, and M. A. Sande. 1986. Ciprofloxacin in experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa meningitis in rabbits. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 18(Suppl. D):6569.
28. Ho, P. L.,, T. L. Que,, D. N. Tsang,, T. K. Ng,, K. H. Chow,, and W. H. Seto. 1999. Emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance among multiply resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Hong Kong. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:13101313.
29. Hofmann, J.,, M. S. Cetron,, M. M. Farley,, W. S. Baughman,, R. R. Facklam,, J. A. Elliott,, K. A. Deaver,, and R. F. Breiman. 1995. The prevalence of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Atlanta. N. Engl.J. Med. 333:481486.
30. Hooper, D. C., 2000. Quinolones, p. 404423. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 5th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, Pa.
31. Hopkins, S.,, D. Williams,, M. Dunne,, L. Marinovich,, M. Edeline,, E. Utt,, and A. I. Dutse. 1996. A randomized, controlled trial of oral or IV trovafloxacin vs. ceftriaxone in the treatment of epidemic meningococcal meningitis, abstr. LB21. In Proceedings and Abstracts of the 36th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
32. Isaacs, D. C.,, M. P. E. Slack,, A. R. Wilkinson,, and A. W. Westwood. 1986. Successful treatment of Pseudomonas ventriculitis with ciprofloxacin. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 17:535538.
33. Isaacs, R. D.,, and R. B. Ellis-Pegler. 1987. Successful treatment of Morganella morganii meningitis with pefloxacin mesylate. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 20:769770.
34. Jackson, L. A.,, F. C. Tenover,, C. Baker,, B. D. Plikaytis,, M. W. Reeves,, S. A. Stocker,, R. E. Weaver,, J. D. Wenger, and the Meningococcal Disease Study Group. 1994. Prevalence of Neisseria meningitidis relatively resistant to penicillin in the United States, 1991. J. Infect. Dis. 169:438441.
35. Jernigan, D. B.,, M. S. Cetron,, R. F. Breiman. 1996. Minimizing the impact of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (DRSP). A strategy from the DRSP working group. JAMA 275:206209.
36. Kawahara, K.,, M. Kawahara,, T. Goto,, and Y. Ohi. 1991. Penetration of sparfloxacin (AT-140) into human cerebrospinal fluid: a comparative study with five other fluoroquinolones. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. Special Issue:580582.
37. Kaye, K.,, S.,, H. S. Fraimow,, and E. Abrutyn. 2000. Pathogens resistant to antimicrobial agents: epidemiology, molecular mechanisms, and clinical management. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 14:293319.
38. Khaneja, M.,, J. Naprawa,, A. Kumar,, and S. Piecuch. 1999. Successful treatment of late-onset infection due to resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in an extremely low birth weight infant using ciprofloxacin. J. Perinatol. 19:311314.
39. Kim, Y. S.,, Q. Liu,, L. L. Chow,, and M. G. Tauber. 1997. Trovafloxacin in treatment of rabbits with experimental meningitis caused by high-level penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae . Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:11861189.
40. Kitzes-Cohen, R.,, A. Miler,, A. Gilboa,, and D. Hard. 1988. Penetration of ciprofloxacin into cerebrospinal fluid. Rev. Infect. Dis. 10:S256S257.
41. Korinek, A. M.,, G. Montay,, A. Bianchi,, M. Guggiari,, R. Brob,, and P. Viars. 1988. Penetration of pefloxacin into human brain tissue. Rev. Infect. Dis. 10:S257.
42. Krcmery, V., Jr.,, J. Filka,, J. Uher,, H. Kurak,, T. Sagat,, J. Tuharsky,, I. Novak,, T. Urbanova,, K. Kralinsky,, F. Mateicka,, T. Krcmeryova,, L. Jurga,, M. Sulcova,, J. Stencl,, and I. Krupova. 1999. Ciprofloxacin in treatment of nosocomial meningitis in neonates and in infants: report of 12 cases and review. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 35:7580.
43. Linder, N.,, R. Dagan,, J. Kuint,, N. Keler,, G. Keren,, and B. Reichman. 1994. Ventriculitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae successfully treated with pefloxacin in a neonate. Infection 22:210212.
44. Lu, C. H.,, W. N. Chang,, and Y. C. Chuang. 1999. Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in adult gramnegative bacillary meningitis. Infection 27:208211.
45. Lustar, I.,, A. Ahmed,, I. R. Friedland,, M. Trujillo,, L. Wubbel,, K. Olsen,, and G. H. McCracken, Jr. 1997. Pharmacodynamics and bactericidal activity of ceftriaxone therapy in experimental cephalosporin-resistant pneumococcal meningitis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:24142417.
46. Lutsar, I.,, I. R. Friedland,, H. S. Jafri,, L. Wubbel,, W. Ng,, F. Ghaffar,, and G. H. McCracken, Jr. 1999. Efficacy of gatifloxacin in experimental Escherichia coli meningitis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:18051807.
47. Lutsar, L.,, I. R. Friedland,, L. Wubbel,, C. C. McCoig,, H. S. Jafri,, W. Ng,, F. Ghaffar,, and G. H. McCracken, Jr. 1998. Pharmacodynamics of gatifloxacin in cerebrospinal fluid in experimental cephalosporin-resistant pneumococcal meningitis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:26502655.
48. Lutsar, I.,, G. H. McCracken,, Jr., and I. R. Friedland. 1998. Antibiotic pharmacodynamics in cerebrospinal fluid. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:11171129.
49. McClain, J. B.,, J. Rhoads,, and G. Krol. 1988. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of ciprofloxacin in subjects with uninflamed meninges. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 21:808809.
50. Michelet, C.,, J. L. Avril,, C. Arvieux,, C. Jacquelinet,, N. Vu,, and F. Cartier. 1997. Comparative activities of new fluoroquinolones, alone or in combination with amoxicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or rifampin, against intracellular Listeria monocytogenes . Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:6065.
51. Michelet, C.,, S. L. Leib,, D. Bentue-Ferrer,, and M. G. Tauber. 1999. Comparative efficacies of antibiotics in a rat model of meningoencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes . Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:16511656.
52. Millar, M. R.,, M. A. Bransby-Zachary,, D. S. Tompkins,, P. M. Hawkey,, and R. M. Gibson. 1986. Ciprofloxacin for Pseudomonas aeruginosa meningitis. Lancet i:325. (Letter.)
53. Modai, J. 1991. Potential role of fluoroquinolones in the treatment of bacterial meningitis. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 10:291295.
54. Montay, G.,, Y. Goueffon,, and F. Roquet. 1984. Absorption, distribution, metabolic fate, and elimination of pefloxacin mesylate in mice, rats, dogs, monkeys, and humans. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 25:463472.
55. Moretti, M. V.,, S. Pauluzzi,, and M. Cesana. 2000. Penetration of rufloxacin into the cerebrospinal fluid in patients with inflamed and uninflamed meninges. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:7377.
56. Nathan, B. R.,, and W. M. Scheld. The efficacy of trovafloxacin versus ceftriaxone in the treatment of experimental brain abscess/cerebritis in the rat. Life Sci., in press.
57. Nau, R.,, T. Schmidt,, K. Kaye,, J. L. Froula,, and M. G. Tauber. 1995. Quinolone antibiotics in therapy of experimental pneumococcal meningitis in rabbits. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:4953.
58. Norrby, S. R. 1988. 4-Quinolones in the treatment of infections of the central nervous system. Rev. Infect. Dis. 10:S253S255.
59. Odland, B. A.,, R. N. Jones,, J. Verhoef,, A. Fluit,, M. L. Beach, and the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Group. 1999. Antimicrobial activity of gatifloxacin (AM-1155, CG5501), and four other fluoroquinolones tested against 2,284 recent clinical strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Europe, Latin America, Canada, and the United States. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 34:315320.
60. O'Donnell, J. A.,, and S. P. Gelone. 2000. Fluoroquinolones. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 14:489513.
61. Ostergaard, C.,, T. K. Sorensen,, J. D. Knudsen,, and N. F. Moller. 1998. Evaluation of moxifloxacin, a new 8- methoxyquinolone, for treatment of meningitis caused by a penicillin-resistant Pneumococcus in rabbits. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:17061712.
62. Pioget, J. C.,, M. Wolff,, E. Singlas,, M. J. Laisne,, B. Clair,, B. Regnier,, and F. Vachon. 1989. Diffusion of ofloxacin into cerebrospinal fluid of patients with purulent meningitis or ventriculitis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:933936.
63. Price, E. H.,, J. de Louvois,, and M. R. Workman. 2000. Antibiotics for Salmonella meningitis in children. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 46:653655.
64. Pugsley, M. P.,, D. L. Dworzack,, J. S. Rocaforte,, C. C. Sanders,, J. S. Bakken,, and W. E. Sanders, Jr. 1988. An open study of the efficacy of a single dose of ciprofloxacin in eliminating the chronic nasopharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis . J. Infect. Dis. 157:852853. (Letter.)
65. Ragunathan, P. L.,, D. V. Potkins,, J. G. Watson,, A. M. Kearns,, and A. Carroll. 1990. Neonatal meningitis due to Salmonella typhimurium treated with ciprofloxacin. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 26:727728.
66. Renkonen, O. V.,, A. Sivonen,, and R. Visakorpi. 1987. Effect of ciprofloxacin on carrier rate of Neisseria meningitidis in army recruits in Finland. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:962963.
67. Rocha, P.,, C. Baleeiro,, and A. R. Tunkel. 2000. Impact of antimicrobial resistance on the treatment of invasive pneumococcal infections. Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 2:399408.
68. Rodoni, D.,, F. Hanni,, C. M. Gerber,, M. Cottagnoud,, K. Neftel,, M. G. Tauber,, and P. Cottagnoud. 1999. Trovafloxacin in combination with vancomycin against penicillin-resistant pneumococci in the rabbit meningitis model. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:963965.
69. Saez-Llorens, X.,, C. McCoig,, J. M. Feris,, S. L. Vargas,, K. P. Klugman,, G. D. Hussey,, R. W. Frenck,, L. H. Falleiros-Carvalho,, A. G. Arguedas,, J. Bradley,, A. C. Arrieta,, E. R. Wald,, S. Pancorbo,, G. H. McCracken, Jr., and the Trovan Meningitis Study Group. 2002. Quinolone treatment for pediatric bacterial meningitis: a comparative study of trovafloxacin and ceftriaxone with or without vancomycin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 21:1422.
70. Saez-Nieto, J. A.,, R. Lujan,, S. Berron,, J. Campos,, M. Vinas,, C. Fuste,, J. A. Vazquez,, Q. Y. Zhang,, L. D. Bowler,, J. V. Martinez- Suarez,, and B. G. Spratt. 1992. Epidemiology and molecular basis of peniciUin-resistant Neisseria meningitidis in Spain: a 5- year history (1985-1989). Clin. Infect. Dis. 14:394402.
71. Sande, M. A.,, R. A. Brooks-Fournier,, and J. L. Geberding. 1987. Efficacy of ciprofloxacin in animal models of infection: endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia. Am. J. Med. 82(Suppl. 4A):6366.
72. Sanders, W. E., Jr. 1988. Efficacy, safety, and potential economic benefits of oral ciprofloxacin in the treatment of infections. Rev. Infect. Dis. 10:528543.
73. Sarkar, S.,, M. Singh,, and A. Narang. 1993. Successful treatment of hospital acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis in a neonate with ciprofloxacin. Indian Pediatr. 30:913914.
74. Schact, P.,, G. Arcieri,, J. Branolte,, H. Brack,, V. Chysky,, E. Griffith,, G. Gurenwald,, R. Hullmann,, C. A. Konopka,, B. O'Brien,, V. Rahm,, T. Ryoki,, A. Westwood,, and H. Weuta. 1986. Worldwide clinical data on efficacy and safety of ciprofloxacin. Infection 16:S29S43.
75. Scheld, W. M. 1989. Quinolone therapy for infections of the central nervous system. Rev. Infect. Dis. 4:7483.
76. Scheld, W. M. 1991. Evaluation of quinolones in experimental animal models of infection. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 10:275290.
77. Schlech, W. F. III,, J. I. Ward,, J. D. Band,, A. Hightower,, D. W. Fraser,, and C. V. Broome. 1985. Bacterial meningitis in the United States. The national bacterial meningitis surveillance study. JAMA 253:17491754.
78. Schmidt, H.,, A. Dalhoff,, K. Stuertz,, F. Trostdorf,, V. Chen,, O. Schneider,, C. Kohlsdorfer,, W. Brack,, and R. Nau. 1998. Moxifloxacin in the therapy of experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:13971401.
79. Schmidt, T.,, and M. G. Tauber. 1993. Pharmacodynamics of antibiotics in the therapy of meningitis: infection model observations. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 31:6170.
80. Schonwald, S.,, I. Beus,, M. Lisic,, V. Car,, and B. Gmajnicki. 1989. Brief report: ciprofloxacin in the treatment of gramnegative bacillary meningitis. Am. J. Med. 87(Suppl. 5A):248S249S.
81. Schuchat, A.,, K. Robinson,, J. D. Wenger,, L. H. Harrison,, M. Farley,, A. L. Reingold,, L. Lefkowitz,, B. A. Perkins, for the Active Surveillance Team. 1997. Bacterial meningitis in the United States in 1995. N. Engl. J. Med. 337:970976.
82. Segev, S.,, A. Barzilai,, N. Rosen,, G. Joseph,, and E. Rubinstein. 1989. Pefloxacin treatment of meningitis caused by gram-negative bacteria. Arch. Intern. Med. 149: 13141316.
83. Segev, S.,, N. Rosen,, G. Joseph,, H. Alpern Elran,, and E. Rubinstein. 1990. Pefloxacin efficacy in gram-negative bacillary meningitis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 26(Suppl. B):187192.
84. Shapiro, M. A.,, K. D. Donovan,, and J. W. Gage. 2000. Comparative therapeutic efficacy of clinafloxacin in a pneumococcal meningitis mouse model. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 45:489492.
85. Shibl, A. M.,, C. J. Hackbarth,, and M. A. Sande. 1986. Evaluation of pefloxacin in experimental Escherichia coli meningitis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 29:409411.
86. Smirnov, A.,, A. Wellmer,, J. Gerber,, K. Maier,, S. Henne,, and R. Nau. 2000. Gemifloxacin is effective in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:767770.
87. Sobieski, M. W.,, and W. M. Scheld. 1985. Comparative activity of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin in experimental H. influenzae meningitis, abstr. 216. In Proceedings and Abstracts of the 25th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
88. Song, J.,, N. Y. Lee,, S. Ichiyama,, R. Yoshida,, Y. Hirakata,, W. Fu,, A. Chongthaleong,, N. Aswapokee,, C. H. Chiu,, M. K. Lalitha,, K. Thomas,, J. Perera,, T. T. Yee,, F. Jamal,, U. C. Warsa,, B. X. Vinh,, M. R. Jacobs,, P. C. Appelbaum,, C. H. Pai, and the ANSORP Study Group. 1999. Streptococcus pneumoniae in Asian countries: Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP). Clin. Infect. Dis. 28:12061211.
89. Stahl, J. P.,, J. Croize,, M. A. Lefebvre,, J. P. Bra,, A. Guyot,, D. Leduc,, J. B. Fourtillan,, and M. Micoud. 1986. Diffusion of ofloxacin into the cerebrospinal fluid in patients with bacterial meningitis. Infection 14:S254S255.
90. Stubner, G.,, W. Weinrich,, and U. Brands. 1986. Study of the cerebrospinal fluid penetration of ofloxacin. Infection 14:S250S253.
91. Taeger, K.,, E. Wiethoff,, G. Mahr,, R. Seelmann,, T. Lohr,, and F. Sorgel. 1990. Penetration of temafloxacin into cerebrospinal fluid, abstr. 363. In Proceedings 3rd International Symposium New Quinolones.
92. Tho, T. V.,, A. Armengaud,, and B. Davet. 1984. Diffusion of enoxacin into the cerebrospinal fluid in dogs with healthy meninges and with experimental meningitis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 14(Suppl. C):5762.
93. Tunkel, A. R.,, and W. M. Scheld. 1989. Applications of therapy in animal models to bacterial infection in human disease. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 3:441459.
94. Tunkel, A. R.,, and W. M. Scheld. 1991. Ofloxacin. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 12:549557.
95. Valainis, G.,, D. Thomas,, and G. Pankey. 1986. Penetration of ciprofloxacin into cerebrospinal fluid. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 5:206207.
96. Visakorpi, R. 1989. Ciprofloxacin in meningococcal carriers. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. Suppl. 60:108111.
97. Visudhiphan, P.,, S. Chiemchanya,, and A. Visutibhan. 1998. Salmonella meningitis in Thai infants: clinical case reports. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 92:181184.
98. Wenger, J. D.,, A. W. Hightower,, R. R. Facklam,, S. Gaventa,, C. V. Broome, and the Bacterial Meningitis Study Group. 1990. Bacterial meningitis in the United States, 1986: report of a multistate surveillance study. J. Infect. Dis. 162:13161323.
99. Wessalowski, R.,, L. Thomas,, J. Kivit,, and T. Voit. 1993. Multiple brain abscesses caused by Salmonella enteritidis in a neonate: successful treatment with ciprofloxacin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 12:683688.
100. Wolff, M.,, L. Boutron,, E. Singlas,, B. Clair,, J. M. Decazes,, and B. Regnier. 1987. Penetration of ciprofloxacin into cerebrospinal fluid of patients with bacterial meningitis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:899902.
101. Wolff, M.,, B. Regnier,, C. Daldoss,, M. Nkam,, and F. Yachon. 1984. Penetration of pefloxacin into cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 26:289291.
102. Wong-Beringer, A.,, P. Beringer,, and M. A. Lovett. 1997. Successful treatment of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa meningitis with high-dose ciprofloxacin. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25:936937.
103. Workman, M. R.,, E. H. Price,, and P. Bullock. 1999. Salmonella meningitis and multiple cerebral abscesses in an infant. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 13:131132.
104. Workmann, G. W.,, and S. P. Bennett. 1999. Fatal meningitis due to levofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae . Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:15991600.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

In vitro activities of selected fluoroquinolones against major meningeal pathogens

Citation: Tunkel A, Scheld W. 2003. Treatment of Bacterial Meningitis and Other Central Nervous System Infections, p 275-289. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch17
Generic image for table
Table 2

Percent penetration of selected antimicrobial agents and fluoroquinolones into CSF of rabbits and humans with meningitis

Citation: Tunkel A, Scheld W. 2003. Treatment of Bacterial Meningitis and Other Central Nervous System Infections, p 275-289. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch17
Generic image for table
Table 3

Results of clinical trials of fluoroquinolones in patients with bacterial meningitis

Citation: Tunkel A, Scheld W. 2003. Treatment of Bacterial Meningitis and Other Central Nervous System Infections, p 275-289. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch17
Generic image for table
Table 4

Evaluation of ciprofloxacin in eradication of from nasopharyngeal carriers

Citation: Tunkel A, Scheld W. 2003. Treatment of Bacterial Meningitis and Other Central Nervous System Infections, p 275-289. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch17

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error