1887

Chapter 23 : Quinolone Resistance and Its Clinical Relevance

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Quinolone Resistance and Its Clinical Relevance, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817817/9781555812317_Chap23-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817817/9781555812317_Chap23-2.gif

Abstract:

Although the introduction of the quinolones proved to be a major therapeutic advance, shortly after their introduction resistance in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria was reported and in some circumstances was dramatic. This chapter focuses on important examples of where resistance has emerged to the fluoroquinolones, the factors responsible, and how this resistance has affected patient management. One possible driver of fluoroquinolone resistance in pneumococci may have been the use of fluoroquinolones, with marginal pneumococcal activity, for respiratory tract infections. Once clinical failures were recognized to occur when ciprofloxacin was used for the treatment of pneumococcal infections, it was no longer promoted or widely used for the treatment of pneumococcal infections, including community-acquired pneumonia. In most countries, reporting increasing ciprofloxacin resistance has been the result of the emergence of de novo resistance in many different serotypes. Ciprofloxacin resistance was more prevalent among erythromycin-nonsusceptible group A streptococci than among erythromycin-susceptible ones. Food-borne infections are an important cause of illness and hospitalization in developing and developed countries. The reason for the differences in the ease of acquisition of fluoroquinolone resistance in methicillin-resistant (MRSA), as compared with methicillin-susceptible (MSSA), has not yet been elucidated. This difference may be explained in part by the dissemination of clonal strains, coselection of MRSA with other antimicrobial agents, the more frequent use of fluoroquinolones to treat patients colonized/infected with MRSA, as opposed to MSSA, and/or as yet unrecognized genetic traits.

Citation: Low D. 2003. Quinolone Resistance and Its Clinical Relevance, p 355-386. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch23
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

The prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant (MIC, ≥ 4 µg/ml) and levofloxacin-nonsusceptible (MIC, ≥ 4 μg/ml) worldwide. Adapted from references , and .

Citation: Low D. 2003. Quinolone Resistance and Its Clinical Relevance, p 355-386. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch23
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Fluoroquinolone prescriptions per capita (curve) and frequency of pneumococci with ciprofloxacin MICs of ≥ 4 µg/ml in Canada according to the patient's age (bars). Reprinted from reference with permission. © 1999 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.

Citation: Low D. 2003. Quinolone Resistance and Its Clinical Relevance, p 355-386. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch23
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

The increasing prevalence and MICs of resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC, ≥ 4 µg/ml) in Canada. The hatched, white, and black bars represent isolates for which the MICs were 4, 8 and 16, and > 16 µg/ml, respectively. Reprinted from Clinical Infectious Diseases ( ) with permission from University of Chicago Press.

Citation: Low D. 2003. Quinolone Resistance and Its Clinical Relevance, p 355-386. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch23
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance among serovar Choleraesuis isolates in Taiwan. Shown here are the total quarterly numbers of serovar Choleraesuis isolates from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung Children's Hospital from the fourth quarter of 1996 through the third quarter of 2001 (bars) and the percentage of these isolates that were resistant to ciprofloxacin (curve). Ciprofloxacin was not available in these hospitals before October 1996. Reprinted from reference with permission. © 2002 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.

Citation: Low D. 2003. Quinolone Resistance and Its Clinical Relevance, p 355-386. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch23
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Prevalence of with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC, > 0.06 μg/ml). Adapted from references .

Citation: Low D. 2003. Quinolone Resistance and Its Clinical Relevance, p 355-386. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch23
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

Prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in . Adapted from references .

Citation: Low D. 2003. Quinolone Resistance and Its Clinical Relevance, p 355-386. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch23
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 7
Figure 7

Prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant (MIC, ≥4 μg/ml) in the hospital and community. Adapted from references .

Citation: Low D. 2003. Quinolone Resistance and Its Clinical Relevance, p 355-386. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch23
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817817.chap23
1. Acar, J. F.,, and F. W. Goldstein. 1997. Trends in bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolones. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24(Suppl. 1):S67S73.
2. Adewoye, L. 2002. Personal communication.
3. Adler-Mosca, H.,, J. Luthy-Hottenstein,, L. G. Martinetti,, A. Burnens,, and M. Altwegg. 1991. Development of resistance to quinolones in five patients with campylobacteriosis treated with norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 10:953957.
4. Akkina, J. E.,, A. T. Hogue,, F. J. Angulo,, R. Johnson,, K. E. Petersen,, P. K. Saini,, P. J. Fedorka-Cray,, and W. D. Schlosser. 1999. Epidemiologic aspects, control, and importance of multiple- drug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DTI 04 in the United States.J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 214:790798.
5. Alou, L.,, M. Ramirez,, C. Garcia-Rey,, J. Prieto,, and H. de Lencastre. 2001. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Spain: clonal diversity and appearance of ciprofloxacin-resistant epidemic clones. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:29552957.
6. Ambrose, P. G.,, D. M. Grasela,, T. H. Grasela,, J. Passarell,, H. B. Mayer,, and P. F. Pierce. 2001. Pharmacodynamics of fluoroquinolones against Streptococcus pneumoniae in patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:27932797.
7. Anzueto, A.,, M. S. Niederman,, and G. S. Tillotson, for the Bronchitis Study Group. 1998. Etiology, susceptibility, and treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of complicated chronic bronchitis in the primary care setting: ciprofloxacin 750 mg b.i.d. versus clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. Clin. Ther. 20:885900.
8. Aplasca De Los Reyes, M. R.,, V. Pato-Mesola,, J. D. Klausner,, R. Manalastas,, T. Wi,, C. U. Tuazon,, G. Dallabetta,, W. L. Whittington,, and K. K. Holmes. 2001. A randomized trial of ciprofloxacin versus cefixime for treatment of gonorrhea after rapid emergence of gonococcal ciprofloxacin resistance in The Philippines. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:13131318.
9. Asperilla, M. O.,, R. A. Smego, Jr.,, and L. K. Scott. 1990. Quinolone antibiotics in the treatment of Salmonella infections. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12:873889.
10. Bachoual, R.,, S. Ouabdesselam,, F. Mory,, C. Lascols,, C. J. Soussy,, and J. Tankovic. 2001. Single or double mutational alterations of gyrA associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Microb. Drug Resist. 7:257261.
11. Ball, A. P. 1986. Overview of clinical experience with ciprofloxacin. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 5:214219.
12. Baquero, F. 2001. Low-level antibacterial resistance: a gateway to clinical resistance. Drug Resist. Update 4:93105.
13. Barriere, S. L.,, and J. A. Hindler. 1993. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae infection in a patient with chronic lung disease. Ann. Pharmacother. 27:309310.
14. Barry, A. L.,, P. C. Fuchs,, and S. D. Brown. 2001. In vitro activities of three nonfluorinated quinolones against representative bacterial isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:19231927.
15. Barry, A. L.,, P. C. Fuchs,, M. A. Pfaller,, S. D. Allen,, and E. H. Gerlach. 1990. Prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant bacterial isolates in four medical centers during the first quarter of 1990. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 9:906908.
16. Barry, A. L.,, and R. N. Jones. 1987. In vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against gram-positive cocci. Am. J. Med. 82:2732.
17. Bartlett, J. G.,, S. F. Dowell,, L. A. Mandell,, T. M. File, Jr.,, D. M. Musher,, and A. Fine. 2000. Practice guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31:347382.
18. Bast, D. J.,, J. C. de Azavedo,, T. Y. Tam,, L. Kilburn,, C. Duncan,, L. A. Mandell,, R. J. Davidson,, and D. E. Low. 2001. Interspecies recombination contributes minimally to fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:26312634.
19. Baum, H. V.,, U. Franz,, and H. K. Geiss. 2000. Prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli in hematologic-oncologic patients. Infection 28:278281.
20. Bebear, C. M.,, H. Renaudin,, A. Bryskier,, and C. Bebear. 2000. Comparative activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647), levofloxacin, and other antimicrobial agents against human mycoplasmas. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:19801982.
21. Bebear, C. M.,, J. Renaudin,, A. Charron,, H. Renaudin,, B. de Barbeyrac,, T. Schaeverbeke,, and C. Bebear. 1999. Mutations in the gyrA, parC, and parE genes associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Mycoplasma hominis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:954956.
22. Bennish, M. L.,, M. A. Salam,, M. A. Hossain,, J. Myaux,, E. H. Khan,, J. Chakraborty,, F. Henry,, and C. Ronsmans. 1992. Antimicrobial resistance of Shigella isolates in Bangladesh, 1983-1990: increasing frequency of strains multiply resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and nalidixic acid. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14:10551060.
23. Berglund, T.,, M. Unemo,, P. Olcen,, J. Giesecke,, and H. Fredlund. 2002. One year of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Sweden: the prevalence study of antibiotic susceptibility shows relation to the geographic area of exposure. Int. J. STD AIDS 13:109114.
24. Bhuiyan, B. U.,, R. A. Miah,, M. Rahman,, K. M. Rahman,, and M. J. Albert. 1998. High prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance amongst strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated from commercial sex workers in Bangladesh. J Antimicrob. Chemother. 42:675676.
25. Bhuiyan, B. U.,, M. Rahman,, M. R. Miah,, S. Nahar,, N. Islam,, M. Ahmed,, K. M. Rahman,, and M. J. Albert. 1999. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and plasmid contents of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from commercial sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: emergence of high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin.J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:11301136.
26. Biedenbach, D. J.,, and R. N. Jones. 2000. Fluoroquinoloneresistant Haemophilus influenzae: frequency of occurrence and analysis of confirmed strains in the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (North and Latin America). Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 36:255259.
27. Biedenbach, D. J.,, R. N. Jones,, and M. A. Pfaller. 2001. Activity of BMS284756 against 2,681 recent clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis: report from The SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2000) in Europe, Canada and the United States. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 39:245250.
28. Biswal, N.,, B. Mathai,, B. D. Bhatia,, S. Srinivasan,, and P. Nalini. 1994. Enteric fever: a changing perspective. Indian Pediatr. 31:813819.
29. Blanco, J. E.,, M. Blanco,, A. Mora,, and J. Blanco. 1997. Prevalence of bacterial resistance to quinolones and other antimicrobials among avian Escherichia coli strains isolated from septicemic and healthy chickens in Spain. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:21842185.
30. Blondeau, J. M.,, Y. Yaschuk,, M. Suter,, and D. Vaughan, for the Canadian Antimicrobial Study Group. 1999. In-vitro susceptibility of 1982 respiratory tract pathogens and 1921 urinary tract pathogens against 19 antimicrobial agents: a Canadian multicentre study. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 43(Suppl. A):323.
31. Blondeau, J. M.,, Y. Yaschuk, and The Canadian Ciprofloxacin Study Group. 1996. Canadian ciprofloxacin susceptibility study: comparative study from 15 medical centers. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:17291732.
32. Blumberg, H. M.,, D. Rimland,, D. J. Carroll,, P. Terry,, and I. K. Wachsmuth. 1991. Rapid development of ciprofloxacin resistance in methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J. Infect. Dis. 163:12791285.
33. Bochud, P. Y.,, P. Eggiman,, T. Calandra,, G. Van Melle,, L. Saghafi,, and P. Francioli. 1994. Bacteremia due to viridans streptococcus in neutropenic patients with cancer: clinical spectrum and risk factors. Clin. Infect. Dis. 18:2531.
34. Bowler, I.,, and D. Day. 1992. Emerging quinolone resistance in Campylobacters. Lancet 340:245.
35. Brown, J. C.,, P. M. Shanahan,, M. V. Jesudason,, C. J. Thomson,, and S. G. Amyes. 1996. Mutations responsible for reduced susceptibility to 4-quinolones in clinical isolates of multi-resistant Salmonella typhi in India. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 37:891900.
36. Campos, J.,, F. Roman,, M. Georgiou,, C. Garcia,, R. Gomez- Lus,, R. Canton,, H. Escobar,, and F. Baquero. 1996. Longterm persistence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae in patients with cystic fibrosis. J. Infect. Dis. 174:13451347.
37. Canawati, H. N.,, R. el Farra,, J. Seymour,, J. Shimashita,, D. Dunn,, and J. Z. Montgomerie. 1997. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli emerging in a rehabilitation medical center. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 29:133138.
38. Carmeli, Y.,, N. Troillet,, G. M. Eliopoulos,, and M. H. Samore. 1999. Emergence of antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: comparison of risks associated with different antipseudomonal agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:13791382.
39. Carratala, J.,, A. Fernandez-Sevilla,, F. Tubau,, M. Callis,, and F. Gudiol. 1995. Emergence of quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli bacteremia in neutropenic patients with cancer who have received prophylactic norfloxacin. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20:557560.
40.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1989. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 38(Suppl. 8):l43.
41.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1993. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 42:1102.
42.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1995. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Colorado and Washington. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 44:761764.
43.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Fluoroquinolone-resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Hawaii, 1999, and decreased susceptibility to azithromycin in N. gonorrhoeae , Missouri. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49:833837.
44.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2001. Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to fluoro quinolones, United States, 1995-1999. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 50:800804.
45. Chandel, D. S.,, R. Chaudhry,, B. Dhawan,, A. Pandey,, and A. B. Dey. 2000. Drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi A in India. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 6:420421.
46. Cheasty, T.,, J. A. Skinner,, B. Rowe,, and E. J. Threlfall. 1998. Increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance in shigellas from humans in England and Wales: recommendations for therapy. Microb. Drug Resist. 4:5760.
47. Chen, D.,, A. McGeer,, J. C. de Azavedo,, and D. E. Low, for The Canadian Bacterial Surveillance Network. 1999. Decreased susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae to fluoroquinolones in Canada. N. Engl. J. Med. 341:233239.
48. Chen, F. J.,, L. C. McDonald,, M. Ho,, and H. J. Lo. 2001. Identification of reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Escherichia coli: a herald for emerging resistance. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 48:936938.
49. Cherifi, A.,, M. Contrepois,, B. Picard,, P. Goullet,, I. Orskov,, and F. Orskov. 1994. Clonal relationships among Escherichia coli serogroup O78 isolates from human and animal infections.J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:11971202.
50. Chin, N. X.,, N. Clynes,, and H. C. Neu. 1989. Resistance to ciprofloxacin appearing during therapy. Am. J. Med. 87:28S31S.
51. Chiu, C. H.,, T. L. Wu,, L. H. Su,, C. Chu,, J. H. Chia,, A. J. Kuo,, M. S. Chien,, and T. Y. Lin. 2002. The emergence in Taiwan of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype choleraesuis. N. Engl. J. Med. 346:413419.
52. Chodosh, S.,, A. Schreurs,, G. Siami,, H. W. Barkman,, A. Anzueto,, M. Shan,, H. Moesker,, T. Stack,, and S. Kowalsky, for the Bronchitis Study Group. 1998. Efficacy of oral ciprofloxacin vs. clarithromycin for treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:730738.
53. Chodosh, S.,, A. Schreurs,, G. Siami,, H. W. J. Barkman,, A. Anzueto,, M. Shan,, H. Moesker,, T. Stack,, and S. Kowalsky, for the Bronchitis Study Group. 1998. Efficacy of oral ciprofloxacin vs. clarithromycin for treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:730738.
54. Cizman, M.,, A. Orazem,, V. Krizan-Hergouth,, and J. Kolman. 2001. Correlation between increased consumption of fluoroquinolones in outpatients and resistance of Escherichia coli from urinary tract infections. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 47:502.
55. Classen, D. C.,, J. P. Burke,, C. D. Ford,, S. Evershed,, M. R. Aloia,, J. K. Wilfahrt,, and J. A. Elliott. 1990. Streptococcus mitis sepsis in bone marrow transplant patients receiving oral antimicrobial prophylaxis. Am. J. Med. 89:441446.
56. Collin, B. A.,, H. L. Leather,, J. R. Wingard,, and R. Ramphal. 2001. Evolution, incidence, and susceptibility of bacterial bloodstream isolates from 519 bone marrow transplant patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33:947953.
57. Cometta, A.,, T. Calandra,, J. Bille,, and M. P. Glauser. 1994. Escherichia coli resistant to fluoroquinolones in patients with cancer and neutropenia. N. Engl. J. Med. 330:12401241.
58. Cooper, B.,, and M. Lawlor. 1989. Pneumococcal bacteremia during ciprofloxacin therapy for pneumococcal pneumonia. Am. J. Med. 87:475.
59. Craig, W. A. 1998. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters: rationale for antibacterial dosing of mice and men. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:112.
60. Craig, W. A. 2001. Does the dose matter? Clin. Infect. Dis. 33(Suppl. 3):S233S237.
61. Cruciani, M.,, R. Rampazzo,, M. Malena,, L. Lazzarini,, G. Todeschini,, A. Messori,, and E. Concia. 1996. Prophylaxis with fluoroquinolones for bacterial infections in neutropenic patients: a meta-analysis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23:795805.
62. Cunliffe, N. A.,, F. X. Emmanuel,, and C. J. Thomson. 1995. Lower respiratory tract infection due to ciprofloxacin resistant Moraxella catarrhalis . J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 36:273274. (Letter.)
63. Daga, M. K.,, K. Sarin,, and R. Sarkar. 1994. A study of culture positive multidrug resistant enteric fever—changing pattern and emerging resistance to ciprofloxacin. J. Assoc. Physicians India 42:599600.
64. Dan, M.,, F. Poch,, and B. Sheinberg. 2002. High prevalence of high-level ciprofloxacin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Tel Aviv, Israel: correlation with response to therapy. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:16711673.
65. Davidson, R.,, R. Cavalcanti,, J. L. Brunton,, D. J. Bast,, J. C. de Azavedo,, P. Kibsey,, C. Fleming,, and D. E. Low. 2002. Resistance to levofloxacin and failure of treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia. N. Engl. J. Med. 346:747750.
66. Davies, A.,, P. O'Neill,, L. Towers,, and M. Cooke. 1996. An outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium DTI 04 food poisoning associated with eating beef. Commun. Dis. Rep. CDR Rev. 6:R159R162.
67. Davies, B. I.,, F. P. Maesen,, and C. Baur. 1986. Ciprofloxacin in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 5:226231.
68. Davies, T. A.,, A. Evangelista,, S. Pfleger,, K. Bush,, D. F. Sahm,, and R. Goldschmidt. 2002. Prevalence of single mutations in topoisomerase type II genes among levofloxacin-susceptible clinical strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in the United States in 1992 to 1996 and 1999 to 2000. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:119124.
69. Daza, R.,, J. Gutierrez,, and G. Piedrola. 2001. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial strains isolated from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 18:211215.
70. de Azavedo, J. C.,, L. Trpeski,, S. Pong-Porter,, S. Matsumura,, and D. E. Low. 1999. In vitro activities of fluoroquinolones against antibiotic-resistant blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci from across Canada. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:22992301.
71. Deeks, S. L.,, R. Palacio,, R. Ruvinsky,, D. A. Kertesz,, M. Hortal,, A. Rossi,, J. S. Spika,, and J. L. Di Fabio, for The Streptococcus pneumoniae Working Group. 1999. Risk factors and course of illness among children with invasive penicillin- resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pediatrics 103:409413.
72. Dessus-Babus, S.,, C. M. Bebear,, A. Charron,, C. Bebear,, and B. de Barbeyrac. 1998. Sequencing of gyrase and topoisomerase IV quinolone-resistance-determining regions of Chlamydia trachomatis and characterization of quinoloneresistant mutants obtained in vitro. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:24742481.
73. Diekema, D. J.,, M. L. Beach,, M. A. Pfaller,, and R. N. Jones. 2001. Antimicrobial resistance in viridans group streptococci among patients with and without the diagnosis of cancer in the USA, Canada and Latin America. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 7:152157.
74. Diekema, D. J.,, M. A. Pfaller,, R. N. Jones,, G. V. Doern,, P. L. Winokur,, A. C. Gales,, H. S. Sader,, K. Kugler,, and M. Beach. 1999. Survey of bloodstream infections due to gramnegative bacilli: frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected in the United States, Canada, and Latin America for the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:595607.
75. DiPersio, J. R.,, R. N. Jones,, T. Barrett,, G. V. Doern,, and M. A. Pfaller. 1998. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Moraxella catarrhalis in a patient with pneumonia: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1998). Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 32:131135.
76. Doern, G. V.,, M. J. Ferraro,, A. B. Brueggemann,, and K. L. Ruoff. 1996. Emergence of high rates of antimicrobial resistance among viridans group streptococci in the United States. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:891894.
77. Doern, G. V.,, K. P. Heilmann,, H. K. Huynh,, P. R. Rhomberg,, S. L. Cofrman,, and A. B. Brueggemann. 2001. Antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States during 1999-2000, including a comparison of resistance rates since 1994-1995. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:17211729.
78. Dowson, C. G.,, T. J. Coffey,, and B. G. Spratt. 1994. Origin and molecular epidemiology of penicillin-binding-proteinmediated resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Trends Microbiol. 2:361366.
79. Edmond, M. B.,, S. E. Wallace,, D. K. McClish,, M. A. Pfaller,, R. N. Jones,, and R. P. Wenzel. 1999. Nosocomial bloodstream infections in United States hospitals: a three- year analysis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:239244.
80. El Amari, E. B.,, E. Chamot,, R. Auckenthaler,, J. C. Pechere,, and C. Van Delden. 2001. Influence of previous exposure to antibiotic therapy on the susceptibility pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremic isolates. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33:18591864.
81. Empey, P. E.,, H. R. Jennings,, A. C. Thornton,, R. P. Rapp,, and M. E. Evans. 2001. Levofloxacin failure in a patient with pneumococcal pneumonia. Ann. Pharmacother. 35:687690.
82. Emre, S.,, A. Sebastian,, L. Chodoff,, P. Boccagni,, B. Meyers,, P. A. Sheiner,, E. Mor,, S. R. Guy,, E. Atillasoy,, M. E. Schwartz,, and C. M. Miller. 1999. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract helps prevent bacterial infections in the early postoperative period after liver transplant. Mt. Sinai J. Med. 66:310313.
83. Ena, J.,, M. M. Lopez-Perezagua,, C. Martinez-Peinado,, M. A. Cia-Barrio,, and I. Ruiz-Lopez. 1998. Emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in Escherichia coli isolates after widespread use of fluoroquinolones. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 30:103107.
84. Endtz, H. P.,, G. J. Ruijs,, B. van Klingeren,, W. H. Jansen,, R. T. van der,, and R. P. Mouton. 1991. Quinolone resistance in Campylobacter isolated from man and poultry following the introduction of fluoroquinolones in veterinary medicine. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 27:199208.
85. Engberg, J.,, F. M. Aarestrup,, D. E. Taylor,, P. Gerner-Smidt,, and I. Nachamkin. 2001. Quinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli: resistance mechanisms and trends in human isolates. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:2434.
86. Fass, R. J. 1987. Efficacy and safety of oral ciprofloxacin in the treatment of serious respiratory infections. Am. J. Med. 82:202207.
87. Fernandez, H.,, M. Mansilla,, and V. Gonzalez. 2000. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni assessed by E-test and double dilution agar method in Southern Chile. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 95:247249.
88. Ferrandiz, M. J.,, A. Fenoll,, J. Linares,, and A. G. De La Campa. 2000. Horizontal transfer of parC and gyrA in fluoroquinolone- resistant clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:840847.
89. File, T. M., Jr.,, J. Segreti,, L. Dunbar,, R. Player,, R. Kohler,, R. R. Williams,, C. Kojak,, and A. Rubin. 1997. A multicenter, radomized study comparing the efficacy and safety of intravenous and/or oral levofloxacin versus ceftriaxone and/or cefuroxime axetil in treatment of adults with community- acquired pneumonia. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:19651972.
90. Fink, M. P.,, D. R. Snydman,, M. S. Niederman,, K. V. Leeper, Jr.,, R. H. Johnson,, S. O. Heard,, R. G. Wunderink,, J. W. Caldwell,, J. J. Schentag,, and G. A. Siami, for The Severe Pneumonia Study Group. 1994. Treatment of severe pneumonia in hospitalized patients: results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial comparing intravenous ciprofloxacin with imipenem-cilastatin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:547557.
91. Fluit, A. C.,, M. E. Jones,, F. J. Schmitz,, J. Acar,, R. Gupta,, and J. Verhoef. 2000. Antimicrobial susceptibility and frequency of occurrence of clinical blood isolates in Europe from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program, 1997 and 1998. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30:454460.
92. Forrest, A.,, D. E. Nix,, C. H. Ballow,, T. F. Goss,, M. C. Birmingham,, and J. J. Schentag. 1993. Pharmacodynamics of intravenous ciprofloxacin in seriously ill patients. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:10731081.
93. Fridkin, S. K.,, H. A. Hill,, N. V. Volkova,, J. R. Edwards,, R. M. Lawton,, R. P. Gaynes,, and J. E. McGowan, Jr. 2002. Temporal changes in prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in 23 US hospitals. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:697701.
94. Frost, J. A.,, A. Kelleher,, and B. Rowe. 1996. Increasing ciprofloxacin resistance in salmonellas in England and Wales 1991-1994. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 37:8591.
95. Gales, A. C.,, R. N. Jones,, J. Turnidge,, R. Rennie,, and R. Ramphal. 2001. Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates: occurrence rates, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and molecular typing in the global SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997-1999. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32(Suppl.2):S146S155.
96. Garau, J.,, M. Xercavins,, M. Rodriguez-Carballeira,, J. R. Gomez-Vera,, I. Coll,, D. Vidal,, T. Llovet,, and A. Ruiz- Bremon. 1999. Emergence and dissemination of quinoloneresistant Escherichia coli in the community. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:27362741.
97. Gaunt, P. N.,, and L. J. Piddock. 1996. Ciprofloxacin resistant Campylobacter spp. in humans: an epidemiological and laboratory study. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 37:747757.
98. Gershon, A. S.,, J. C. de Azavedo,, A. McGeer,, K. I. Ostrowska,, D. Church,, D. J. Hoban,, G. K. Harding,, K. Weiss,, L. Abbott,, F. Smaill,, M. Gourdeau,, G. Murray,, and D. E. Low. 2002. Activities of new fluoroquinolones, ketolides, and other antimicrobials against blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci from across Canada, 2000. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:15531556.
99. Ghosh, A. S.,, J. Ahamed,, K. K. Chauhan,, and M. Kundu. 1998. Involvement of an efflux system in high-level fluoroquinolone resistance of Shigella dysenteriae. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 242:5456.
100. Giamarellou, H.,, H. P. Bassaris,, G. Petrikkos,, W. Busch,, M. Voulgarelis,, A. Antoniadou,, E. Grouzi,, and N. Zoumbos. 2000. Monotherapy with intravenous followed by oral highdose ciprofloxacin versus combination therapy with ceftazidime plus amikacin as initial empiric therapy for granulocytopenic patients with fever. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:32643271.
101. Gibb, A. P.,, C. S. Lewin,, and O. J. Garden. 1991. Development of quinolone resistance and multiple antibiotic resistance in Salmonella bovismorbificans in a pancreatic abscess.J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 28:318321.
102. Gibreel, A.,, E. Sjogren,, B. Kaijser,, B. Wretlind,, and O. Skold. 1998. Rapid emergence of high-level resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni associated with mutational changes in gyrA and parC. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:32763278.
103. Gillespie, S. H.,, and A. Dickens. 2002. Variation in mutation rate of quinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. 3rd International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Disease . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga.
104. Gillespie, S. H.,, L. L. Voelker,, and A. Dickens. 2002. Evolutionary barriers to quinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Microb. Drug Resist. 8:7984.
105. Giraud, E.,, A. Brisabois,, J. L. Martel,, and E. Chaslus- Dancla. 1999. Comparative studies of mutations in animal isolates and experimental in vitro- and in vivo-selected mutants of Salmonella spp. suggest a counterselection of highly fluoroquinolone-resistant strains in the field. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:21312137.
106. Giraud, E.,, A. Cloeckaert,, D. Kerboeuf,, and E. Chaslus-Dancla. 2000. Evidence for active efflux as the primary mechanism of resistance to ciprofloxacin in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:12231228.
107. Giraud, E.,, S. Leroy-Setrin,, G. Flaujac,, A. Cloeckaert,, M. Dho-Moulin,, and E. Chaslus-Dancla. 2001. Characterization of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli O78:K80 isolated from turkeys. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 47:341343.
108. Glynn, M. K.,, C. Bopp,, W. Dewitt,, P. Dabney,, M. Mokhtar,, and F. J. Angulo. 1998. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium DTI04 infections in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med. 338:13331338.
109. Goettsch, W.,, W. van Pelt,, N. Nagelkerke,, M. G. Hendrix,, A. G. Buiting,, P. L. Petit,, L. J. Sabbe,, A. J. van Griethuysen,, and A. J. de Neeling. 2000. Increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones in Escherichia coli from urinary tract infections in the Netherlands. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 46:223228.
110. Goldsmith, C. E.,, J. E. Moore,, P. G. Murphy,, and J. E. Ambler. 1998. Increased incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance in penicillin-resistant pneumococci in Northern Ireland. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 41:420421. (Letter.)
111. Gonzalez, M. A.,, F. Uribe,, S. D. Moisen,, A. P. Fuster,, A. Selen,, P. G. Welling,, and B. Painter. 1984. Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of ciprofloxacin in normal volunteers. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 26:741744.
112. Goodman, L. J.,, G. M. Trenholme,, R. L. Kaplan,, J. Segreti,, D. Hines,, R. Petrak,, J. A. Nelson,, K. W. Mayer,, W. Landau,, G. W. Parkhurst,, and S. Levin. 1990. Empiric antimicrobial therapy of domestically acquired acute diarrhea in urban adults. Arch. Intern. Med 150:541546.
113. Gordon, J. J.,, and C. A. Kauffman. 1990. Superinfection with Streptococcus pneumoniae during therapy with ciprofloxacin. Am. J. Med. 89:383384.
114. Gordon, S. M.,, C. J. Carlyn,, L. J. Doyle,, C. C. Knapp,, D. L. Longworth,, G. S. Hall,, and J. A. Washington. 1996. The emergence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Cleveland, Ohio: epidemiology and risk factors. Ann. Intern. Med. 125:465470.
115. Gould, I. M.,, K. J. Forbes,, and G. S. Gordon. 1994. Quinolone resistant Haemophilus influenzae. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 33:187188.
116. Gransden, W. R.,, C. A. Warren,, I. Phillips,, M. Hodges,, and D. Barlow. 1990. Decreased susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to ciprofloxacin. Lancet 335:51.
117. Greenberg, R. N.,, D. J. Kennedy,, P. M. Reilly,, K. L. Luppen,, W. J. Weinandt,, M. R. Bollinger,, F. Aguirre,, F. Kodesch,, and A. M. Saeed. 1987. Treatment of bone, joint, and soft-tissue infections with oral ciprofloxacin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:151155.
118. Griggs, D. J.,, K. Gensberg,, and L. J. Piddock. 1996. Mutations in gyrA gene of quinolone-resistant Salmonella serotypes isolated from humans and animals. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:10091013.
119. Guerin, F.,, E. Varon,, A. B. Hoi,, L. Gutmann,, and I. Podglajen. 2000. Fluoroquinolone resistance associated with target mutations and active efflux in oropharyngeal colonizing isolates of viridans group streptococci. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:21972200.
120. Haddow, A.,, S. Greene,, G. Heinz,, and D. Wantuck. 1989. Ciprofloxacin (intravenous/oral) versus ceftazidime in lower respiratory tract infections. Am. J Med. 87:113S115S.
121. Hakanen, A.,, P. Kotilainen,, P. Huovinen,, H. Helenius,, and A. Siitonen. 2001. Reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Salmonella enterica serotypes in travelers returning from southeast Asia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:9961003.
122. Hakanen, A.,, P. Kotilainen,, J. Jalava,, A. Siitonen,, and P. Huovinen. 1999. Detection of decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility in salmonellas and validation of nalidixic acid screening test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:35723577.
123. Hakenbeck, R.,, N. Balmelle,, B. Weber,, C. Gardes,, W. Keck,, and A. de Saizieu. 2001. Mosaic genes and mosaic chromosomes: intra- and interspecies genomic variation of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 69:24772486.
124. Hamer, D. H.,, and C. J. Gill. 2002. From the farm to the kitchen table: the negative impact of antimicrobial use in animals on humans. Nutr. Rev. 60:261264.
125. Hampton, M. D.,, L. R. Ward,, B. Rowe,, and E. J. Threlfall. 1998. Molecular fingerprinting of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4:317320.
126. Harbarth, S.,, A. D. Harris,, Y. Carmeli,, and M. H. Samore. 2001. Parallel analysis of individual and aggregated data on antibiotic exposure and resistance in gram-negative bacilli. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33:14621468.
127. Harris, A.,, C. Torres-Viera,, L. Venkataraman,, P. DeGirolami,, M. Samore,, and Y. Carmeli. 1999. Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of patients with multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clin. Infect. Dis. 28:11281133.
128. Heffelfinger, J. D.,, S. F. Dowell,, J. H. Jorgensen,, K. P. Klugman,, L. R. Mabry,, D. M. Musher,, J. F. Plouffe,, A. Rakowsky,, A. Schuchat,, and C. G. Whitney. 2000. Management of community-acquired pneumonia in the era of pneumococcal resistance: a report from the Drug- Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Therapeutic Working Group. Arch. Intern. Med. 160:13991408.
129. Heisig, P. 1993. High-level fluoroquinolone resistance in a Salmonella typhimurium isolate due to alterations in both gyrA and gyrB genes. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 32: 367377.
130. Helms, M.,, P. Vastrup,, P. Gerner-Smidt,, and M. lbak. 2002. Excess mortality associated with antimicrobial drug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:490495.
131. Henwood, C. J.,, D. M. Livermore,, A. P. Johnson,, D. James,, M. Warner,, and A. Gardiner. 2000. Susceptibility of grampositive cocci from 25 UK hospitals to antimicrobial agents including linezolid. The Linezolid Study Group. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 46:931940.
132. Herikstad, H.,, P. Hayes,, M. Mokhtar,, M. L. Fracaro,, E. J. Threlfall,, and F. J. Angulo. 1997. Emerging quinolone-resistant Salmonella in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3:371372.
133. Ho, P. L.,, T. L. Que,, D. N. Tsang,, T. K. Ng,, K. H. Chow,, and W. H. Seto. 1999. Emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance among multiply resistant strains of Streptococcus pneu moniae in Hong Kong. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:13101313.
134. Ho, P. L.,, W. S. Tse,, K. W. Tsang,, T. K. Kwok,, T. K. Ng,, V. C. Cheng,, and R. M. Chan. 2001. Risk factors for acquisition of levofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae-, a case-control study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:701707.
135. Ho, P. L.,, R. W. Yung,, D. N. Tsang,, T. L. Que,, M. Ho,, W. H. Seto,, T. K. Ng,, W. C. Yam,, and W. W. Ng. 2001. Increasing resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to fluoroquinolones: results of a Hong Kong multicentre study in 2000. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 48:659665.
136. Hoa, N. T.,, T. S. Diep,, J. Wain,, C. M. Parry,, T. T. Hien,, M. D. Smith,, A. L. Walsh,, and N. J. White. 1998. Communityacquired septicaemia in southern Viet Nam: the importance of multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 92:503508.
137. Hoban, D. J.,, G. V. Doern,, A. C. Fluit,, M. Roussel- Delvallez,, and R. N. Jones. 2001. Worldwide prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997-1999. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32(Suppl. 2):S81S93.
138. Hoge, C. W.,, J. M. Gambel,, A. Srijan,, C. Pitarangsi,, and P. Echeverria. 1998. Trends in antibiotic resistance among diarrheal pathogens isolated in Thailand over 15 years. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:341345.
139. Hohmann, E. L. 2001. Nontyphoidal salmonellosis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:263269.
140. Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J. A.,, and S. J. Klein. 1986. Ciprofloxacin in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 18:407413.
141. Hooper, D. C. 2001. Emerging mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:337341.
142. Horiuchi, S.,, Y. Inagaki,, N. Yamamoto,, N. Okamura,, Y. Imagawa,, and R. Nakaya. 1993. Reduced susceptibilities of Shigella sonnei strains isolated from patients with dysentery to fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:24862489.
143. Howard, A. J.,, T. D. Joseph,, L. L. Bloodworth,, J. A. Frost,, H. Chart,, and B. Rowe. 1990. The emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in Salmonella typhimurium. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 26:296298.
144. Hsieh, W. J.,, H. C. Lin,, S. J. Hwang,, M. C. Hou,, F. Y. Lee,, F. Y. Chang,, and S. D. Lee. 1998. The effect of ciprofloxacin in the prevention of bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis after upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 93:962966.
145. Hsueh, P. R.,, C. Y. Liu,, and K. T. Luh. 2002. Current status of antimicrobial resistance in Taiwan. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:132137.
146. Huang, S. S.,, B. J. Labus,, M. C. Samuel,, D. T. Wan,, and A. L. Reingold. 2002. Antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from blood in San Francisco County, California, 1996-1999. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:195201.
147. Hughes, W. T.,, D. Armstrong,, G. P. Bodey,, E. J. Bow,, A. E. Brown,, T. Calandra,, R. Feld,, P. A. Pizzo,, K. V. Rolston,, J. L. Shenep,, and L. S. Young. 2002. 2002 guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with cancer. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:730751.
148. Isenbarger, D. W.,, C. W. Hoge,, A. Srijan,, C. Pitarangsi,, N. Vithayasai,, L. Bodhidatta,, K. W. Hickey,, and P. Dac Cam. 2002. Comparative antibiotic resistance of diarrheal pathogens from Vietnam and Thailand, 1996-1999. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:175180.
149. Ison, C. A.,, and I. M. Martin, for the London Gonococcal Working Group. 1999. Susceptibility of gonococci isolated in London to therapeutic antibiotics: establishment of a London surveillance programme. Sex. Transm. Infect. 75:107111.
150. Jamieson, F. 2002. Personal communication.
151. Janoir, C.,, I. Podglajen,, M. D. Kitzis,, C. Poyart,, and L. Gutmann. 1999. In vitro exchange of fluoroquinolone resistance determinants between Streptococcus pneumoniae and viridans streptococci and genomic organization of the parEparC region in S. mitis. J. Infect. Dis. 180:555558.
152. Jean, S. S.,, L. J. Teng,, P. R. Hsueh,, S. W. Ho,, and K. T. Luh. 2002. Antimicrobial susceptibilities among clinical isolates of extended- spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in a Taiwanese University Hospital. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 49:6976.
153. John, M. 2001. Decreasing clinical response of quinolones in the treatment of enteric fever. Indian J. Med. Sci. 55:189194.
154. Jones, M. E.,, J. A. Karlowsky,, R. Blosser-Middleton,, I. A. Critchley,, E. Karginova,, C. Thornsberry,, and D. F. Sahm. 2002. Longitudinal assessment of antipneumococcal susceptibility in the United States. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:26512655.
155. Jones, R. N.,, and M. A. Pfaller. 2002. Ciprofloxacin as broad-spectrum empiric therapy-are fluoroquinolones still viable monotherapeutic agents compared with beta-lactams? Data from the MYSTIC Program (US). Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 42:213215.
156. Kam, K. M.,, K. K. Lo,, N. K. Ho,, and M. M. Cheung. 1995. Rapid decline in penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Hong Kong associated with emerging 4-fluoroquinolone resistance. Genitourin. Med. 71:141144.
157. Kam, K. M.,, K. K. Lo,, C. F. Lai,, Y. S. Lee,, and C. B. Chan. 1993. Ofloxacin susceptibilities of 5,667 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Hong Kong. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:20072008.
158. Karlowsky, J. A.,, L. J. Kelly,, C. Thornsberry,, M. E. Jones,, A. T. Evangelista,, I. A. Critchley,, and D. F. Sahm. 2002. Susceptibility to fluoroquinolones among commonly isolated Gram- negative bacilli in 2000: TRUST and TSN data for the United States. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 19:2131.
159. Kays, M. B.,, D. W. Smith,, M. E. Wack,, and G. A. Denys. 2002. Levofloxacin treatment failure in a patient with fluoroquinolone- resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. Pharmacotherapy 22:395399.
160. Kayser, F. H.,, and J. Novak. 1987. In vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against gram-positive bacteria. An overview. Am. J. Med. 82:3339.
161. Kern, W.,, E. Kurrle,, and T. Schmeiser. 1990. Streptococcal bacteremia in adult patients with leukemia undergoing aggressive chemotherapy. A review of 55 cases. Infection 18:138145.
162. Kern, W. V.,, E. Andriof,, M. Oethinger,, P. Kern,, J. Hacker,, and R. Marre. 1994. Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli at a cancer center. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:681687.
163. Khan, W. A.,, C. Seas,, U. Dhar,, M. A. Salam,, and M. L. Bennish. 1997. Treatment of shigellosis: V. Comparison of azithromycin and ciprofloxacin. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 126:697703.
164. Knapp, J. S.,, K. K. Fox,, D. L. Trees,, and W. L. Whittington. 1997. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3:3339.
165. Knapp, J. S.,, R. Ohye,, S. W. Neal,, M. C Parekh,, H. Higa,, and R. J. Rice. 1994. Emerging in vitro resistance to quinolones in penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains in Hawaii. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:22002203.
166. Knapp, J. S.,, J. A. Washington,, L. J. Doyle,, S. W. Neal,, M. C. Parekh,, and R. J. Rice. 1994. Persistence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with decreased susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin in Cleveland, Ohio, from 1992 through 1993. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:21942196.
167. Kresken, M.,, A. Jansen,, and B. Wiedemann. 1990. Prevalence of resistance of aerobic gram-negative bacilli to broad-spectrum antibacterial agents: results of a multicentre study.J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 25:10221024.
168. Kresken, M.,, and B. Wiedemann. 1988. Development of resistance to nalidixic acid and the fluoroquinolones after the introduction of norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:12851288.
169. Kuehnert, M. J.,, F. S. Nolte,, and C. A. Perlino. 1999. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Ann. Intern. Med. 131:312313. (Letter.)
170. Kuschner, R. A.,, A. F. Trofa,, R. J. Thomas,, C. W. Hoge,, C. Pitarangsi,, S. Amato,, R. P. Olafson,, P. Echeverria,, J. C. Sadoff,, and D. N. Taylor. 1995. Use of azithromycin for the treatment of Campylobacter enteritis in travelers to Thailand, an area where ciprofloxacin resistance is prevalent. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21:536541.
171. Launay, O.,, V. J. Nguyen,, A. Buu-Hoi,, and J. F. Acar. 1997. Typhoid fever due to a Salmonella typhi strain of reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 3:541544.
172. Lee, B. L.,, R. C. Kimbrough,, S. R. Jones,, J. Mills,, and M. A. Sande. 1991. Infectious complications with respiratory pathogens despite ciprofloxacin therapy. N. Engl. J. Med. 325:520521.
173. Lee, J. C.,, J. Y. Oh,, K. S. Kim,, Y. W. Jeong,, J. W. Cho,, J. C. Park,, S. Y. Seol,, and D. T. Cho. 2001. Antimicrobial resistance of Shigella sonnei in Korea during the last two decades. APMIS 109:228234.
174. Lehn, N.,, J. Stower-Hoffmann,, T. Kott,, C. Strassner,, H. Wagner,, M. Kronke,, and W. Schneider-Brachert. 1996. Characterization of clinical isolates of Escherichia coli showing high levels of fluoroquinolone resistance. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:597602.
175. LeThomas, I.,, G. Couetdic,, O. Clermont,, N. Brahimi,, P. Plesiat,, and E. Bingen. 2001. In vivo selection of a target/efflux double mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by ciprofloxacin therapy. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 48:553555.
176. Levy, S. B. 1998. Multidrug resistance—a sign of the times. N. Engl. J. Med. 338:13761378.
177. Li, C. C.,, C. H. Chiu,, J. L. Wu,, Y. C. Huang,, and T. Y. Lin. 1998. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni and coli by using E-test in Taiwan. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 30:3942.
178.Reference deleted.
179. Li, J. B.,, Y. S. Yu,, Y. L. Ma,, W. L. Zhou,, and X. Z. Yu. 2001. Prevalence and analysis of risk factors for infections caused by resistant Escherichia coli strains in Anhui, China. Infection 29:228231.
180. Li, X.,, X. Zhao,, and K. Drlica. 2002. Selection of Streptococcus pneumoniae mutants having reduced susceptibility to moxifloxacin and levofloxacin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:522524.
181. Liebana, E.,, C. Clouting,, C. A. Cassar,, L. P. Randall,, R. A. Walker,, E. J. Threlfall,, F. A. Clifton-Hadley,, A. M. Ridley,, and R. H. Davies. 2002. Comparison of gyrA Mutations, Cyclohexane Resistance, and the Presence of Class I Integrons in Salmonella enterica from Farm Animals in England and Wales.J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:14811486.
182. Lim, S.,, Bast, D.,, de Azavedo, J.,, McGeer, A.,, and Low, D. E. 2002. Failure of current susceptibility testing methodologies to detect first-step Streptococcus pneumoniae mutants, abstr. 2388. In Program and Abstracts of the 42nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
183. Linares, J.,, A. G. De La Campa,, and R. Pallares. 1999. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. N. Engl. J. Med. 341:15461547. (Letter.)
184. Linton, A. H. 1977. Animal to man transmission of Enterobacteriaceae. R. Soc. Health J. 97:115118.
185. Livermore, D. M.,, D. James,, M. Reacher,, C. Graham,, T. Nichols,, P. Stephens,, A. P. Johnson,, and R. C. George. 2002. Trends in fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance in Enterobacteriaceae from bacteremias, England and Wales, 1990-1999. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:473478.
186. Lode, H.,, K. Borner,, and P. Koeppe. 1998. Pharmacodynamics of fluoroquinolones. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:3339.
187. Low, D. E. 2001. Antimicrobial drug use and resistance among respiratory pathogens in the community. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33(Suppl. 3):S206S213.
188. Low, D. E.,, J. de Azavedo,, K. Weiss,, T. Mazzulli,, M. Kuhn,, D. Church,, K. Forward,, G. Zhanel,, A. E. Simor,, Canadian Bacterial Surveillance Network, and A. McGeer. 2002. Antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada during 2000. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:12951301.
189. Low, D. E.,, B. N. Kreiswirth,, K. Weiss,, and B. M. Willey. 2002. Activity of GAR-936 and other antimicrobial agents against North American isolates of Staphylococcus aureus . Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 20:220.
190. MacGowan, A.,, C. Rogers,, and K. Bowker. 2000. The use of in vitro pharmacodynamic models of infection to optimize fluoroquinolone dosing regimens. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 46:163170.
191. Madaras-Kelly, K. J.,, and T. A. Demasters. 2000. In vitro characterization of fluoroquinolone concentration/MIC antimicrobial activity and resistance while simulating clinical pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin, ofloxacin, or ciprofloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 37:253260.
192. Maesen, F. P.,, B. I. Davies,, W. H. Geraedts,, and C. Baur. 1987. The use of quinolones in respiratory tract infections. Drugs 34(Suppl. l):7479.
193. Mamun, K. Z.,, S. Tabassum,, M. A. Hussain,, and P. Shears. 1997. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella from a rural community in Bangladesh. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 91:643647.
194. Mandell, L. A.,, T. J. Marrie,, R. F. Grossman,, A. W. Chow,, and R. H. Hyland. 2000. Canadian guidelines for the initial management of community-acquired pneumonia: an evidence- based update by the Canadian Infectious Diseases Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31:383421.
195. Marco, F.,, J. Garcia-de-Lomas,, C. Garcia-Rey,, E. Bouza,, L. Aguilar,, and C. Fernandez-Mazarrasa. 2001. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of 1,730 Haemophilus influenzae respiratory tract isolates in Spain in 1998-1999. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:32263228.
196. Mathai, D.,, R. N. Jones,, and M. A. Pfaller. 2001. Epidemiology and frequency of resistance among pathogens causing urinary tract infections in 1,510 hospitalized patients: a report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (North America). Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 40:129136.
197. Mazzulli, T. 2001. Antimicrobial resistance trends in common urinary pathogens. Can. J. Urol. 8(Suppl. l):25.
198. Mazzulli, T.,, A. E. Simor,, R. Jaeger,, S. Fuller,, and D. E. Low. 1990. Comparative in vitro activities of several new fluoroquinolones and B-lactam antimicrobial agents against community isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:467469.
199. McCloskey, L.,, T. Moore,, N. Niconovich,, B. Donald,, J. Broskey,, C. Jakielaszek,, S. Rittenhouse,, and K. Coleman. 2000. In vitro activity of gemifloxacin against a broad range of recent clinical isolates from the USA. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 45(Suppl. 1):1321.
200. McDermott, P. F.,, S. M. Bodeis,, L. L. English,, D. G. White,, R. D. Walker,, S. Zhao,, S. Simjee,, and D. D. Wagner. 2002. Ciprofloxacin resistance in Campylobacter jejuni evolves rapidly in chickens treated with fluoroquinolones. J. Infect. Dis. 185:837840.
201. McDonald, L. C.,, F. J. Chen,, H. J. Lo,, H. C. Yin,, P. L. Lu,, C. H. Huang,, P. Chen,, T. L. Lauderdale,, and M. Ho. 2001. Emergence of reduced susceptibility and resistance to fluoroquinolones in Escherichia coli in Taiwan and contributions of distinct selective pressures. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:30843091.
202. McDonald, L. C.,, M. T. Chen,, T. L. Lauderdale,, and M. Ho. 2001. The use of antibiotics critical to human medicine in food-producing animals in Taiwan. J. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect. 34:97102.
203. McGee, L.,, C. E. Goldsmith,, and K. P. Klugman. 2002. Fluoroquinolone resistance among clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae belonging to international multiresistant clones.J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 49:173176.
204. McKellar, Q.,, I. Gibson,, A. Monteiro,, and M. Bregante. 1999. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and danofloxacin in plasma, inflammatory exudate, and bronchial secretions of calves following subcutaneous administration. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:19881992.
205. McNulty, C. A.,, J. Dent,, and R. Wise. 1985. Susceptibility of clinical isolates of Campylobacter pyloridis to 11 antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 28:837838.