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Chapter 24 : Veterinary Use of Quinolones and Impact on Human Infections

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Veterinary Use of Quinolones and Impact on Human Infections, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Fluoroquinolones are potentially useful for treatment of diarrhea caused by and in calves and for treatment of pneumonia caused by , , , , and in calves and older animals. Fluoroquinolones can be used to treat human infections with β-lactamase producing . Quinolones act by directly inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis. Inhibition appears to occur by interaction of the drug with complexes composed of DNA and either of the two target enzymes, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Resistance to quinolones largely depends on chromosomal mutations. Emerging resistance to fluoroquinolones in isolated from humans has clearly been documented in numerous countries during the past decade. Early clinical trials of both community-acquired acute diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea caused by demonstrated that patients treated with a fluoroquinolone had good clinical response. Fluoroquinolones are effective for treatment and prevention of a wide range of bacterial infections in food and companion animals. Resistance is emerging, and limited alternatives make it important to preserve the effect of fluoroquinolones. Resistance in zoonotic bacteria, caused by use of quinolones in animals, is a concern for public health, because fluoroquinolones are important drugs in the treatment of human infections. Low-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in and high-level resistance in causing human infections have emerged, in part, as a result of the use of fluoroquinolones in food animals. Fluoroquinolone resistance may decrease in bacteria from food animals following reductions in selective pressure.

Citation: Wegner H, Engberg J. 2003. Veterinary Use of Quinolones and Impact on Human Infections, p 387-403. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch24
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Figure 1

Percentage of fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates among bacteria from clinical infections in pigs and cattle in Denmark from 1993 to 1998. (Reproduced from the Veterinary Record [ ] with permission.)

Citation: Wegner H, Engberg J. 2003. Veterinary Use of Quinolones and Impact on Human Infections, p 387-403. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch24
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Consumption of fluoroquinolones in food animals and occurrence of fluoroquinolone resistance in animal-pathogenic in Denmark. (Reproduced from DANMAP [ ] with permission.).

Citation: Wegner H, Engberg J. 2003. Veterinary Use of Quinolones and Impact on Human Infections, p 387-403. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch24
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Percentage of serovar Typhimurium DT104 isolates with low-level resistance to ciprofloxacin in United Kingdom 1993 to 1997. Enrofloxacin was licensed for animals in 1993. (Reproduced from Drug Resistance Updates [ ] with permission.)

Citation: Wegner H, Engberg J. 2003. Veterinary Use of Quinolones and Impact on Human Infections, p 387-403. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch24
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Figure 4

Trends for quinolone resistance rates (in percentages) among and combined from human sources around the world. The bars represent both nalidixic acid and fluoroquinolone resistance and are based on mean values of resistance from numerous reports. (Reproduced from Emerging Infectious Diseases [ ] with permission.)

Citation: Wegner H, Engberg J. 2003. Veterinary Use of Quinolones and Impact on Human Infections, p 387-403. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch24
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Tables

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Table 1

Proprietary quinolones licensed for use in animals ( )

Citation: Wegner H, Engberg J. 2003. Veterinary Use of Quinolones and Impact on Human Infections, p 387-403. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch24
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Table 2

Quinolones licensed for use in food animals by region of the world

Citation: Wegner H, Engberg J. 2003. Veterinary Use of Quinolones and Impact on Human Infections, p 387-403. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 3

Indications of use and formulation of quinolones for treatment of infection in animals' a

Citation: Wegner H, Engberg J. 2003. Veterinary Use of Quinolones and Impact on Human Infections, p 387-403. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 4

Low-level (FQ^) and high-level (FQR) resistance to fluoroquinolones in nontyphoidal isolated from humans and food animals in different countries

Citation: Wegner H, Engberg J. 2003. Veterinary Use of Quinolones and Impact on Human Infections, p 387-403. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.ch24

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