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Chapter 5 : Activity In Vitro of the Quinolones

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Abstract:

This chapter reviews the in vitro activities of the currently available and several investigational fluoroquinolones on the basis of data from published literature. The primary purpose of the chapter is to explore the potential antimicrobial spectrum of the class rather than to highlight specific agents. Antimicrobial activity was performed for gram-negative bacteria, gastrointestinal pathogens, respiratory tract pathogens, gram-positive bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, genital pathogens, mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas. The influence of serum on activities of fluoroquinolones in vitro is usually of minimal consequence. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the various fluoroquinolone antimicrobials were almost always within two dilutions of the MIC. The newer agents seem to behave similarly. Clinafloxacin and gatifloxacin MBCs are generally within two dilutions of MICs. The bactericidal activities of fluoroquinolones have also been studied in vitro, in pharmacodynamic models that simulate serum antimicrobial concentrations following standard dosing in humans. Resistance in was detected after fewer passages in ciprofloxacin than in levofloxacin or trovafloxacin. In the treatment of infections due to gram-negative bacteria, it is not uncommon to witness the use of fluoroquinolones in combination with other antibiotics that display a similar antibacterial spectrum. The fluoroquinolones continue to provide excellent in vitro activity against most commonly encountered gram-negative bacteria. However, in certain areas of the world or in specific institutional settings, significant numbers of or spp. are now resistant to available agents of this class. Rates of resistance among clinical isolates of are higher still.

Citation: Thauvin-Eliopoulos C, Eliopoulos G. 2003. Activity In Vitro of the Quinolones, p 91-111. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.Ch5
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Susceptibility of to earlier fluoroquinolones

Citation: Thauvin-Eliopoulos C, Eliopoulos G. 2003. Activity In Vitro of the Quinolones, p 91-111. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.Ch5
Generic image for table
Table 2

Susceptibility of to more recent quinolone antimicrobials

Citation: Thauvin-Eliopoulos C, Eliopoulos G. 2003. Activity In Vitro of the Quinolones, p 91-111. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.Ch5
Generic image for table
Table 3

Susceptibility of nonfermenting organisms to fluoroquinolones

Citation: Thauvin-Eliopoulos C, Eliopoulos G. 2003. Activity In Vitro of the Quinolones, p 91-111. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.Ch5
Generic image for table
Table 4

Activities of fluoroquinolones against miscellaneous gram-negative bacteria

Citation: Thauvin-Eliopoulos C, Eliopoulos G. 2003. Activity In Vitro of the Quinolones, p 91-111. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.Ch5
Generic image for table
Table 5

Susceptibilities of gastrointestinal tract pathogens to fluoroquinolone antimicrobials

Citation: Thauvin-Eliopoulos C, Eliopoulos G. 2003. Activity In Vitro of the Quinolones, p 91-111. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.Ch5
Generic image for table
Table 6

Susceptibility of gram-negative and atypical respiratory pathogens to quinolone antimicrobials

Citation: Thauvin-Eliopoulos C, Eliopoulos G. 2003. Activity In Vitro of the Quinolones, p 91-111. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.Ch5
Generic image for table
Table 7

Susceptibility of gram-positive bacteria to U.S. approved fluoroquinolone antimicrobials ref-type="table-fn" rid="tfn5-7>

Citation: Thauvin-Eliopoulos C, Eliopoulos G. 2003. Activity In Vitro of the Quinolones, p 91-111. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.Ch5
Generic image for table
Table 8

Susceptibility of gram-positive bacteria to investigational quinolone antimicrobials

Citation: Thauvin-Eliopoulos C, Eliopoulos G. 2003. Activity In Vitro of the Quinolones, p 91-111. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.Ch5
Generic image for table
Table 10

Expected susceptibilities of genital pathogens to fluoroquinolones

Citation: Thauvin-Eliopoulos C, Eliopoulos G. 2003. Activity In Vitro of the Quinolones, p 91-111. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.Ch5
Generic image for table
Table 9

Susceptibilities of anaerobic bacteria to fluoroquinolones

Citation: Thauvin-Eliopoulos C, Eliopoulos G. 2003. Activity In Vitro of the Quinolones, p 91-111. In Hooper D, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817817.Ch5

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